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46 Two Meter Scanner - for the lC-230 
K3JML 

48 Try the Mini-Timar — pmvm^ts NT time- 
outs 
WA2UMV 

50 High Frequency Utility Converter - 
handy test rig for any shsck 
K4DHC 

54 RTTY Scratchpad Memof y - afmr ^is, 
try a UAHT 

VE3GSP 

55 Build This CW Ftltw - darned good 
VE3EXA 

56 The London Bus Tuner — effective for 
short antennas 

Staff 
58 The W1BB Story - a y/sft with the king 

of 760 

WB1ASL 

64 Ten Watts on 2: - it's possibie with this 
rock crusherf 
WA6NCX/1 

68 UHF SWR Indicator - J 296. anyt^ne? 
W8DMR 

71 At Last! A 10m Band Plan - requires a 
CB radio 

WA4MFT 

72 Event Timer With tVlenfiory — double 
chec k gra vita tiona Uaws 

WA3VPZ 

76 Sheet Metal Brake - bulfd microwave 
components 
W6QfR 

78 The Easy Ammeter - current news 
VE3FEZ 

80 Try a Conduit Vertical - low angles are 
great for DX 

WB9DVV 

81 The 1C4*C Connection - convenient and 
cheap 

WA60AA 

82 An 82S23 PROM Programmef! - now 
build those projects using onef 
WB2C2L 




84 Practical P.S. Design - do it right this 
time 

WA6JMM 
96 Yaasu FRG-7 Impressions — take note^ 
swi fansi 
W5JJ 
H 98 SSTV Meets the SWTP 6800 - mod^ 
ulate video with a micro 
K6AEP 
3 108 Aim Your Antenna With a Micro — 
beam hiding BASIC program 
W4PWF, WA2TMT/4 

117 Reflated Nicsd Charger - don*t cook 
'em I 

K7HKL 

118 Complete Repeater Control System — 
ail tfjat^s missing is the computer 
W4VGZ 

124 Transmission Line Primer - In case you 
don't know everything 
Murphy 

126 Things Retnembered — ever heard of an 
807? 
WSLUX 

148 Digital Bargain Hunting - tips on sur- 
plus computer goodies 
W8KBC 

152 More Channels for the IC-22S - using 
dip switches 
WA4VAF 

156 Try a Scandie-Talkle - build a scanning 
HT 
WA6MCX/1 

174 Current-Saver Counter Display -multi- 
plex those LEDsf 
K7YGP 

177 Instant GSO Recall System - gaining 
peer respect 

W4GKF 

178 New PC Techniques Unveiled! — d^ 
oat your old chemicals 

WB5DEP 
184 How Eki You Use lCt7- part VII 

WA2SUT/NNN0ZVB 
192 Uncle Sam's Surplus Lirt -- and how to 

get on it 



^20 f JUNE J 977 



4 Never Say Die 

7 RTTY Loop 

8 Letters 
16 Briefs 

22 Be My Guest 

28 New Products 

34 FCC 

38 Ham Help 

40 Looking West 

41 Oscar Orbits 
41 Hamburglar 
49 Circuits^ 

188 AMSAT 

1 90 Contests 

213 Social Events 

224 Propagation 

COVER: Stew Perry WIBB's 
shack (article begins on page 53). 
Photo by Stan Miastkowski 
WA1UMV. 

73 Magazine is published monthfy 
by 73 t Inc^ Peterborough NH 
03458^ Subscription rates in the 
U.S. and Canada are St 5 for one 
year, $26 for two years ^ and $36 
far three years. Outside the U.S~ 
and Canada, write for rates. 
Second ct^s postage paid at 
Peterborough NH 03458 and at 
additional mailing offices, f^one: 
€03-924-3873. Entire contents 
copyright 1977 by 73, Inc. 
INCLUDE OLD ADDRESS AND 
ZIP CODE WITH ADDRESS 
CHANGE NOTfFiCA TtON. 



Microfilm edition — Uni- 
versity Microfilms, Ann 
Arbor Ml 487QS. 



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ED /TO RIAL BYWA YNE GREEN 



LOST FREQUENCtES 

The Jack Anderson column made a 
big deal out of how many frequenci^ 
amateurs hav«, while carefully skirting 
a more real'tst^c evaluation o1 the 
situ^ion. We're far enoygh into the 
space age now so that it should be 
clear to just about every active ham 
that while we can always have fun on 
the low bandfe, the opportunities of 
the UHF ham bands via satellites 
^uld make possrble a oommunica- 
tions system far beyond anything 
Imagined in the past 

A series of synchronous sateitites 
would permit several million hams to 
make contact at any time with any 
one or group of other hams , . , 
anywhere in the world This, as the 
space age came upon us, was the real 
future that we had ahead. We were 
begmntng to think in terms of getting 
to work on experimental UHF 
stations with signals strong enough for 
satellite work up in the GHz bands. 

Then came the 1971 ITU space 
conference in Geneva , , . we were 
represented there by the ARRL. We 
went into that (inference with about 
237,254.77 MHz of amateur alloca- 
tions for satellite use and we suffered 
a slight loss. Perhaps you read about it 
in the fine print In the back of OST. 
The ARRL team came back to an- 
nounce that we had lost 237,247.27 
MHz of satellite frequencies , , , with 
little hope of ever recovering the lost 
fmquencles in the future. That's right 
— we went into the conference with 
237. 2 &4. 77 MHz and came out ™tb 
7.5 MH2, 

When you consider that few of the 
frequencies above 500 MHz hold 
much promise for us if we can't use 
them via satellite, perhaps you can 
appreciate the magnitude of the loss. 

There 1 go being anti-ARRL again 
. , , well, maybe . . . but how about 
you? Is it all okay with you that the 
ARRL refyses to let anyone else 

represent amateur radio and then 

screws up the job ttiey've kepi anyone 
else from taking? 

What happened at Geneva in 1971? 
If you go back and blow the dust off 
your old QBT, you'll read the storv - , , 
oyr '^represerrtatlves" went to the 
conference wlthK>ut prepa nation. They 
Mere completely ^jrprised by what 
happened and had no plan to meet the 
situation. They found the delegit^ 
from the third world countries anti- 
amateur radio, lar^ly due to not 
knowing much about it. This is a 
natural situation and one about which 
I've been writing for n^ny years. 

If the ARRL had spent even a tiny 
fraction of the membership ft^ids 



which they are squandering on plush 
offices to get out there and meet 
governm&it oHk^ls from smaller 
coumriesi, we might we If have the 
bright prospects of synchtoncMJs satel- 
lites and several thousand megahertz 
to experiment with. 

So call me ami ARRL if you want 
« . . I'm r}ot ami- League or pro- League 
. , . I just am telling you wfiat is what 
I don'i think amateur radio wotild do 
any worse if the League were to fold 
up tomon'ow ... as a matter of fact, 
it might be beneficial becai^e then 
someone might set up a national club 
which would be run for the benefit of 
the amateurs instead of a small group 
of career "hams" in Newir*gton, I put 
'liams'' jn quotes because \ have little 
indication that any of them pay much 
more than lip service to the hobby. 

[f you are an ARRL member and 
you have no objection to a bitnch of 
guys in Connecticut spending your 
money on lovely offices while pre- 
tending to serve you^ then you have 
no gripe* If you don't mind losing 
99.99634% of your satellite frequen- 
cies at a conference where you paid 
the bills to be protected . , . aH okay. 
This is probably a small price to pay 
for being pro ARRL. 

If you do object to the charade of 
pretend representation . , , of getting 
along with no lobby in Washington 
. . - with losing your frequencies in 
huge gobs . . . with the damnedest 
rules being spawned by the ARRL and 
being passed by the FCC (have you 
really forgotten "incentive licensing" 
yet?) , , . if these things bother you, 
then, dammit, speak up and let that 
bunch of parasites know you want a 
cliange. The next time an election of 
directors comes up, make sure that 
someone who is more Interested in 
amateur radio than the power and 
prestige of being an ARRL official is 
put up for electiori , , * and elected. 
Within two years you could change 
the League completely^ since half of 
the directors are elected every year. 
Within two years you could get in a 
bunch of fellows who could turn the 
ARRL into a powerful lobby for ama- 
teur radio . . . v^o would make sure 
that r>othin9 like that Jack Anderson 
column happened. 

As far as laving our bacon at the 
1979 WARC conference, it's too late 
to count on the ARBL. It would take 
two years to get enough directors 
elected to turn things around, and the 
conference will already be upon us. 
TfKTSe third world countries are still 
ami amateur radio, and you can bet 
that when it comes to a choice 
beivwen frequencies for a txinch of 



American hams or for their own r>eeds 
... or evefi remotely possible needs 
... we are not going to get the vote. 

This Is purely a matter of public 
relatiora. Amateur r^dio is of im- 
mense importance to these countries 
. - - only they don't krww tL No one 
h^ gone over to visit them and sfuw 
ihem what arrtateur r^io can do for 
them in the way of helping their 
country to develop . . . getting Xbtm 
technicians ar>d engineers for tfieir 
communications . . . ^reading the 
word about their oountrv to the 
people of other cxxintries. As far as I 
know, this has happened in just one 
courrtry . . . and I did that It can be 
done ... so why isn't the ARRL 
doing it? 

Okay, so it is too late to get any 
help from the League . , . what other 
possibility h there? Sure, I can get out 
there and visit a country a year . . . 
which might end us up with two more 
votes for amateur radio* But I'm 
already working 100 hour weeks |ust 
trying to keep up with what Tve got 
gomg now. You need some teams out 
there . . . and this takes money . . . and 
the only group with a whole lot of 
money is the ARRL (and they're 
spending It all on new plush offices}. 
Wefl, what about the ham industry? 
Maybe they can get something hung 
together in time to do some good. I'll 
talk to them about it, but in the past 
the League has been able to dis- 
courage such industry graups from 
getting together , . , we'll see. 

If the industry can get together and 
get something started, I think /J will 
back them as much as possible. We 
need to get into contact with third 
world countries ... we need a lobby 
in Washington desperately . . . one 
which can contact Congress ftfve 
ARRL is forbidden by law from 
lobbying) . . . and can keep in touch 
with the FCC to hdp them provide us 
with the best rules possible. 

With the ARRL failing on ^11 
counts^ I see no other hope than our 
ham industry, 

COWAN PUSHES 220 MHZ CB 

CQ's publisher hias gone to the 
new^apers with a CB column distri- 
buted by King Features, the main 
purpose of which seems to be to force 
the FOC into putting C8 on the 220 
MHz ham band. A recent column 
wem on to exhaustive length about 
ttie joys of using repeaters for auto- 
patch operation . . . and then went on 
to say that CBers could make all these 
fantastic free phorie calls from their 
cars at a fraction of the mobile tele- 
phone rates if they would force the 



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® KEIM\A/OOD 



TRIO-KENWOOD COMMUHICATIDNS INC. 1111 WEST WALNUT /CO MPTON CA 9Q220 



FCC to open up the 220 MHz band 
for C8. Who knows. Cowan may be 
right ... all it may take is pressure 
from a few thousand CBers on their 
congressmen to make the FCC take 
gur ham band and turn it into another 
citizens band. Congress pulls a lot of 
weight. 

The next time you are thinking of 
supporting CQ, you might just refresh 
your memory on this one, It wouldn't 
hurt to brtng it up at the next club 
meeting. Cowan, who publishes the 
largest of the CB magazines and the 
smallest of the ham magazines, ob^ 
viousjy has hts chips bet where the 
money is . , . on CB, CQ is smatt 
because of neglect , . . Cowan tells us 
this in his own editortats. (Vly under- 
standing is that he is just making time 
with it until the FCC comes through 
with the Communicator license, at 
which time CQ will become a Com- 
municator macpzine , , . in competi- 
tion with Ham Harizons. 

LOOKING ON THE BRIGHT SIDE 

AH these worrywarts who are 

griping about the ARRL make me 
sick, Why not look on the happy side 

of things? Sure, we stand to lose a 
good part of our low bands at the 
1979 WARC meeting in Geneva, but 
the loss certainly isn't going to be as 
catastrophic as the 1971 debacle when 
we lost virtually al! of our satellite 
frequencies . . . under ARRL represen- 
tation. In case you've forgotten, the 
ARRL went into the conference with 
237,254,77 MHz in satellite ham fre- 
quencies and came out with 7.S fViHz, 
a loss of 237,247.27 MHz , . . 
99.99684% lost. 

In most fields a group that provided 
that quality of representation would 
be replaced, but not in amateur radio 
... the ARRL still has the 100% 
enthusiastic support of most amateurs 
despite Its total impotence. That's real 
loyalty and should be applauded. 

As I say. it doesn't seem possible 
that we can get quite the screwing on 
our low bands that we did on the 
VHF bands, though there is no one 

who understands the situation who is 
in any way optimistic. It does appear 
that we will lose large parts of the low 
bands, since even the United States 
appears to be ganging up against the 
League on this- 

When we lose parts of our bands, 
we will merely have to economize. 
Any study of the usage of our bands 
will clearly show that we can substan- 
tially increase our efficiency of oper- 
ation. Take those pileups of stations 
trying to make rare DX contacts . . , 
the actual contact takes perhaps 15 
seconds . . . the calling and Inter- 
ference drags it out for hours for 
hundreds or even thousands of oper- 
ators- All that has to be communi- 
cated ts the call letters and signal 
strength, something which could be 
compressed into less than a second 
with a good fast RTTY system . , . 
perhaps with the help of a computer. 
DXpeditions could work thousands of 
stations per hour and still generate 
virtuallv no QRM. 

How about nets? If you listen much 
above H,275 you hear hundreds of 
nets, many spending hours trying to 
finish their lengthy call-in procedures. 



This is another natural for modern 
techniques . . . some fast RTTY with a 
microcomputer and the net of five 
hundred stations could be checked in 
. . . in a few minutes. 

This Is getting exciting ... how 
about two meter repeater operating? 
About 17% of the air time on a 
repeater is used ir> repetitive inden- 
tlfylng ... a natural for new tech- 
niques. Will the 1978 two meter ng 
have an LED readout to show the call 
of the chap you are contacting? No 
reason why not. A quick blip will give 
the call and handle at the beginning of 
each transmission. 

Perhaps we can go further with this 
. . . since 23% of repeater time is spent 
by fellows calling someone else who is 
not there to answer, this could be 
automated _ , and reduced to almost 
nothing. Calling CQ on the repeater 
. . . yes, I know we don't call CQ, but 
we do call CQ, only in other words 
, . . could be sped up, too. We're 
getting places now , , , another 3% of 
the contacts are involved with a 
description of where the mobile oper- 
ator is driving at the time . . . perhaps 
we could agree to delete this relatively 
unimportant data. 1 1 % of the air time 
is spent describing the gear being used 
.». and since this comes down to 
perhaps a dozen different rigs, we 
could encode that with one single 
character. Perhaps you see where Tm 
headed . . . with over 99% of the 
average ham corrtact strictly routine, 
why not achieve some real efficiency 
by setting up an accepted group of 
abbreviations? This could cut QSOs 
down to a second or two each and 
permit far more hams to use what few 
channels we have left after 1979, 

If this doesn't get your vote, then I 
have an alternate plan. Since the 
ARRL has done about the worst 
possible job of representing us that it 
was possible to do, perhaps we should 
look around for some other group to 
step In and do a better one. I think I 
have a suggestion along this line . . . 
one that will surprise you. The ARRL 
Isn't the only group out there pushing 
for frequencies . , . there are many 
other groups . . . such as the EIA . . . 
but these others are not ham groups, 
so we might get stabbed in the back if 
we depended on them . . . even so, it 
might not be worse than we've been 
getting. Never mind, the one group of 
hams that has been getting a lot of 
play recently are those great chaps 
down at CQ M^gazins. Dick Cowan 
WA2LR0 is making real progress in 
his push to get the ham 220 MHz 
band turned into a CB band , . . he 
seems to be doing a lot better at it 
than the ARRL is in trying to stop 
him. And George Jacobs W3ASK 
appears to be working with incredible 
success to get choice ham bands for 
his beloved Voice of America , . . 
George \% the CQ Magaiim propaga- 
tion editor, 

1 realise that this is heretical, but 
how about turning to CQ MagBZsn& as 
our representatives instead of QST . . . 
since CQ seems to be doing far better 
at what they are doing than QS7"?We 
have nothing much more to lose. 

DRAFTING HELP NEEDED 
We're looking for someone to move 



up here and work at drafting diagrams 
for Z3^ Kifobsud, and our books. IVIost 
of this work is farmed out right now, 
which means delays. If you enjoy this 
sort of work and are good at it, drop 
me a line* 

THE MICROCOMPUTERISTS 

Of the somewhat over 10,000 
hobby computerists who have their 
own computer systems up and run- 
ning, about 2,500 are licensed ama- 
teurs. And, judging from the interest 
in computers shown at hamfests and 
conventions, the percentage of com- 
puterists who are also hams is going to 
hang right in there. 

There are a growing number of 
hamfests which ^re combined with 
computerfests ... a combination 
which is the best of both worlds 
because most hams are interested in 
computers these days . . . and vice 
versa. 

Considertng the number of ama- 
teurs who have been playfng around 
with microcomputers, the number of 
good articles submitted to 73 has been 
quite low. I'm most anxious to get all 
of the information I can on how to 
interface these gadgets with our ham 
stations ... I'd like to see articles on 
I/O devices ... on uses around the 
ham shack ... on problems you've 
run into and how you solved them . , , 
on experiments with high speed com- 
puter generated and computer 
decoded Morse Code . . , on any 
e?£periments with ASCII ... on any of 
the new hardware being brought out 
which is particularly useful for hams 

III bLvi 

Despite enthusiastic articles about 
the microcomputer industry in most 
of the professional computer maga- 
zines and in papers such as the i/^ali 
Strsst Journal, the fact is that this is 
still a very small and fragile business. 
IVIost of the firms in the field are 
much smaller than you might imagine 
and the sudden appearance of any 
major firm could be disastrous. There 
is an interesting and perhaps destruc- 
tive dichotomy involved . . . these 
small firms have a psychological need 
to be accepted by their larger and 
older brothers who make the mini and 
maxi computers, and so the small 
firms are forever trying to gat promo- 
tion which will call attention to them- 
selves in the field . . . yet if they 
succeed in getting the attention, any 
one of a hundred larger firms could 
easily put many, if not most, of the 
micro firms out of business. 

The manufacturers and dealers in 
the hobby computer industry are 
getting together to form an Industry 
group, and this might give them 
enough strength to weather an in- 
vasion by one of the behemoths. It 
would be nice to keep this as a field in 
which a small entrepreneur could put 
his idea into production and do well 
for himself ... and that is where "it is 
at right now^ 

Actually there are a great many 

ways to turn the computer hobby to a 
profit and a hobbyist has to be either 
remarkably lazy or not in need of 
funds to mtss out. Some are doing 
quite well by keeping track of their 
adventures with getting their systems 



to work and writing for the many 
computer hobby magazines . . . there 
are about nine or so which publish 
this sort of thing . . . make that ten, 
counting 73, Other hobbyists are 
either working for computer stores or 
opening them , , . and they are on the 
whole faring well. Some are writing 
programs for profit ... some doing 
consulting work . . . some inventing 
hardware and selling it to manufac- 
turers . . . some are getting into manu- 
facturing. 

What about a! I those magazines? 
They run the gamut, from Personal 
Computing, which is beautifully done 
and aimed at the pre-hohbyist, with 
articles telling of the things you can 
do with hobby computers, but low on 
construction projects ... to Creative 
Computing, which is a sort of fantasy- 
land combination of school com- 
puting and science fiction . . . PCC, 
People's Computing Company, a 
newspaper type of publication aimed 
at school use, particularly by young- 
sters ^ ^ ^ KUobaud^ aimed at the new- 
comer to hobby computing, with 
articles on hardware, software, and 
systems. Kilobaud is packed full of 
material of interest to hobbyists. 
Inter face ^^ is a fat magazine loaded 
with new product releases and a few 
articles aimed more at the OEM 
market and not too much for the 
hobbyist. Byte is going higher and 
higher level, aiming at the scientist 
and advanced computer engineer, and 
is a bewilderment to the newcomer. 

COMPUTERMANiA 

Over 12,000 computer hobbyists 
turned out for the recent San Fran- 
cisco Computer Fair . . . making about 
200 exhibitors very happy. The Civic 
Center was so crowded that you could 
barely walk around . . . and no 
wonder, for the exhibitors were 
showing some absolutely astounding 
devices and systems. 

Along the ham line was the new 
ham board from the Digital Group , , . 
one board with RTTV, SSTV and 
Morse code on it 

The next big computerfest will be 
at Atlanta on June 13-19 . . . part of 
the Atlanta HamfestivaL If you are 
within driving distance of Atlanta 
don't miss this one. 

In July (30-31) the action will be at 
Seattle, the first big computerfest in 
the Northwest ... not to be missed. 

In August we'll be running Com- 
putermania ... the biggest exposition 
yet of microcomputers. This show will 
go all the way from advanced calcula- 
tors, through video games and micro- 
computers, right on up into small 
business computer systems. This will 
be at the Commonwealth Pier in 
Boston on August 2EH26-27th . . . 
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday. The 
show will be run by 73 and its staff. 

We're expecting over 300 ej^hibitors 
and 25,000 or more attendees. It witi 
be the biggest and best show yet in 
the whole field of small computers. If 
you are Interested in looking at what 
Is available in microcomputers and 
shopping around, this will be the place 
to go. 

Make your plans accordingly. 



^ 



RTTY Loop 



Most active hams have operated or 
the tOM bands, chased a bit of DX 
wtien it's around, and joined in on the 
fun on 2m FM, Some have even tried 
220 and 432, with a heartv few 
tackling 1296 and EME. However^ If 
you are Eike most of the amateurs t 
know, the c^ay-to day "routine" of 
hamrning needs an occasional change 
of pace. Two meters can get oJd 
pretty fast when the local repeater 
group is stagnant, and even the dedi- 
cated rag chevwer tires of fighting the 
QRM on 40 every evening. 

If you are sick of cranking up ort 
.52 every night, and 75 has you down. 
possibly a new mode will liven up the 
time you have allocated for hanvning. 
Let's iook at the possibilities: Ljet's 
see, there are those OSCAR satellites 
up there, and SSTV, and v^hat about 
FAX, TV, microwaves, or RTTY? 
Arid, how about those microcom- 
pyters, which can be tied into almost 
every facet of ham radio? There Es no 
excuse for anyone being bored with 
ham radio, and if one facet of com- 
munication is getting old, ihere Is 
always something new to try. For 
openers^ consider RTTY I Here is a 
mode that offers just about every- 
thing. It does not cost a fortur^ to get 
on RTTY; it will be seen that a 
complete RTTY station can be assem- 
bled for under Si 00! The required 
pf inters and keyboard are commonly 
available, and the electronics can be 
assembled from readily obtained 

parts. A radioieletype station can be 
u^ed on most of our bands, and 
interfaced to existing station equip- 
menu RTTY also lends itself to state- 
of-the-art techniques — many hams, 
myself Inclyded, have interfaced com- 
puters to existing RTTY equipment, 
and it shouldn't be long before 
"quiet" RTTY stations baaed upon 
surplus video displays are common- 
place. 

Interesting things can happen when 
a group of hams stumble on a new 
mode. Last summer, a friend with a 
RTTY station got me interested, and 
within a matter of days I was on 20fn 
arwl 2m with a S25 keyboard printer 
and inexpensive terminal unit. Welt, 
one thing led to another, and by 
Christmas a highly active net had 
formed on a 2m splinter channel. It 
didn't take long for others to find out 
what those weird tones were, and 
soon never- before -heard 2m stations 
were calling in on RTTY, as it is 
possible to fnonitor a frequency all 
day with equipment that is silent 
except when a message is transmitted. 
This '"airtostart" operation is only orte 
of the «>ecial features offered by 
RTTY. If you're interested, read onl 

In response to considerable demand 
from our readers, 73 is going to 
provide a monthly RTTY column, the 
RTTY Loop, aimed at present and 
potential enthusiasts. The idea for a 
continuing RTTY series has been lurk* 
ing around for some time, but it took 
a combination of things to get it 
going. Several days ago« [ received a 
letter from Marc Leavey WA3AJR, 



who has written for 73 in the past, 
and is presently writing a RTTY series 
for the Baltimore Amateur Radio 
Club's journal, the Mtxiulamr. One 
thing led to another, and the RTTY 
Loop was formed. Marc wiil provide 
information for the ham interested in 
gettmg started on RTTY in an easy 
tchunderstand fashion. In following 
months^ advanced techniques will be 
discussed^ such as autostart, selective 
calling, digital control, video displays, 
and, of course, computer-con trolled 
RTTY. The possibilities are limitless! 
Your response to this new effort is 
solicited. Please address any com- 
ments, questions, suggestions, and 
criticisnts to "RTTY/' 73 Magaiine^ 
Petertjorough NH Q3458. I will tor- 
v^rd all material to Marc, who is 
responsible for the content of the 
column. Let's get started, and I hope 
you like the columnl 

John Molnar WA3ETD 
Executive Editor 

TELE-TIPS 1 
Thf$ month, and for a couple fol- 
lowing months, we will be discussing 
the prirKiples ol RTTY operation. As 
with any new field, there are a multi^ 
iude of terms and definitions that 
must be understood before getting 
involved in details. Natural ty, new 
terms will be popping up in the 
months to come, and they will be 
dealt with when thev arise. Be patient 
— things will faU into place! Presented 
below is a brief glossary of common 
Teletype terms. Many of these are 
familar, and will serve to refresh the 
RTTY pro. It might be a good idea to 
save this list, and add to it as the 
months pass. Each month will have a 
glossary of new terms, so it will be 
possible to irsaintain a complete \\%l. 
Let's gel started, then, with some 
common definitions: 

AFSK: Stands for Audio Frequency 
3iift Keying and is a n>^ns of en- 
coding tfie Teletype informal ton by 
changing the frequency of an audio 
tone. 

CHAD: When you punch a hole in a 
piec^ of p^er. the plug that comes 
out is called a chad. Paper tape, 
punched with many fx>les to serve as a 
memory, generates tons of these 
chads, 

CHADL£SS: Obviously, without 
chads* If you want to type on the tape 
with the holes in it, the abser^e of 
paper where the holes are makes it 
difficult. Chadless tape leaves the 
plugs attacf^d by Jittte lips, to permit 
it 

Of MOD: Short for Demodulator, this 
is the electronic marvel that converts 
ttie warbtir^g tones of rf into pulsed dc 
that ttie Teletype machine can iniBf- 
pret* 

FOX TAPS for KEYL' There h a 
marvelous sentence that contains all 
the letters of the alphabet - THE 
QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER 
THE LAZY YELLOW DOG. One fre 
quentiy has a tape to send this for test 



purposes. Some of the new digital 
Teletype setups have this sentence 
preprogrammed at the touch of a key« 
FSK: Stands for Frequency Shift Key- 
ing. Simitar to AFSK. the frequency 
of a radio carrier is shifted to encode 
the TTY information. 
GOVERNOR: Not ttie man in your 
state capitoL Teletype machines are 
run by motors, and it is important for 
?he motor to be turning at a precise 
speed. Older machines, or those in- 
tended for 3c/dc work, used a gover- 
nor on the motor to set the speed. A 
special tuning fork Is used to set the 
motor* 

LOCAL LOOP: If you hook all your 
equipment together so that anything 
you type on the keyboard prints on 
the printer, kind of like a big electric 
typewriter, that's a local loop. Essen- 
tial for testing. 

MARK: Spelled differently than my 
first name, this is the state when 
everything is running quietly, and 
loop current is present. Could call it 
"1'* if you're into logic, 
MODEL 72, 14. 15, 28, 32: These are 
different series and styles of Teletype 
machines. The Model 15 is the "stan- 
dard," and consists of a keyboard and 
page printer on a table. The Model 19 
is a Model 15 with tape equipment 
built in. The tape equipment alone 
might be a Model 12 or 14, The Mode! 
28 or 32 is more recent vintage stuff, 
PAGE PRINTER: II the Teletype 
machine prints on a roll of paper 
which, when you tear it off, looks like 
a page, that's a page printer. 
PATCH PANELt One of those can*t- 
do- without things. Usually a jack strip 
which allows anything to be con- 
nected to anything {anything?). 
PERFORATOR: A keyboard con- 
nected to an electromagnetic device 
which punches tape as you type is a 
perforator. This cannot punch tape 
from an Incoming signal i 
POLAR RELAY: Normal, spring re- 
turn relays take more ' m lyy to make 



than to hold This would cause distor- 
tion in the Teletype signal, called bias, 
which will be cxjvered later. A polar 
relay uses two magnets, one to make 
and one to break, to overcome this 
problem. A bias I no relation) supply is 
needed for one of those windings. 
RATT- This is the MARS abbreviation 
for radioteletype. Don't ask me why. 
REPERFORATOR: A tape punch 
which decodes incoming signals and 
punches them into tape is a reperfor- 
ator. Some versions type on the tape 
at the same time, and are called 
Typing Reperfs, of courie, and are 
chadless I 

RTTY: The ham's abbreviation tor 
radjoteletype. 

RY: These two letters contain all bits 
in the Teletype code. Don't worry 
about it — we will dtscuss it later — 
but it makes 9 firie test si^al 
(RYRYRYRYRY), 

SPACE: See also MARK. This is the 
state without loop strip of paper and 
reminds one of the stock market 
ticker; it's a strip printer. 
SYNCH MOTOR: Since the motor for 
a Teletype machine has to be a precis 
speed, it is nice to synchronize it to 
the 60 Hz line frequency. Takes the 
place of governor motor, 
TO: Stands for Transmiiting-Distribu- 
tor (which is quite a mouthful). Actu- 
ally, this is a tape reader. 
TT, TTY: More abbreviations for 
Teletype. 

TBLETYPE: The whole ball of wax 
we are talking afaouL This is a trade- 
mark, tiowever. and should always be 
capitalized. 

TU: Stands for Terminal Unit, and e 
the same thing as a Demodulaior. 

That has got to be enough to digest 
lor this month* Next time we will 
cover just how that Teletype machine 
works. 

Marc 1. Leawey. M.D- WA3AJI^ 

4006 Winlee Road 

Randallstown MO 21133 



*' — i»i* 




Modei 1 5 page printer. 



* + 




f^ V 



t^ X 1 



^ ! . 3. I 



she t^hou 



CLOSE TOHOIVIE 



Dear Jack Anderson, 

Mve been a fan of yours for years, 
but one of your recent columns, the 
one on CB vs. hem radio, struck dose 
to home. The one -sided nature of the 
column was ynfortunate. 

Radio amateufs (hams) mu^ pass 
in exammalion, which includes 
krvswiedge of the international Morse 
code. By International agreemem 
there is to be no hobby yse of the 
spectrum below 144 MHi unless the 
operator has demonstrated this knowl- 
edge of Morse code. Technical ly» the 
recent FCC rule change to allow 
hobby use of CB et 27 IVIHz is In 
violation of that agreement. 

I believe most CBers are potential 
hams frustrated by the code require- 
ments. The FCC has propowd a code- 
free license for frequencies above 144 
l/lHz, but has been unable to imple- 
ment It due to the crush of CB license 
applications it would seem more con- 
struct! ve to support the implementa' 
iktn of this proposal, rather than to 
encourage the e^iparision of QB chaos 
at the experrse of hami. 

Phillip MetsonWASPN A 
Albany CA 



POLITICAL FOOTBALL 



] 



\ truly believe amateur radio rs 
about to face its toughest hour, vvhich 
Will decide II our hobby will continue 
as we know it or slowly "pass away/' 
Amateur radio is definiiely becoming 
political football tn Washington DC. 
A^re and more, it seems that the sides 
are being drawn up between amateur 
radio arnS CB, or David and GoHath. If 
we are not property prepared for this 
fight, we will lose our only national 
resource forever, i.t,, the ham fre- 
quencies. 

The enclosed Jack Anderson article 
is filled with half-truths, insinuations, 
misleading statements, etc., vs/hich to 
the average reader portray hams in a 
very unfavorable light. Note the 
Quotes from Anderson's article — 
*The FCC Is auierly stifling the 
millions of voices that jam the CB 
radio frequencies ... The Commission 
has favored th^ few ihams) over the 
fnany (CBersj . . . 300,000 hams have 
100 times more frequency allocations 
than are available to CB . . . ARRL is 
B lobtiying organization" . . . and on 
and on. But, there is no mention of 
the purpose of amateur radio, its 
contributions lo public service, 
national welfare, communications 
developments, history^ service m 



emergencies, and so on, 

I would consider this ariicie to be 
extremely damaging to amateur radio. 
Can you imagine the impact this 
article will have on the US Congress? 
Please do whatever is required to 
answer this extremely biased article. 

Glenn Packard K3ZOT 
Havertown PA 



CAHOOTS 



Mr. Jack Anderson 
c/o Washington Post 
Washington DC 

You had some rather harSh things 
to say about amateur radio operators 
in your Washington Post column of 
April 4, 1977. Most of what you said 
was false. Mos;t of what you \Th 
sinuated was false. You insulted every 
amateur radio operator in the United 
States, 

Yoy implied that myself and my 
fellow hams are in cahoots with ttie 
Federal Commufiicatkins Commission 
and are in some v^y depriving the 
Citizens Radio Service operators of 
freqtiency spectrum space that ri^t- 
fully sliould belong to them. 

Your first mistake was to equate 
the Citizens Radio Service and the 
Amateur Radio Service. Both services 
use radio and there the resemblance 
ends. 

The purpose of this letter is to 
provide to you some basic informa- 
tion regarding both radio services so 
that when next you write about ham 
radio, you will have some facts for 
reference, i speak for no one but 
myself . . . and 1 feel sure, thousands 
of ham operators^ I thank yoy in 
advar>ce for your time and attention 
to what I have to say. 

First, examine how the respective 
radio service licenses are obtained. 
The amateur radio operator took a 
series of tests administered by FCC 
engineers that covered radio theory 
and practice, rules and regulations of 
U.S. as well as international amateur 
radio, and demonstrated proficiency 
in sending and receiving international 
Morse code. Failing to pass any one 
test results in no license. 

The Citizens Band operator filled 
out a simple form about as complex as 
applying for a social security card. 
That's ail In fact, under today^s rules, 
the Citizens Band operator gets a 
temporary license when he buys his 
equipment. He has that to use while 
he waits for the FCC office to Issue 
his permanent license. 

Look at both licenses. What reaily 
do they cover? 

Amateur radio operators hold an 



equipment license that covers the 
station itself. He also holds an oper- 
ator's lit^nse. The ham is personally 
Identified. Only he can operate his 
radio equipment Other people can 
talk over it but his hands must be on 
tfK controls at all times. There are 
exceptions to those rules, but they 
involve other licensed amateurs. 

The Citizens Band operator does 
not hold an operator's license. Only 
the radio equipment is licensed — not 
the operator. Because there is no 
operator's license involved, any rela- 
tive of the person named on the 
license can operate the station {over 
age 18 only). The Citizens Band oper- 
ator is not personally Identified. 

What is the chirter of the two radio 
services? That is, vi^at is expected of 
them? Both are utilizing a public 
property, a resource, the electromag- 
netic spectrum, It is not infinite. With 
regard to the Amateur Radio Service, 
the Communications Act of 1934 put 
fieavy emphasis on ". , , value of the 
amateur service to the public as a 
voluntary noncommercial communica- 
tion service, particularly with respect 
to providing emergency communica- 
tions/' That language is still in place 
and is taken very seriously by hams 
worldwide, Many hams maintain 
emergency power sources for their 
stations so that no matter when an 
emergency call goes out, responses to 
the call can be made- Citizens Radio 
Service operators also provide com- 
munications lor the public good and 
that is commendable, but the harm 
have been honing their communica- 
tions skills since 1 9t 3. The hams have 
the organi£atk>n, the expertise, the 
netvrork of stations an4, most impor- 
tarrt of all, the strict radio disciplir>e 
that results In efficient operation no 
matter what the situation. 

The list of Instances of ham radio as 
the principal end many times the only 
means of communications is almost 
endless. Some of the most recent vwere 
the earthquake in Alaska in 1964, 
Peru in 1970, California in 1971, 
Guatemala m 1976, Italy in 1976, the 
Dakota floods and the Big Tf>ompson 
Canyon, Colorado, Hurricane A^es in 
1972^ and recently and locally, the 
Frederick flood in October, 1976. 

The charter of the ham operator 
iTYcludes contribution to the advance- 
ment of the radio art ^d electronic 
advancement, self-training and tech- 
nical investigation solely with a 
personal aim and without pecuniary 
interest of any kind. 

The mission of the Citizens Radio 
Service? Tc provide private short dis- 
tance radio communications services 
for business and personal activities of 
the licensees. There*s quite a differ- 
ence isn't there? 

To address some of your comments 
in the /iashington Post: 

How can the FCC be stifling the 
Citizens Radio Service wtien it ju^ 
granted 1 7 additional channels on Jan. 
1, 1077? 

Why do you say that the Amateur 
Radio Service should give up spectrum 
space to the Citizens Radio Service? 
We gave up the space they now 
occupy. 

The hams don't have a lock on the 
higher frequencies. Quite the 



opposite. And those frequencies are 
not interference free. 

The hams do not control any fre- 
quencies. Only the FCC can make 
frequency assignments and that task 
has got to be one of the most difficult 
and thankl^s chores in the world to 
do. It's a no- win situation every time. 

The ARRL has put out no ^^^ash 
bulletin/' and it is illegal for ^jyone 
to transmit on an unauthorized frfr 
quency, be it ham, CBer, or ordinary 
businessman. 

This letter is being released to the 
news media, governmental officials, 
and the American Radio Relay 
Leagye. 

David R, Halliburton UVA3Z0R 
Gaithersburg MD 

"AIRSPACE' 

editor 

The Washirtgton Post 

Washington DC 

The article by Mr. Anderson 
strongfy implies wrongdoing by the 
Federal Communications Commission 
(FCC) in its regulation of the Citizens 
Radio Service ("CB") for the benefit 
of the Amateur Radio Service 
('■hams"). Although basic information 
in Mr Anderson's article is factually 
true, ii is distorted and incomplete. It 
reveais both a tack of knowledge on 
the mjbject of radio communicatiorn 
and a lack of professional reporting in 
the art of lournalism. 

The major issue made in the article 
is that hams have more frequeficy 
spectrum I" more airspace"^ than the 
vast majority of CB users, public 
service user (police and fire depart- 
n^nts), FM radio broadcasters, and 
TV stations in Los Angeles and New 
York City. This is e true statement. 
But Mr. Anderson apparently does not 
understand that radio frequencies 
differ in characteristics. 

At very high frequencies (VHF} and 
ultra high frequencies (UHF^, radio 
communications are extremeiy re- 
liable and almost interferenceTree — 
necessary traits for police and fire 
ynits^ But, the« frequencies are ex- 
tremely short ranged. Therefore, it is 
quite feasible for a small frequency 
spectrum to be used repeatedly 
throughout an area as large as tfie 
United States. Because of the short 
range characteristics of these signals. 
Washington Metro Police cars will not 
be erroneously receiving instructions 
from Las Angele& police dispatchers. 

Citizens Radio Service (CB) has — 
and still is - intended to be a short 
range service also. The low power (4 
Watts} was to limit range of these 
radio sets to just a few mites. But 
when the service was established in 
1958, the FCC took frequencies away 
from the Amateur Radio Service in 
the high frequency (HF* band. This 
range of frequencies — and especially 
in the spectrum which includes CB 
frequencies — is especially conducive 
to tong range radio communications. 
Combined with high powered ampli- 
fiers (illegal but widely used on CB 
frequencies) and directional antennas, 
radio conversations can literally be 
"skipped" over thousands of miles. 



B 



This is why tegal CB operators like 
myself have *o much difficulty trying 
to talk XQ someone else just a mile 
away. 

Without illegal use of CB privileges, 
the service would haive almost enough 
radio freQuency spectrum for the near 
future. In most areas of the US 
( outside of metropolitan areasK (rttle 
activity occurs on more than a hall 
dozen chani^eiS- The FCC has been 
experimenting with establishing new 
CB frequencies in the 900 MHz range 
which would improve reliability of 
local communications ^rid prevent 
long distance coirimunications. Most 
amateurs would be in favor of this 
move. 

The Afnateur Radio Service was 
established to promote the art of 
radio communjcat ions through experi- 
mentation, the development of 
trained person neln and to promote 
International goodwill through radio, 
AJI of these goals require access to 
frequencies throughout the radio 
spectrum. 

Since radio began (Marconi claimed 
hitnself to be an amateur), hams have 
been at the forefront of new develop- 
ments. Much of the present "state of 
the an" of radio and television com- 
mumcdtions ts either directly or in 
directly the result of amateur radio- 
Most of the electrical engineers and 
researchers in the area for the past 
fifty years became interested in radio 
as youngsters through amateur radio 
activities. One of the most significant 
breakthroughs ftir reliable }ong dis- 
tance voice communications — single 
sideband - used by the military, civil 
airlines and ships, arid by CBers, was 
entirely developed by amateur oper- 
ators. 

Also since the beginning of radio, 
hams have been quick to step in and 
offer communications assistance 
during times of disasters. The only 
communication with the outside 
world for weeks following the terrible 
Guatematan earthquake was by amar 
teur radio. The American Radio Relay 
League (ARRL) even contributed a 
VHF radio system for local communi- 
cations inside Guatemala. The Guate- 
malan government and the Red Cross 
have recognized that relief efforts 
there wow Id have been almost impos 
sible without the reliable communicah 
tions of hams in the US- Similar 
examples can be given for any number 
of disasters here in the US and abroad. 

Since the radio frequency spectrum 
became "managed'* in the 1920s, fre- 
quency allocations for amateurs have 
shrunk. Yet the number of hams in 
the US and wo rid wide has increased. 
Hot only the CB radio industry 
(which stands to profit even more by 
more frequencies being assigned to 
CBers who would have to buy new 
radios), but many other radio services 
covet the frequencies now heid by the 
Amateur Radio Service. It appears to 
users of those services that there is no 
opposition to taking frequencies away 
from hams^ Contrary to Mr. Ander- 
son's implication, the ARRL is pre- 
vented by law from lobbying. Many 
amateurs and members of the ARRL, 
in fact, feel the ARRL is not doing 
enough to protect the interests of 
hams- Arrayed against the unpra 



tected hams are the airlines, the boat- 
ing industry, the broadcasters, and the 
CB manufactyrers. Mr. Anderson 
acknowledges this when he wrote 
about ". . , giving the CB industry a 
greater share of the airwaves" 
fenr^p basis added). The airwaves 
belong lo the people^ r>ot to any 
industry* 

Amateur radio should he viewed as 
a natiorial resource and protected. Not 
just because it is a hobby, but because 
of its continuing contribution lo 
public service and to the development 
of higher levels of electronics state of 
the art. It is open to alJ —even CBers 
like myseff. The only requirement is a 
desire to learn a flttfe about radio and 
pass a code test. And if J can do it, 
anyone cani 

Arthur G, Nevins WA4NTP/KG02773 

Sterling Park VA 



SENSATIONALISM 

Mr- Jack Anderson 
c/o The /Vews Amertcgn 
Baltimore MD 

In your syndicated column of April 
4tb, a 1977, entitled "Hams Hog The 
Airwaves/* your story seenis tsent 
more on sensationalism than in 
presenting a true picture of amateur 
radio (ham) or Citizens Band fCS}. 

You contend that the Federal Com- 
munications Commission is quietty 
stifling the millions of voices that jam 
the Citizens Band radio frequencies. 
You further contend that 300,000 
hams have 100 times more airspace 
than is available to the nine million 
CB enthusiasts and that the hams also 
have a lock on the higher frequencies* 
which are free from interferencB, Let 
us examine, in depth, your allegations. 

First, while it is true that the 
300,000 hams of the United States do 
have more airspace or frequencies 
than are allocated to the Citizens 
Band radio enthusiasts, the basic pur 
poses and licensing requirements of 
the two services Bte vastly different. It 
must be remembered that amateur 
radio is an international service 
covered under agreements of fre- 
quency allocation by the International 
Telecommunications Union, of which 
the United States ts a member. The 
Citizens Radio Service Ts r*ot inter- 
national and therefore not provided 
for by the ITU. All that ts required of 
an individual to be licensed in the 
Citizens Radio Service is merely filling 
out a form and mailing it to the 
Federal Communications Commission. 
On the other hand, for a person to 
become a licensed amateur radio oper- 
ator (ham), he or she must first 
demonstrate to a duly authorized 
individual the ability to send and 
receive intarnational Morse code at a 
speed of five words per minute, along 
with a written examination encom- 
passing basic radio theory and the 
ruies and regulations of the service^ 
This procedure will entitle the in- 
dividual to what is appropnatejy 
called the Novice or beginner's Hcense. 
Lest you gel the idea this examination 
is of great difficulty, the youngest 
person to date to be licensed as a 



Novice was. in 1976, aged five years. 
Most hams, however, are between age 
15 and 75 and also are truck drivers, 
teenagers, doctors^ lawyers, house- 
wives, etc. We donX however, lay 
claim to having a former First Lady 
wiihin our ranks, but do have many 
we 1 1 'known personalities; Senator 
Barry Go Id water and entertainer 
Arthur Godfrey, to name two. The 
licensing requirements do become 
more difficult, but are commensurate 
with the privileges bestowed. If is rK^t 
the intention of the amateur com- 
munity to exclude any portion of the 
citizens of this country from obtain- 
ing and becoming hams. To this end, 
the various clubs and organizations, 
with the help of The American Radio 
Relay League, conduct free classes to 
help anyone interested in becoming a 
licensed radio amateur. 

From your article one might infer 
that sheer numbers is the only require- 
ment for any group to have a larger 
frequency allocation. I shudder to 
think what utter chaos application of 
such a philosophy could have upon 
the airwaves in a country. Vou further 
contend that, should the Citizens 
Radio Service {CB} be granted more 
frequency spectrum^ it would have to 
come from the ham radio operators. 
You fail to mention why this would 
be necessary, except to say 300,0CX) 
against 9,000,000. 

To state that personnel of the 
Federal Communications Commission, 
because they have traditionally been 
hams, is like a wolf guarding the flock 
is irresponsible. The people at the 
Commission are truly dedicated civil 
servants. 

Your statements about hams con- 
trolling more frequencies than all the 
nation's police and fire departments 
combined, plus all commercial and 
educational FM broadcasters, plus all 
the TV stations on the VHF channels 
In Los Angeles and New York City is 
again inaccurate. Had you taken the 
time to check, you would have found 
that below 30 Hz, where most of the 
amateur activity lies, the entire spec- 
trum allocated to ibe hams encom- 
passes approximately 3.B MHz. Just 
one TV broadcasting station occupies 
6 MHz of bandwidth^ or almost twice 
the entire high frequency allocation of 
the entire amateur service. 

To state categorically that the hams 
have a lock on the higher frequencies, 
which are allegedly free from inter- 
ference, IS again inaccurate. There is 
still allocated to the Citizens Service a 
portion of the UHF spectrum in the 
460-470 MHz range. The free from 
Interference statement is also in- 
correct, for no service can be totally 
free from interference without 
discipline, regardless of where it is in 
the spectrum, 

It is my objective to attempt to 
rectify a few misconceptions that you 
or your ?taff have about ham radio 
and Citizens Band. 1 hope I have been 
successful, However, should you 
desire more information, please feel 
free to contact me. 

Ban-ie L. Schwartz W3ENL 

President TMARC 

14413 Ansted Road 

Sitver Spring MD 20904 




IGNORANCE 



Mr. Jack Anderson 

c/o The Reporter Dispatch 

White Plains NY 

1 would like to object to your April 
4th column. "Hams Quietly Stifling 
CBers/' It is an unreasonable, one- 
sided presentation which ignores half 
the facts. Please considef the foHow- 
ing- 

1* Far from being an exclusive 
club, amateur radio is a hobby open 
to alL To encourage newcomers, ama- 
teur radio societies and magazines 
have for decades published books and 
pamphlets on how to get started. A 
stepped- up recruiting campaign to 
entice CB operators to upgrade to 
amateur radio has, durirtg the l^t two 
or three years, included several book/ 
cassette teaching packages [including 
one from Heath kit, the nation's 
largest electronic kit manufacturer), 
three films, local classes, and spot 
advertisements on local radio and TV 
stations. 

2 Entry into amateur radio is not 
difficult; five-y ear-old kids have done 
It, as well as SO-year old retirees. The 
equipment costs no more than some 
CB equipment. Ham radio is merely a 
hobby radio service which legally 
permits many of the practices 
presently found illegailyon CB/There 
is nothing to prevent those CB oper- 
ators who desire more frequencies 
from upgrading to amateur radia 
Hams will welcome them with open 
arms^ 

3. One of tfie major reasons why 
the Federaf Communications Com- 
mission has not granied more fre- 
quencies to CB is that Citi^r» BarvJ is 
presently populated to a large extent 
by unprincipled scoundrels who 
disobey every rule In the book, 
abetted by manufacturers and dealers 
who make and sell C8 equipment 
designed to violate the law. On the 
other hand, amateur radio is a largely 
se if- policing service where peer group 
pressure results in virtually no illegal 
operation. Are you proposing that the 
law-breaker be rewarded with more 
frequencies taken from the law- 
abiding citizen? 

4. It does not take a '^confidential 
report" to conclude that radio a ma* 
teurs control more frequencies than 
all the commercial radio and TV 
stations, etc* Had you merely looked 
at the FCC regulations, you would 
have seen tftat amateur radio oper- 



9 



aiors are assigned an in ft fit te amount 
of frequencies — everything from 
30,000,000 kitoKertz and up. Tradi- 
tionally^ ham radio has been asagned 
all the ftiequencies above the useful 
ran9e at the time, li is ham radio 
operators vkfio have always in the past 
e^ctended the state of the radio art by 
find* Jig a use for the "useless" fre- 
quencies assigned to them. AH the 
frequencies now used lor FM broad- 
casting, TV, CB, shortwave broad- 
casting, militarv, police, fire, and 
mobile communications, were onoe 
considered useless, and equipment for 
using them was deve loped by the 
amateurs. 

5. Please keep In mind the differ- 
ences between CB and amsteur radm. 
Originally intended for point-to-point 
CommunicatiDns for the small business 
and personal tiser. CB has de^nerated 
into a v^t party line used primarily 
for yakkin^ Psychological studies 
have investigated the effect of uniden- 
tified operation - anonymity guaran- 
teed by the use of "handles" — on the 
psyche of users; interesting trends 
have been observed. On the other 
hand, amateur radio is an orderly 
service which combines operating 
privileges with technica! expertise, In 
exchange for taking a technical test, 
ham operators are permitted — even 
encouraged — to design and build 
their own equipment and experiment 
witfi its use. Many of the pioneers tn 
electronics and radio got their start 
ttvough ham radio. In time of war or 
emergency, ham radio operators have 
formed a pool of trained operators 
and technicians. Their contributions 
have been so widely recognized that 
almost every country in the world has 
an amateur radio service. 

6. Finally, one might ask whether 
the cries for more frequencies for CB 
are really justified. By many esti- 
mates, over 50% of radio trans- 
missions are voluntarily confined to 
channel 19. Can't the other 39 chan- 
nels suffice for the other 50%? 
Perhaps the way to rnake more room 
for legitimate CB use is to crack down 
on illegal and improper operation, 
rather than Co simply allow it to 
spread over a greater area. When CB is 
widely used for evading police radar, 
pertiaps it is time to reduce rather 
than expand CB bandwidth. More 
over* expanding into intierently sfiort 
tM%^ amateur bands which cdnrK>t in 
any wav be policed unless the FCC 
sets up a nationwide grid of monitor 
ing stations every few miles is only an 
Invitation to further improper use. 

Please, next time you write on this 
topic, consult a ham radio operator 
for the other side of the story, It witl 
do mych for your credibitity on un- 
known issues if you present a fair and 
unbiased story in those cases where a 
sizable number of readers are familiar 
with the factSL 

Peter A. Stark K20AW 
Mt. KiscoNV 



GOT YOUR EARS ON? 



J 



Mr. Jack Anderson 

c/o United Feature Syndicate. Inc. 

1 am sure you will never receive this 



letter, since I am $yre your loyal 
minions would not allow you to 
receive mail critical of your column. 
However, I am so incensed tutm ttie 
atx^ve entitled article (''Hams Hog 
Airways" - Ed.) that I am willing to 
use my valuable time in order to 
attempt to contact you. Therefore, 
with the unlikely circumstance that 
you are personally reading this, I 
would submit the folio wing; 

Although I cannot dispute your 
numbers, which you have quoted, you 
certainly have failed to understand 
any of the underlying implications. I 
hope that your other work does not 
reflect the same lack of understanding 
that this article exhibits. 

F or your inforr^ation, all frequency 
allocations for the radio spectrum are 
set by the International Tele- 
communications Union, whose offices 
are in Switzeriand The frequencies 
which are allocated to hams have been 
approved by this Union, which is 
composed of ^my nation in the 
world. The frequencies which the CB 
enthusiasts "enjoy'' are actually 
allocated to amateurs on a worldwide 
basis. The United States has, in fact, 
violated this international agreement 
by providing for the Citizens Band 
radio service. The original purpose for 
the Citizens Bar^d has been distorted 
to the point that it is not recognizable 
as the Federal Communications 
Commission originally envisioned it to 
be- Therefore, the Citizens Band mess 
should not even exist. It appears that 
the on^Y reason that there is a prob 
I em results from the inability of the 
Federal Communications Commission 
to enforce Its own rules regarding the 
Citizens Band. If you don't think 
there is a Citrzens Band problem, 
listen to the obscene language* the 
threats of abuse, inane conversations, 
etc., which permeates these fre- 
quencies. Also, check with the Federal 
Communicatrons Commission with 
regard to the amount of complaints 
regarding radio frequency interference 
to home entertainment devices and 
see what percentage of them relate to 
Citizens Band operation. At the same 
time, check vvith them regarding their 
proposied rule making which will now 
ban the rnanufacture of linear 
amplifiers even for amateur radio use 
because the Citizens Banders have 
b^n using tliem« illegally, on their 
own frequencies* At the same time, 
you might ask the Federal 
Communications Commission how 
many hams they have had to put in 
jail and how many articles of 
equipment have been seized as being 
illegal from amateur radio operators 
and at the same time obtain the same 
figures for Citizens Banders. In the 
san>e light, also ask the FCC about the 
term '"sliders," Yoy will find that this 
refers to the illegal practice by CBers 
of operating on frequencies that have 
not been allocated to Citizens 
Banders, These fine people whom you 
^pear to believe sfKKild enjoy tfie 
good ^aces of the FCC operate on 
frequencies assigned to other radio 
services. Amateur privileges near the 
Citizens Band start at 28 megahertz. 
The Citizens Band lies somewhere In 
the region of 27 megahertz. One 
megahertz, for your information, is 



the equivalent distance from the low 
end to the high end of the commercial 
broadcast spectrum. Therefore, you 
can see that ihere are quite a few 
"frequencies" available which do not 
have to be taken from the hams and 
given to the CBers, However, the 
CBers have not waited for tt% FCC to 
give them these frequencies, since 
they now proliferate in the region 
above the authorized CB channels and 
the 28 megahertz frequencies 
belonging to the hams. Not only that, 
these fine citizens are known to 
occasionally stray onto amateur radio 
frequencies. 

Another item of small import 
which you have failed to recognize is 
the theft associated with Citizens 
Band equipment In fact« Citizens 
Banders have so little technical ability 
that they even steal ham equipmBnt* 
unusable on their own frequencies, in 

ignorance, thtnkir>g ffiat they are 
stealing another Citizens Bander's 

equipment, Of large importance to me 
is the fact that one of your fine and 
abused Citizens Banders removed my 
antenna designed for 144 megahertz 
from my vehicle just yesterday for his 
own use, Since it will not operate with 
his Citizens Band equipment, I hope 
he has many fine hours trying to find 
out what is the matter with that 
"stupid" antenna. 

Although CBers get quite a btt of 
recognition for their "'public service" 
work^ that appears to be the only area 
of justification which they can claim. 
In addition to allowing citizens to 
evade pjotice radar, etc., these fine 
citizens do occasionally notify the 
proper author i ties v^ith regard to 
stranded vehicles. Hopefully when 
someone with a CB set reports that 
they are stranded, the law enforce- 
ment authorities appear first instead 
of their other fellow CBers who come 
to rape and rob because their victims 
have identified their location and their 
Enabiiity to escape. 

From a historical standpoint, hams 
have "earned*' their frequencies. 

Although now, because Of the 
sophistication of commuilcation 
devices and the eacpens^ involved, 
harm are not as apt to be at the 
forefront of scientific discovery^ a 
brief examination of the contribution 
of hams working in their basemaits 
on their own time would be 
illuminating to you« I am sure. From 
the time of fWarconi to the present, 
many of the pioneers in electronics 
have been hams, Briefly, Lee 
De Forest, the inventor of the triode 
tube, was a ham^ Aiso, the first radio 
telescope was [nvented by a radio 
amateur, It is my understanding that 
all significant advancements of the 
state of the art up until the invention 
of the transistor by the Bell Tele- 
phone labs have been made by hams. 
Hams have pioneered new techniques 
in television iransmissions, bounced 
radio signals off the moon and t^ve 
assembled, laiinched and used their 
own communication satellites. Harm 
are also pioneering, today, tfi^ field of 
facsimile transmission, VHF repeater 
vrark, and computer -related tech- 
nology. Hams, because of the licensing 
structure, must be technicaliy pro- 
ficient and dedicated. CBers simply 



have to have ears and a mouth. Quite 
often the two are not connected. 
Therefore, as yo^ can see, from a 
technical standpoint. 300,000 hams 
have made a significant contribution 
to the advance rr^ent of radio science 
while your 9,000,000 licensed CBers 
have since simply caused a pain in the 
neck to the Federal Communications 
Commission. Additionally, for your 
edification. Citizens Banders are not 
"licensed/" Amateurs are. CB oper- 
ators simply have a permit, which if 
you bother to check, is quite a 
significant difference. 

In addition to the technical 
advancements attributable to hams, 
this pales in comparison to the public 
service work provided by hams. You 
have been perhaps too busy to read 
the newspaper accounts of ttie 
communications services provided by 
hams to f^icaragua^ Guatemala, 
Alaska, and other areas hit by natural 
disasters. The news service were 
aware of the fact in the recent 
Nicaragifan and Guatemalan disasters 
that for up to two weeks, ham radio 
operators were the only reliable 
communications link with these two 
countries, and the hams were able to 
coordinate with rescue operations to 
an extent unmatchable by any other 
radio service. Don't take my word for 
it. Check it out: At the same time, 
you might also contact the disaster 
agencies responsible for the relief 
operations in Colorado follow tng the 
Tf^ompson Canyon flood of last 
summer and the Teton Dam disaster 
in Idaho. You will find that hams 
were at the forefront working many, 
many volunteer hours to assist in 
disaster relief operations. 

In addition, check with knowledge- 
able Bounces as to what the "eye bar^k 
net" is all about. You will find that 
this is an organization of hams who 
volunteer their own time to coordin- 
ate between the agencies responsible 
for locating donors and recipients for 
Corneal transplants and making sure 
that the critical time necessary for the 
removal of the cornea and cteiivery to 
the recipient Is minimized. In 
addition, hams maintain contact with 
the National Weather Service to 
provide storm warnings for impending 
hurricane, aid police departments and 
provide communications during power 
outages, and provide many, many 
other forms of public assistance at 
times of national disaster. You might 
also learn, if you take the time to find 
out, thai bams have also spent many 
hours running "phone patches" from 
our service personnel in Antarctica, 
Southeast Asia, and other military 
installations around the world to their 
relatives in the United States^ All of 
the above is done without any chance 
of monetary return, since that is 
forbidden by FCC regutarions. 

Additionalty, amateur radio 
operators constituted a vast pool of 
trained operators for ttie military 
during World War IL 

By FCC edict, amateur radio exists 
to promote tfwi communications art, 
the technical phases of radio, and to 
provide public service. Please show 
me, if you can, where CBers are under 
any compulsion to do anything 
beneficial to anyone other than them- 



10 



selves. 

You seem to imply that the FCC 
has some spectal love for ham radio. \t 
should, because hams provide so much 
more service to the pubfic than CSers 
ever thought of doing, If you do 
bother to check out the Thompson 
Cariyon flood of Colorado, ask the 
authorities how the amateur radio 
operators and the Citizens Banders 
compared in their ability to effective- 
ly assist them in their relief efforts. 
The nevi/s articles we saw in the West 
indicated that the Citizens Banders 
were "prima donnas" who got in the 
way and the amateur radio operators 
were highly skilled, dedicated, and 
conscientious in their efforts to assist 
the authorities. 

You apparently suffer from a 
malaise known to radio aficionados as 
alligatoritis. You are all mouth and no 
ears. If you had bothered to do any 
checking at all regarding the back- 
ground of the ham-CB question, I am 
sure you would not have written your 
article. I would also like to comment 
that you appear to have been "duped" 
as you are wont to accuse the federal 
bureaus assigned to monitor big 
business. You have been listening to 
the garbage spouted by the Citizens 
Band manufacturers and supported by 
the El A, all of whom have been 
pushing to "get more frequencies'' so 
they can sell more CB sets. Shame on 
you. 

Although I have been a ham radio 
operator for 18 years, I must admit I 
have not "done my share" to justify 
my ii cense. However, there is a local 
woman who was able to talk to her 
brother and family doctor in Sao 
PauEo, Brazil, when her mother was 
dying of cancer, to be kept informed 
of her mother^s condition through the 
use of my radio, I am sure if you 
asked her whether or not amateur 
radio was "worth it/' she would 
answer an emphatic yes. After many 
times trying to reach her family by 
telephone In Sao Paulo and sending 
many telegrams, she was quite 
surprised that in less than half an hour 
on my radio, I was able to connect her 
with her mother's doctor in a hospital 
irr Sao Paulo. On several other 
occasions, I managed to have her talk 
to the rest of her family and have 
them visit about her mother. Upon 
being informed that the many hours 
which I spent in her behalf were 
"free," she was amazed. 

On amateur radio frequencies, the 
above are daily occurrences. The 
really extraordinary cases are those 
involving amateur radio operators in 
remote parts of the world obtaining 
rare medicines in the United States 
and having them shipped to the 
foreign country in time to save a 
person's life who is m critical con- 
dition. 

In 1979, the World Administrative 
Radio Conference will occur. At that 
time the entire radio spectrum will be 
reallocated. The black eye which the 
United States has suffered by allowing 
the CB mess to develop will hurt 
amateur radio operators. If that 
occurs, thoughtless articles like yours 
will surely attribute to ham radio's 
loss and ultimately the people of the 
world's loss. If you are as concerned 



about humanity as you claim, you will 
revert your position and use your 
considerable influence in Washington 
to encourage the preservation of the 
amateur radio frequencres. 

From reading your column and that 
of your predecessor, Drew Pearson, I 
know that you are "never wrong/' so 
I do not expect to see anything in 
your column refEecting your errone- 
ous thinking. That would be a shame, 
since you have so many people 
believing you speak the gospel. 

In closing, 1 would simply like to 
say, "Hey, ratchet jaw, have you got 
your ears on?'' 

Stephen GueldeW7INH 
Wheatland WY 



RIDDLED 



Chicago Daiiy N&w$ 
Chicago 1 L 

The April 4, 1977, article on the 
Federal Communications Commission 
and amateur radio by Jack Anderson 
was so riddled with mistakes and 
half-truths that I have outlined them 
in red in the enclosed article. Ander- 
son has done irreparable harm to the 
good w^me. of the amateur radio oper- 
ator a reputation that has been 
earned through over a half century of 
unselfish service and experimentation. 

Anderson Insinuates that the FCC is 
working against the CBers' cause by 
some secret intent. Nothing could be 
further from the truth. Since 1971, 
the Commission has been attempting 
to help the Citizens Band expand and 
grow. But the estimated 20 million 
CSers. half of whom haven't even 
bothered to get an FCC license, have 
consistently ignored every attempt at 
''cleaning up their bands," so that 
orderly growth can be established 
Unleashing these undisciplined, un- 
licensed radio operators on other 
portions of the radio spectrum is 
inviting more television interference, 
more use of untav/ful radio, and an 
enforcement burden that the Com- 
mission cannot possibly handle. 

Another Anderson comment: 
'n"hese ffrequenciesj would have to be 
taken from the Ham Radio Oper- 
ators." This is absolutely false. Mega- 
hertz of unused government alloca- 
tions lie in various portions of the 
radio spectrum; space set aside for 
UHF television is almost totally 

unused. 

Anderson: "The Hams also have a 

lock on the higher frequencies, which 
are free from interference/' I think 
Mr. Anderson would find It hard to 
defend his opinion of a ''lock" on 
frequencies by the amateur service, 
for hams have only 4 megahertz of 
exclusive use in the entire usable VHF 
and UHF spectrum, which Is 900 
megahertz wide. An estimated 
150,000 amateurs use this band daily. 
79.2% of all usable amateur bands are 
"shared, on a non-interfering basis" 
with other services, notably, the 
government. This sharing arrangement 
can exist only if both parties are 
disciplined, state-ofthe-art communi- 
cators. Sharing was originally tried on 
the Citi2ens Band, and it resulted in 



the "ma and pa'' stores and offices, 
those that could profit most by inex- 
pensive two-way radio, being forced 
off CB by the personal illegal hobby 
user. Would you want to share a band 
with these people? 

And, agaiOt Anderson insinuates 
that these radio band allocations were 
all done secretly. Ridiculous! Fre- 
quencies are assigned at international 
conferences after years of negotiations 
and public dockets. CB interests are 
represented at these conferences. Just 
as amateur radio is. 

None of the FCC commissioners is 
an amateur, though some of the staff 
are> but they certainly are not being 
secretive about it. Most of the FCC 
hams are CBers, too. And what differ- 
ence does that make, anyway? If 
anything, a ham license should be a 
point in their favor. The amateur 
radio operator must pass an FCC 
license exam on radio theory, elec- 
tronics, and rules and regulations. The 
fact that some of the FCC staff are 
hams just proves that these individuals 
are active in their field of interest. No 
other radio service allows experiment 
tat ion and research. Should these 
individuals be castigated for their 
interest? Who would you rather have 
as an FCC radio engineer, a ham or a 
CBer? 

Anderson states: 'The opposition 
to giving the C6 industry a greater 
share of the airwaves has been largely 
generated by the American Radio 
Relay League , . , a lobbying organisa- 
tion.'' Absolutely wrong. The ARRL 
is not, and never has been, a lobbying 
organization in Washington. And, in 
fact, the ARRL has come out re- 
peatedly in favor of orderly CB 
growth, for many CBers find, after 
becoming frustrated with the limited 
range and utility of CB, that they wish 
to pursue an amateur radio license. 
Amateur radio wishes CB well, but 
not at our expense, not at the nation's 
expense, Amateur radio has turned 
many citizens on to the world of 
electronics, has taught them a useful 
skill, and benefitted the world with 
more communications breakthroughs 
than any research facility in the 
country. And all this has been at little 
expense to the taxpayer. 

Amateur radio is growing by leaps 
and bounds, and America will benefit 
from the communications and re- 
search skills that are being developed^ 
What new techniques have CBers engi- 
neered? 

The ARRL indeed has asked its 
members (through a "flash bulletin"? 
— be seriousO to prevent the "incur- 
sion of CB buffs Into their airspace." 

The FCC, it so happens, is also 
quite interested, because thousands of 
CBers are operating totally outside of 
their assigned bands, in outright 
defiance of federal law and inter- 
national treaty. Amateurs have 
pledged that CBers will not illegally 
utilise amateur frequencies, and are 
working, on their own time, with 
federal authorities to help track down 
and prosecute these violators. 

Raymond Spence. the FCC's chief 
engineer, though an amateur, has also 
made decisions we feel are detrimental 
to amateur radio too, but we don't 
hold it against him. He's also a CBer, 








THE Nt^N HOe^'f 




by the way. 

Amateur radio has been the back- 
bone of communications research in 
this country throughout the twentieth 
century. This research continues 
today. Day to day public service is 
performed by the over one million 
hams arourtd the world. In emergency 
situations, hams have often provided 
the only link with the outside worlds 
via their self-trained and dedicated 
force of radio operators. 

Amateurs are all for CB, but to 
reassign already crowded amateur 
bands to "every man "^ CB radio, to use 
as he sees fit, would deal a death blow 
to the amateur community and in 
effect reward the CB community for 
its lawlessness. What a nice way to say 
"thanks" to what FCC Chief Wiley, 
who (incidentally} is not a ham, has 
called "the most disciplined of all 
radio services." 

Mr. Anderson has made a mockery 
of the term "investigative iournalism" 
and has defaced the good name of the 
amateur radio service. I only hope 
that our federal representatives in 
Washington are informed enough to 
know that his article is full of half- 
truths and downright lies, and give it 
the attention it deserves, 

Richard T. Casey WA9LRI 
Arlington Heights IL 

cc: Jimmy Carter, President of the 
United States 

Sen. Charles Percy, U.S, Senate 
Sen, Adiai E. Stevenson, U.S. Senate 
Sen. Barry Goldwater, U.S. Senate 
Phillip E. Crane, U.S. House of 
Representatives 

Honorable Elliott Levitas, U.S. House 
of Representatives 

Richard E. Wiley, Federal Communi- 
cations Commission 
American Radio Relay League. New- 
Ington CT 

73 Magazine, Peterborough IMH 
HR Report, Glenview I L 
Jack Anderson, Washington DC 



THE UNSAID TRUTH 

The Washington Post 
Washington DC 

It is unfortunate that Jack Ander- 
son's column concerning amateur 
radio is so ill-researched. What is true 
but unsaid is that the great public 
service of amateur radio on both a 
local and worldwide scale takes fre- 
quency space, personal and innovative 



n 



m^ 



technology, and selfless dedication. 
Thh is In contrast to an untrained, 
unprepared, and iU-dlscip lined CB 
opera lion which cares not for self- 
improvement or solutions to its inter- 
ference and public relations prablems, 
Virtualtv all of the quarter milljDn 
amateurs are both able and willtng to 
provide competent, public-spirited, 
technically clean, and valuable first 
dass service to the public. Mow many 
CBers can say as much individually or 
collecttwely? 

The CB crowd is very vocal about 
their public service^ but what can they 
really do? By eieamijle: On Friday, 
April 1, I witnessed an automotive 
accident, radiotelephoned the Atex- 
andria police through the Tyson's 
Corner WH4ABR autopatch repeater, 
and had help on the way before an 
observing CBer could even find some* 
body willing to pass along the mes* 
sage. 

Some research on Anderson's part 
would have shown a large proposed 
CB allocation In the FCC's WARC 
proposal at 900 MHz, a location 
which doe$ not conflict with valid 
amateur operations. Perhaps he should 
do his homework before he writes. 

CB is both a valid and valuable 
mefins of personal communication, 
but its services, capability, and reason 
for existence should not be confused 
with amateur radio. It is a shame that 
the Washington Post has not infornwd 
the pubtc of what arnateur radio ^ve 
during the Frederick flood, the bi- 
centennial celebration, the recent 
Cherry 8lossom Festival^ the 
Nicaragua earthquake, and the daily 
accidents on the beltvvay. Amateur 
radio is needed both locally and inter- 
nationally, and before this is forgot- 
ten, it may be lime for amateur radio 
to make its voice as loud as Its service 
is strong. 

Theodore W. Edwards Jr, W1 AJS 

Alexandria VA 



THE HINT 



The Wt^hington Post 
Washington DC 

I would like to comment on the 
editoriai t>y Jack Anderson and Les 
Whitten concern ing amateur radio 
that appeared on April 4, 1977. Wf. 
Anderson clearly distorted several 
facts and overlooked others in his 
comments concerning "air^>ace" allo- 
cations for amateur and CB operators. 
It wm claimed that amateurs hold 
"100 times" the space occupied by 
the Citizens Band, and that the FCC 
was refusing to "take the hint" con- 
cerning the CBers' requirements for 
additional frequencies. 

Mr. Anderson failed to indicate that 
the FCC is currently studying the 
feasibility of additional CB frequen- 
cies in the 900 megahertz region — 
those "interference-free'' frequencies 
raferred to in the editorial. Unfor- 
tunately, no frequencies remain inter- 
ference-free when utilized by masses 
of operators. Mr, Anderson should 
listen m on the 40 meter ham hand 
some evening, an area rendered almost 
unusable by foreign high power broad- 



cast stations. 

It should be noted that an impas- 
sioned plea for additionai frequencies 
by any service, CB included* can only 
result in the bedlam that exists now 
on the present CB frequencies. Before 
opening a new band, a large amount 
of research into the effects on other 
users must be conducted, Ttiere have 
been several proposals for new 
Citizens Sand frequenci^; unfor- 
tunately, most would have resulted in 
interference to televtsron and other 
services. There Is nothing '*cocifL- 
dential" about these proposals and 
other FCC actions. A simple call to 
the FCC by Mr* Anderson would have 
been enlightening. 

The FCC does not regulate frequen- 
cies arbitrarily. Most amateur fre- 
quencies have been assigned by inter- 
national treaty, and it is impossible for 
"traditionally ham" commissioners to 
allocate band space to new services 
without conformino to international 
law. A recent proposal for ^ditional 
CB frequencies was rejected by the 
Canadian and Mexican government, as 
interference would have been caused 
to their services. Linfortunately, radio 
waves do not adhere to national 
boundaries. 

The FCC hm taken the hint, and is 
attempting to find new frequencies 
for CB use. It is not the CB operator 
v^o is harassing the f^CC com- 
missioners: it is the manufacturers of 
CB gear looking for additional profits 
that will resutt when new bands are 
opened. Ho mention of the operator 
was macte in the editor iaL It is this 
person who will bear the e^tpense of 
new equipment and antenna systems 
when new bands are allowed for CB 
use. 

in conclusion, it is important to 
note that Mr. S pence of the FCC, the 
American Radio Relay League 
(ARRLK and the 300,000 hams were 
powerless to prevent the loss of 99% 
of their bands when a recent inter- 
national conference eliminated most 
of the ''interference-free" satellite 
bands once available to amateur oper- 
aton 

John W. Moinar WA3ETD 

Executive Editor 

73 Magazine 



ONE SIDE 



Enclosed Is a column from the 
Mismt Heratd of April 4th, and, just in 
C8!se you do not get this Jack 
Anderson syndicated column, I 
wanted to forward if to yoy. 

1 feel that some knowledgeable 
individual, such as Wayr^e Green, 
should write to t^r. Anderson out- 
lining all the benefits and good that 
ham radio operators have done for the 
last fifty years. It would seem that he 
Is getting just one side of the coin 
from this article. 

Personally, \ think that the CBers 
should be given one of the UHF 
frequencies — and let them have their 
fun. Maybe that will keep some of 
them from operating illegally in the 
ham bands or from becoming two 
meter technicians and carrying over 
their poor operating techniques into 




this operation. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Anderson should 
be rebutted because of the distortion 
and obvious impact this could have on 
the general public 

Frank Nankin K4BN2 
Pr^jdent, Palmetto Amateur 

RsJio Club 
N, Miami Beach FL 



BAO PR 



I'm sending along a xerox copy of 
an article published in the Rock ford 
Morning Star, April 4, 1977, written 
by Jack Anderson, the noted (??) 
columnist. It shows how much a guy 
can twist facts and how much he 
knows about ham radio, 

I'm asking evsry ham to let this guy 
know what ham radio is, the public 
service that's been done, and how 
twisted his "confidential report" is, 

His address is c/o United Feature 
Syndicate, 200 Park Ave., New York 
MY 1Q017. Give this guy a piece of 
your mind because this is bad PR for 
ham radio, especially with WARC 
coming up. 

Tom Carney WB9RXJ 
Sterling IL 



[ 



CROSS POLLINATION 



Just a quick note to thank you (or 
the "Briefs" column try W A1 GUD snd 
WA1UMV. We have long needed i 
forum for ''cross-pollination" of ideas 
from various clubs throughout the 
country. This can only result in a 
more informed, healthy, and active 
ham radio fraternity. "Briefs'' fulfills 
a need, and I, for one, thank you for 
it. 

Rich Casey WA9LR1 
Arlington Heights IL 



E 



TOP BAND 



i"d like to see an article on the pros 
and cons of 160 meters, along with 
some details relative to the construc- 
tion of antennas for this band, 

L Lyie Baker KSQJT 
Mineola TX 

G/ad you mentioned thai. Thh issue 
has a feature articfe on the King of 
160. Stew Perry WWB. A new 73 
hooks The Challenge Of }GOsk hitting 
the pr^es m a few d?ys. Smy tuned 
for some great ISO articfes in coming 
issues. — Ed. 



TRIGGERED 



1 



Yes, we did receive a refund from 
Trigger Electronics, the same outfit 
that we all seem to know about. It 
wasn't easy. Our problems with them 
were almost the same as those 
described by Mr. David B. Hasentck of 
Springport Ml. 

We wrote many letters, both to 
Trigger and then to the Illinois 



Attorney General's Office, Trigger 
responded by sending us small lights 
weight items in large bosses, The air* 
mail postage was almost double the 
cost of the item. Then after several 
more letters to the Attorney GeneraVs 
Office with copies to Trigger, we 
finally received our refund of the 
balance. 

Several months later t received a 
letter from the Attorney Ger>erars 
Office advising me that the State of 
HHnoiS was going to prosecute. The 
details of the letter vyere made avail- 
able to Wayne Green. I had hoped 
that he would place it in the "Leners" 
section so all could note the contents 
and then write to the Attorney Gen 
era I Office and perhaps receive a 
refund in the coming court action. 

RedStoileW60HM/MM 
Lajas, Puerto Rico 



PR THROUGH PS 



During the recent East Greenbush- 
Castleton (NYI area March of Dimes 
Walkathon, members of WB2YCR, the 
Amateur Radio Club of MapEe Hill 
High School, were involved with tfw 
communications along the walk route 
and even operated a portable station 
on battery power. 

Actual communicaiions along the 
route were provided by the Rensselaer 
County RACES/AREC Association, 
of which I (the club's sponsor} am a 
member. I ^t up communications at 
one of the checkpoints along the walk 
route and allowed students to listen to 
the RACES communications as a 
means of demonstrating the use of 
amateur radio In public service, for 
which the RACES organization is 
famous. 

At the same time, another portable 
radio station was sat up under my 
direction by student radio operator 
Geoff Schad WBaEQN. This station 
operated solely from a 12 volt battery 
provided by media staffer Stuart 
Hague^ The antenna used was a 
twenty meter dipote set up on porta- 
ble supports. Using this simple rig;, 
Geoff W3S able to talk with several 
stations, including two in Florida 
iWIBDF/4 and W4aC). WB0SMK in 
Lincoln, Nebraska, WB0CHH in 
Springfield, Missouri, snd K4APL in 
Perry, Georgia, all during the Watka- 
thon. 

The Walkathon provided two 
golden opportunities. One, to provide 
a public service through RACES, and 
secondly, to test our club station's 
portability. It also provided valuable 
portable operating experience for 
Geoff and our student operators. 

J.F. Kianzle WA2U0N 
Castleton NY 



HELP ABROAD 

I just received my March 73 today 
and noticed in the "Ham Help" sec- 
tion a couple of more articles from 
individuals requiring heip while over- 
seas. 



12 



One article asked, "How can I get a 
license overseas?" The FCC has been 
coming to Europe (Ramstefn AB. 
Germanv, and Mildenhall RAF, 
England) every six months for the 
past v^s''- They \A/ere here March T\, 
22, and 23, and should be back again 
in September. IVlost MARS stations 
and education offices wi!i have the 
exact information in Juty or early 
August as to the dates'^of arrival. 

f have also been asked a number of 
times, "What kind of American activi- 
ty IS there m Germany?" Answer — 
"Everything." In Germany all US 
forces and dependents can obtain a 
German license very easily. Aii that is 
needed is an address (operating loca- 
tion), a valid stateside license, Techni- 
cian or above, and 39 DM ($16) a 
year 

Activity within Germany is in 
almost all modes of operation. As a 
General or above you will be given a 
German Class B License, With this 
license you can operate up to a 
maximum of 150 Watts plate dissipa- 
tion on any of the following fre- 
quencies — 160m by special permis- 
sion, 3.5-3.S m\z, 7.0-7.1 MHz, 
14.0-14.35 MHz, 21.0-21,45 MH?, 
28.0-29.7 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 
430-440 MHz, 1250-1300 MHz and 
more above. All the above frequencies 
may be used in the following modes — 
A1, A2. A3, A3J, F1, F3. 

These modes are for the entire 
bandn There are no class or subband 
allocations. There is a great deal of 
repeater operation on 2m and 70 cm. 
Universally within Germany, 145.500 
MHz is a mobile calling frequency and 
145.526 and 145.550 are simplex. 

There are a number of American 
amateur radio clubs vwithin Germany. 
I could go into each of them, but a 
visit to your area MARS station wilt 
render you information about clubs in 
your area. 1 am a member of the 
Wiesbaden Amateur Radio Club, so, 
being biased (hi), I will say a little 
about it. We meet the second Tuesday 
of every month at 7:30 pm, and of 
course everyone is invited- Most club 
members can be found on 145.550 
MHz FM, 

Any interested person can write to 
The Wiesbaden A6, MARS Station, 
APO NY 09457, or myself, and we 
will try to answer questions and offer 
assistance to individuals about ama- 
teur radio within Germany. 

There are also radio theory and 
code classes being held on Rhein Main 
AB and Wiesbaden AB, continually. I 
would imagine with the amount of 
American activity, there are many 
other classes being held, Again, visit 
your local MARS Station. 

Jerry E. Cole DAIJC 

Box 4115 

APO NY 09057 




1 greatly enjoyed Mr, Kufchak's 
article on "The Super Clock" — using 
the "old" CT700T I used the same 
chip in my clock which has been 
running fine since 1973. Well, actual- 
ly, there is one minor problem or I 
wouldn't be writing this! 



Every so often, while m the 1 2 
hour mode, the pm bit in the time or 
alarm register (or even both) gets set. 
(So, instead of waking up at 7; 00 am 
for work, one sleeps through until 
dinner time!) Tm pretty sure the 
problem is in the chip (and. thereforen 
extremely difficult to correct), but I'd 
like to know if others who have used 
this chEp have a similar problem, or if 
this is an isolated case. Any feedback 
would be appreciated* 

Oh, as a suggestion for battery 
backup, use the "display enable" line 
to blank the display to conserve ener- 
gy, and use a blinking LED or some- 
thing similar to indicate loss of 60 Hz. 

Roy VUeidig 

513 LampiightCt. 

Middletown OH 45042 



THE REAL ONE 



When 1 picked up my first copy of 
73 (OSCAR issue, July '75) in Hong 
Kong, I realized that it had to be the 
only real "amateur" magazine on the 
market. The others merely label them- 
selves as such. I don't believe any 
other magazine has the coverage 73 
does. During a recent overseas deploy- 
ment, I saw book peddlers in Karachi, 
Pakistan, Subic Bay (Phllippiries), 
Singapore, and Hong Kong selling 73 
— and they were the current months' 
editions! Never saw any other ham 
publications anywhere except in U,S« 
possessions. In my opinion^ 73 has 
improved steadily since I first bought 
one. I noted the greatest improvement 
when the magazine want to the large 
format in 76. 

Most of the time I'm in agreement 
with your opinions and definitely 
agree with and appreciate your open- 
ness to other opinions. 

Keep the I/O section going (I 
realize you have no intention of 
ending it). It's great, as is Kilobaud. 
Both serve their functions welL 

Thomas C. Johnson WB6NQK 
FPO San Francisco 



[ 



THE SEARS DEBATE 



WA4MZL's letter about "Sears and 
21VI" on page 17 of the March, 1977, 
issue prompted you to comment, 
^'We're on the easel" Factors to con- 
sider in the ''case" should also include 
one or more of the following: 

1, The Sears Spring/Summer 1977 
catalog, page 967, actually tends to 
encourage CBers to move up into the 
ranks of amateur radio with its head- 
ing — "Ready to go beyond CB? Enter 
a new world of communications . . /' 
The "Important Note" puts the un- 
initiated on notice that there is a 
requirement that the user must be 
duly licensed and further refers 
potential users to the FCC for further 
details. How's that for educating the 
public? Could be better, you might 
say? Why not help Sears with their 
later catalog copy? 

2, The ownership of equipment is an 
incentive. A friend recently purchased 
a 2m walkie and has so far twice failed 
his exam. He at least has the monetary 



incentive to push on. Incidentally, he 
purchased the rig from one of 75's 
advertisers without proof of a license 
required, and if 73 Is not a catalog, 
mail-order sales operation, I miss my 
guess. 

3. As indicated in ''Briefs'' in the 
same issue of 73^ the photography 
industry benefitted from new markets 
through mass availability of the pro- 
ducts. I agree that "A vastly larger 
distribution network for amateur 
products could possibly create enough 
demand to give amateur radio thou- 
sands of new devotees-" How about 
PRlng many of them onto 220 and 70 
cm? 

As you may have gathered, I am 
interested In encouraging the CB 
members of our radio family to join 
our ranks — legally! To that end I 
wrote this letter. 

Skid Scharmerhorit 

WITTY/VyilOY 

Wellesley Hills MA 

P.S- The Sears by Yaesu looks to be 
functionally the same as my (pur- 
chased by mail from an ad in 73) 
Wilson WE 224 by Yaesu with which \ 
am very pleased. Maybe the Sears 
should be reviewed in "New 
Products/* Who knows? If Sears sells 
only a few of these radios, they might 
have a drastic price reduction and 
create a great bargain for many of us* 



SWIFTSURE 



] 



I have been a reader of your 
"Letters" column for many years, and 
needless to say I enjoy it very much. 
Its contents have prompted me to 

write. 

In the Victoria area (southern tip of 
Vancouver Island), the Royal Victoria 
Yacht Club holds the Swlftsure Sailing 
Classic race. As a PR venture, the 
Amateur Radio Clubs of 
Victoria and Port Angeles (Washing- 
ton State) are combining efforts for 
the second time to handle emergency 
communications. 

The Swiftsure Race is known 
worldwide and affords an excellent 
opportunity for publicity. We have 
close to 100 hams Involved In 4 
land-located positions, and we also 
equip 5 power vessels with units for 
patrol purposes. Communication is via 
the Victoria Repeater (25/86), with 
HF used for long haul and backup, 

There are usually at least 350 sail- 
boats involved, from both the US and 
Canada. Their route is west out of 
Victoria through the Straits of Juan 
de Fuca to the open waters of Swift- 
sure Sank, and then back the SO miles 
to Victoria. To give an idea of the 
conditions at sea, the wind at Swift- 
sure Bank was 45 mph last year, with 
a 22 foot sea [we have nT\ operator 
who doesn't get sick). The turn boat is 
at anchor for at least 24 hours* In 
closer to Victoria the water conditions 
change by the hour, sometimes with 
no wind, other times with wind and 
rain. 

The amateur radio enthusiasm Is 
unbelievable- To give you an idea, last 
year this year's planning began the 
day after last year's race! 




This year's Swifts u re Race is May 
28 and 29, and we hope it will be a 
success. 

A.L. IVluirVE7BEU 
Victoria BC 



SOCIALISTIC CB? 



Many CBers advocate that they be 
given privileges normally associated 
with amateurs. Maybe I'm old- 
fashioned, but 1 was taught that 
people were expected to earn the 
things In this life that they wanted to 
receive — whether it's a pay check, 
more frequencies, or more power. 

I don't believe I'm disillusioned. We 
amateurs at least partially earned our 
licenses by diligent study and practice 
to obtain our licenses. Many times I 
have heard the expression that no one 
respects anything given % them. I 
observe that this Is also true In regards 
to CBers as well as welfare recipients. 
ISI either respect what was given to 
them and only cry for more. 

The CBers who use ham frequencies 
and run high power, disregarding the 
law, are the same as someone who is 
denied welfare and steals because he 
feels it is owed to him. 

Unfortunately, this reflects an 
attitude sweeping our nation. Until it 
is changed, our society will continue 
on a path of socialistic decline. 

Harold White WA4CPF 
BErmingham AL 



CRAZY 




1 wanted to say that I enjoy reading 
your magazine. I'm not too crazy 
about all the computer articles, but 1 
wasn't too crazy about 2 meter FM a 
few years ago when you were pushing 
that idea. Now t have two 2 meter FM 

rigs* 

I'm also very glad that you're 
around to keep people on their toesl 
Many times, when I read your com- 
ments or answers to some of the 
letters you get, I find they reflect my 
exact feelingsl I definitely do not feel, 
as Tm sure many others do not feel, 
your last name reflects your character 
(e.g,, the letter "The Golden Helmet," 
Jan. '77). I think you hit the nail right 
on the head more often than many 
would like to admit! 

Also — a special thanks to Don 



13 



Jerrkini WA60A2 for the fine article 
on getting 88 channels with 2 switcHes 
on thfi (eom IC-22S. A fantastk: 
article, as fn^ny of the articles in 73 
usuaKy are! 

Finallv* as far as good experience 
with fnanufactyrers goes, I must put 
in a good word for Amateur Elec^ 
tronic Supply. I've been dealing with 
llmT! for about 4 yeafs now, and 
haven't had anything to com pi a in 
about. Ray Grertier K9KHW is always 
very pleasant on the phone and wry 
hdpfut. Their used equipment has 
always arrived in mint condition. 
Gfeat service on new stuff, too. 

DaveBudaWA2RYC 
Nytley MJ 



TVi IS CURABLE! 



I am interested in knowiny dny 
hams interested in reactivating 6 
meter AM (in the metropolitan NY-NJ 
area). I am 16 and have finaHy ac- 
quired my Technician license (I didn't 
think I would ever reach the ranks), 
So c'mon fellas and/or YLs (TVI is 
curable). Drop me a letter and lei me 
know. There have to be some 6m AM 
rig& around and I only own an AM rig, 
so it's only fair for myself. So fet's 
hear iti 

Kenn Rwnirez W82KQO 

67 S Kntckerbocker Ave. 

Brooklyn MY 11221 

Waich ouh or Ch. 2 wit! get youf — 



[ 



10MCB 



In regard to the proposed 10 meter 
frequencies published in the "Le tiers'" 
section, how about moving it up 5 
kHz so the converted channel 14 
would be 28.715 and now be on the 
1040 net frequency? Perhaps this 
would encourage 10 meter operators 
to convert a radio to use from home 
or m the car on the net. Help promote 
10 meter activityf 

Douglas Reed 
St Paul MN 



FREE CLASSES 



] 



The flushing (NY) Radio Amateur 
Technical Society is sponsoring free 
licensing classes in the Flushing area. 
For more information, drop us a 
postcard: FRATS, 62-26 Boelsen 
Crescent, Rego Park NY 11374. 

Stu Weinstein WA2BXJ 
Rego Park NY 



LLOYD AND IRIS 



: 



We have lusi completed operation 
as W6aL/VP2A, We made 10,000 
QSOs with hams in 126 countries. 
This ii an afl-trme record for our 
various stop& The large number of 




Uoyd fW6KG} and irts fW6QU Coivm at VP2A. 



QSO$ was due. in part, to participa- 
tion in the first weekend phone and 
the first weekend CW portions of the 
ARRL International DX Competition. 
We made nearly 4,000 QSOs (before 
eliminating duplicates) in the 48 hours 
of opefaiing in ttie phone contest. 
This is the largest number of QSOs we 
have ever made in 48 hours. We 
remember world-famous contest oper- 
ator Jim Neiger W6&HY telling ys thai 
in one conte^ he made 4 contacts a 
minute for an hour. At the time we 
did rK»t see how it could be done, but 
iiw did alrrwst the same thing in the 
contest jtiSt concluded. 

Band conditions have been excel - 
lent. For example, we worked all 
cominents in 30 minutes on 14 IVIHif 
SSB on 21 February 1977. Stations 
worked were UF6VAG, VK4AK, 
YV4YC, IK7RNH, XEIDPF and 
ZS6DN, 

Lloyd Colvin W6KG 

Iris Col vinWeOL 

Antigua, WJ. 



DVM FEEDBACK 






Tve been following Wayne's career, 
through the mags he publishes, for 
quite a few years, l must say that I 
enjoy 73 very much, especially the 
artkle on VR6TC and the mention of 
KV4AA. In 1956 I used to be VP2LB, 
so I know what it is like to be DX. 
Now I am settled in Canada and jusi 
about ready to be a VE3 after many 
hectic years in tNs country. 

The main reason for vsff-itrng this 
letter is to clarify some errors on page 
SO (Fig. 1) of the Feb 77 issue 
("DVftfl's Gel Simpler' 1. Seems that 
Gary McClellan, in trying to straighten 
out the errors tn that schematic (in 
the April '77 issue, p. 17), has intro- 
duced more errors. C3, the .01 uF, 
should move to pin 10, not 9; also the 
10k resistor R3 should be between pin 
10 of IC2 and pin 7 of ICX Also, C2, 
the 47 uF capacitor, shows the wrong 
polarity. Positive should be on pin 7 
of tC2. 

Boris Auguste 
Hamilton^ Ontario 



HORRIFIED 



I recently received the April, 1977^ 
issue of 73 Magazine and was horrified 
to read 'Those Illegal CB Channels" 
by John Skubick K8ANG. I am 
appalled that your magazine would 
condone such illegal activity. 

My value system is such that I 
canrvot support any publication which 

condones and even suggests illegal 
Krtivities. 

Therefore, cancel the remainder of 

my subscription to 73 Magsitne, 1 

shall expect to recei^ffi a prompt 

refund for the cancelled portion of 

my subscription. 

David A. Deem WA32Xi 
f^osemoni PA 

Piease reread rjjy anide agafn, word- 
for-word, ft fs fact -f if fed object fve 
report f rig, written in a somewhat 
sarcastic vain. We hams, as a group, 
haim always conducted oarsefves 
Within the law. 0, for over 22 years J 
Yet we are consiafjtfy being harassed 
(such as by incentive fiwnsmg), and 
now possibfy by restrict iyc diesfgrts 
placed upon otir tow band equipment^ 
due to CB related activitiet* 

Yet, the If meter band has been 
expanded to fisher accprnmoi^te 
some of what was otKe itiegaL More 
chanrrefs have been added, and the 
rules are relaxed. 

Speskff^ of that vmrd ''illegal,'* it 
is used throt^hout my article^ in- 
dudfng the title. This rs the onty word 
t know of that rneans **unfawfui^ 
'*forbidd&}/" and "not condoned. 
Don J you agree? — K8ANG. 



t* 



LOOKING WEST 



While your "Looking West" column 
is one of my favorites^ 1 take great 
exception to WA6tTF's comment that 
there "was not a repeater to be had" 
while traveling through our Central 
Coast area. We do have excellent 
repeaters with lots of activity. Perhaps 
the machines are a little bit on the 



quiet side on a Sunday evening, but 
the times are rare that you can't put 
out a call and make a contact. Perhaps 
he should have tried *'kerch unking," 
"Kerchunk" is the sound of a falling 
squdch 131 1 brought on by a quick 
flick of the mike button. Of course, 
one should identify when doing this^ 
Kerchunking 16/76 in San Luis 
Obispo would have brought to life 
WR6ADS, Cal Poly's local machine. 

Also in SLO you wilJ find the 
Central Coast's oldest and widest 
coverage machine, WR6AEL on 
2Z'82. A tittle twist Of the dial, 
another kerchunk, and up wilt come 
our newest repeater — WR6ASW. 
Located in Santa Maria, this machine 
covers from San Luis Obispo to the 
top of the San Marcos pass near Santa 
Barbara. As designer, owner, and 
trustee of this machine ^ 1 fought hard 
to get a good site arid the best 
frequency pair, none other than the 
granddaddy of them all, 34/94. 34/94 
was chosen to make the machine 
Liseable to a maximum number of 
persons, transients included. 

Traveling south from SLO, one 
soon comes to beautiful Shell Beach, 
and while its excellent restaurants are 
enough to make most of us forget 
radio for a little white, an insistent 
kerchunker will discover Lornpoc's 
own WR6AV1 on 72/12 - an excel- 
lent rep^ter with coverage almost to 
the Gaviota tunnel. 

In summarv, one with only com* 
mon channels in his radio wilt f^ve 3 
or 4 repeaters to pick from in this 
area, while those with full covera^ 
can pick up Nipomo's WR6AHZ on 
81/21 or WR6AF1 on 60/00 with 
coverage from SLO to Thousand 
Oaks. AH of our machirws are carrier 
access, on the air 24 hours daily, and 
fully open to all licensed amateurs. We 
have open autopatch on three of the 
machines with exchanges covering Los 
Osos, Baywood Park, SLO, the Five 
Cities, Mipomo, Santa Maria, Los 
Alamos, Vandenberg, and Lompoc, 

Regarding operation on other 
bands, WR€AEL has an open 450 
repeater as well as a 450 system that 
controls a 52.525 radio, By the tinte 
Mr. F^sternak makes another trip 
through this area. WR6AH2*s 220 
MHz system witi be operationaL and 
two open 450 systems in Santa Maria 
will be operattoriaL one from the 
WRBASW site, although our 450 fre- 
quencies will be per the national band 
plan, not the upside down Southern 
CA plan. Other things being planned 
but not presently operational ir>clude 
adding a 6 n^ter receiver at the 
WR6AHZ site with a 450 link to 
WR6AEL's 6 nrteter trartsminer to 
complete a 6 meter, split site repeater 
on the most popular 6 meter channel 
per the national band plan. 

While we do have good equipment 
on the air here, we also have good 
users. We do not need tight controls. 
Our autopatches are fully open and 
the codes are published. A high per- 
centage of the local hams even have 
the repeater control codas. Most of us 
are not the "new breed." Many of us 
vi«re rag chewing on 75 and working 
DX on 20 before we ever heard of a 
repeater. Several of us are members of 
OCWA and several of us are in hi^ 



14 



school or college. Q signals we under- 
stand, but few of us know the differ- 
ence in a 10-7 or a 10-8, and we are 
not interested in learning. We have no 
iamming, no attempts at long distance 
calls on our autopatches^ and we jump 
to answer a distress call. 

The point of this letter is that the 
Central Ctoast is not an rf desert. We 
welcome and encourage transient 
traffic on our fine repeaters, if yoiJ 
can't work our repeaters, we wffi even 
help you build a decent antenna. 

Robert C. Cogger 
Santa Maria CA 



THE POWER DEBATE 



My comments may not sit too weEl 
with some equipment manufacturers 
and the "big boys/' but perhaps the 
forthcoming ban on commercial 
linears is a blessing in disguise. Why 
does anyone need more than a couple 
of hundred Watts anyway? The only 
reason that I have found in over 
twenty years of hamming Is to punch 
through the other signals, with the 
result that you are probably being 
heard not only by the person! s) you 
are in contact with, but by most of 
the country as well, and causing un- 
necessary QRM to boot, (f the power 
limit was, say, 200 Watts pep on the 
high frequency bands, think of the 
reduction of QRM. Sure, there would 
still be the same amount of signals, 
but the teve! of QRM would be so 
greatly reduced that working around 
it would usually be a breeze. The great 
power myth is easily disproved by 
listening on the bands in the wee 
hours when most U.S. hams are grab- 
bing some ZZZZs and hear the DX 
stations running one or two hundred 
Watts roll in. So the idea being put 
forth by some that all the new rigs 
would have to be expensive high- 
powered ones is possibly just a manu- 
facturer's dream. 

There would be some spinoff bene- 
fits from such a power limitation, 
such as a reduction in energy use and 
shifting the frustrations of not being 
able to compete with the super power 
from the average ham to the ex-super 
power ham who In most cases can 
better afford psychiatric care. 

I doubt if such a power reduction 
will ever take place, but if it should, I 
wouldn't shed a single tear as I dis- 
mantle my trusty linear. 

Harl Good well K6JQD 
Paradise CA 

You touched a sensttfve pointy H^rff f 
have always been dismayed by the use 
of excess/' vB power on our bands. 
Possibly it is because I am nor a 
seasoned DXer — sometime i will get 
into serious DX and my phifosophy 
might change. How&ver, while in col- 
lege, / worked WAS minus two with 
SO Watts CW, and it didn't take 
forever. With the abundance of good 
antenna designs around, it is a shame 
that more hams don Y take the time to 
erect ''superior" systems (apartment 
dwellers aside/). The same theory 
applies to VHF and UHF. Recently I 
have been involved in 432-450 MHz 



experirmnting, and It's amazing what 
can be done with low power (under 
50 Watts) and a good antenna/ 
preamp /transmission line setup! The 
current crop of 2m transceivers all 
have fantastic recei\/ers — a fact that 
reduces the amount of power required 
for dependable communications. I 
often wonder what it would be like If 
there was a universal 250 W power 
limit on HF communications. It might 
be interesting! High power Is required 
in certain applications^ such as EME^ 
but should be employed only when 
necessary to maintain communica- 
tions on HF, and I don't mean when 
blasting through a pileup on 20. f 
would like to hear from others on this 
subject — I'm open to criticism and 
will gladly open the letter forum to 
comments. — Ed. 



HOME BREW 



] 



20IV1 QRM 



1 



The other day on 20 meters I had 
been monitoring the Intercontinental 
Traffic Network, In hopes of being of 
help to someone somewhere. A 
W5IH[?) station operating mobile in 
New Orleans began calling CQ on the 
frequency. There must have been at 
least 100 stations listening on that 
frequency. He was asked to move off 
and got very indigr^nt about that. He 
continued to operate and QRM the 
net. 

He said that he was sick and tired 
of all these nets on 20 and would not 
QSY, as he did not give a damn. I 
wonder what he thought we actually 
are about I would like to publicly 
explain to him what we do and 
accornplish for us and him — yes, himl 

First of all, one of the main reasons 
we hams are licensed and are allowed 
to be on the air is that vi/e are here to 
promote international goodwiM. When 
we run phone patches and other types 
of traffic, we certainly serve to further 
international goodwill, not only 
between other hams but to non-ham 
individuals as well, How much inter- 
national goodwill did he render to his 
country by calling CQ and working a 
WB station and exchanging signal 
reports, while people in maybe 20 
countries were QRMed? We don't 
wish to take any fun away from 
anyone, whether he runs DX, SSTV, 
CW, mobile, etc. But please, try to 
cooperate with us^ who enjoy running 
traffic. We have to share the band 
also. Remember that without a 
netting frequency to congregate onto, 
there would be hundreds more trans- 
missions going on by people looking 
for connections sotne where — result- 
ing in even more QRM on 20 rneters. 

By running traffic we are fulfilling 
one of our requirements for receiving 
our tickets. Please work with us, not 
against us. Use your energy to 
improve our bands. Maybe you could 
start a drive to clean up splatter, or 
perhaps work together to open more 
frequencies. There would be less QRM 
and more enjoyment, as we pursue 
our pet preferences in this wonderful 
hobby, 

Chet Brown WB2AHK 
Woodhaven NY 



As a home brew fanatic, I am 
constantly involved in those guerrilla 
wars we have all reluctantly come to 
accept as a way of life when venturing 
Into the marketplace. It's been more 
years than Td like to remember that 
I've been searching for dependable 
vendors, and any day now I should be 
receiving my battlefield commission. 

I write up many projects and have 
had my share of pages in the ham 
magazines. The point Is that a single 
article can sometimes result in literally 
hundreds of inquiries from interested 
readers who, for the most part, want 
to know where they may obtain parts 
for a project I very rarety answer with 
a specific rtame, as I've learned from 
experience that I'd be making more 
enemies than friends. 

Whenever I try a new supplier, I 
send him a smal I order just to see how 
it turns out. If all goes well, \ keep 
this place in mind for the next time \ 
need his kind of merchandise, tf my 
order receives shabby treatment, how- 
ever, 1 scratch the name from my list. 

The candid "Letters," reporting 
personal experiences that other 
readers ha^^e sent to this column, are 
quite helpful and a sorely needed 
service for the harassed consumer. 
However, the results are not always 
consistent. After reading a favorable 
report on Quest Electronics, I sent my 
usual "test" order for SB.90. After 
waiting a month, I wrote a letter 
canceling the order and requesting a 
refund- I was not even extended the 
courtesy of a reply. I wrote again 3 
weeks later and subsequently received 
a partial refund. This meant another 
letter, rnqutring after the remainder of 
the money I had sent for parts they 
didn't even have, and which were still 
being advertised months later. [Too 
bad we can't claim expenses and 
compensation for all the aggravation.) 

Perhaps we should start a "pre 
f erred vendors list." Anyway, Tve put 
in my two cents worth, and with 
inflation it Is worth even less, but 1 do 
feel a littEe better for having done so. 

Raymond Megirian K4DHC 
Deer fie Id Beach FL 




THE RFI BILL 



] 



Senator Adiai Stevenson 
United States Senate 
Washington DC 

Since movmg to Illinois I've never 
written to you, but a bill recently 
introduced in the Senate is of vital 
interest to me, and should be to all 
Americans, 

f am writing In vigorous support of 
S-864, Sen. Barry Goldvyater's RFI 
(Radio Frequency Interference) bill. 

1 speak from experience, as both an 
active amateur radio operator for over 
15 years, and as a TV and stereo buff 
for even longer. As a ham, my equip- 
ment has always been "clean,"' Yet, 
Tve faced all sorts of harassment from 
my neighbors because of interference 
to their TVs, radios, and stereos. 



NEW BOOK 





HTTYHAJyoeaOK 

ffeepsjfe 2211 



^ 



Repressive local laws against any ama- 
teur or C6 operation are beginning to 
appear. It's not our fault, in the main. 
It is the fault of shoddity built equip- 
ment for home entertainment, which 
alt my neighbors own. 

Look at it this way ~ one of 
the major intents of the present 
administration is for human rights, as 
expressed in our Declaration of In- 
dependence and designed into our 
Ckjnstitution: "The right to Life, 
Liberty, and the pursuit of Happi- 
ness," if that pursuit of happiness is 
not at the expense of someone else's 
pursuit of happiness. In other words, I 
have the right as long as my signal is 
clean, to pursue my happiness by 
operating my amateur radio station, as 
does my neighbor to watch "Mary 
Hartman" or the Super Bowl. We 
really should never know of each 
other's existence. But (1) when my 
operating signal destroys his picture or 
sound, even though I'm operating a 
properly designed and adjusted trans- 
mitter, and (2) when various signals 
from my neighbors' TV sets interfere 
with my reception, which tfiey do, 
then (3) something is wrong. 

My neighbor himself is not at fault. 
8u! he paid $450-8900 for his home 
entertainment set, and he expects and 
thinks that that set should be designed 
and constructed much better than it 

is. 

And so it should be. It must be, 
because the home entertainment 
equipment industry's quest for life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, 
via higher profits, is infringing on my 
rights and the rights of my neighbor, 
the consumer, to each do as we wish, 
because of their cheap design and 
shoddy construction techniques. It 
just isn't fair, pure and simple. 

I believe that S-864 is a major step, 
a good start in the right direction to 
the day when alt radio operators and 
TV/stereo lovers can live in peace in 
the same neighborhood. 

The home entertainment equip- 
ment industry is not about to agree 
with any of this. Through their lobby- 
ing group, the Electronics Industry of 
America, they are expected to 
greatly oppose this bilL They will 
claim that the cost of properly design- 
ing and shielding their devices against 
RFI would be prohibitively costly. 
They said the same thing about the 
all-channel set law in 1964. 

It proved to be a fallacious argu- 
ment then, and still is, particularly in 

Continued on page 42 



15 



Briefs 



Compiled by Warren Elly WA1GUD 

Got 3 good ham rBd/o news story? Dfop us a line, or caff ft in. and take home 
the 73 putfication of your choics, providmi we pubiish your news tip. Be sure 
to specify which book you want. OK? 



At deadiine: AM SAT reported a 
successful 2m ON contact between 
KP4A5T and YVSBUK , ,. ovef 500 
miies between Caracas and Ponce. A 
fburtfi 432 MHjt iME WAC (S also 
reported by K3PGP, wtio completed 
the all ooniinents award with ZE5JX 
Mav 2nd at ARflL headquarters. 
AMSAT officialf were planning their 
first A 0-D op^attons meetmg since 
both groups signed an agrefmeni turn- 
ing o^ntrol of OSCAR 8 over to the 
League. Topi^ to be disciiSieci re- 
poTiedrv (fKiurfed allocation of the 
riew satellite's passband, with many 
OSCAR users advocating a CW-SSB 
division similar to OSCAR 7 mode A. 
FCC license totals for C& (February) 
^e ruearty 700,000. Some Russians 
may be signirwi U60 in commemora- 
ticin of the 60tti anntvetsary of the 
October, 1917, revolution. The 
Fresno International DX Meeting 
drew the biggest crowd ever ^ over 
350 DXers from far and wide. And, 
congratulations are in order to the 
beloved West Coast OX Bui htm I the 
source for the last three items]. At 



Fresno, ihe Buiterfn received two 
awards, one from tiie Southern Cali- 
fornia DX Club and anoth^ from the 
Golden Empire Amateur Radto 
Society. At l^t report FCC lawyers 
w<ere stilt sorting out that cab^e TV 
case mentioned in one of this month's 
guest editorials. One FCC spokesman 
on the matter of what will happen at 
the Dayton FCC Forum: '^We will be 
pc^tty close mouthed until more 
explicit instructions come from higher 
up ... we will discourage discussion 
on pending proposals, and make a 
written record of the Oayton Forum 
fof the pubJic fifes on various 
dockets," 



Jack Anderson's national r^ews- 
papet column strongly criticized the 
FCC and left amateur radio with a PR 
problem under a "Radio Hams Are 
Favored Over the CBers'* headline in 
early April. Unfortynately it was not 
an April Fool's joke — Anderson, 
citing Quotes from Georgia Congress- 
man Elliott Levitas, accused the FCC 




Bob Hope hm gmerousfy recorded some public service announcefnents 
pointing out to the putfic thet amateur radio is ^uabie to the nation, inyfting 
thorn interested to ''Join in. " These mif be distributed to rsdio stations, adding 
to those aire^dy being heard )^ich were made by Dick Van Dyke, Thanks to 
WBNAZ. 



of discrlmfnating against the 9 mi Ellon 
CBers Sn frequency assignments, in 
favor of only 300,000 amateurs. 
Anderson's case rested on his claim 
that important decisions by the FCC 
have been made by officials who are 
also amateurs, and therefore biased 
against CBers, One FCC official 
termed the report **a frivolous allege 
tEon" not worthy of comment. Con- 
gressman Levitas^ though, is pushing 
for a House investigation of the FCC. 
(See Guest Editorial this issue,} 



Another record month for ama^yr 
applieatk>ns arrivin§ in Gettysburg . . . 
22,927 received during March, 
topping the January record of 21,553, 
However, the backlog is growing, 
instead of falling* At the beginning erf 
March the number of licenses awaiting 
prooesing was about 3B«CXX). By the 
end of the month, the backlog was, up 
to 42.000, The weitirig period, mean- 
while, had grown beyond 10 weeks in 
some cases, ^vith the average watt 
somewhere near 8% weeks. 



The ARRL has filed in opposition 
10 RM-2S30, that proposal to pemiit 
re broadcasting of amateur trans- 
missions for traffic and emergency 
purposes over commercial stations. 
("Briefs," May 77, 73\. \n its r^ 
sponse, ^e League argues that road, 
traffic, or vweather information could 
not be of benefit to a commercial 
audience without a two-way system 
for clarification of the information 
being filtered into the studio, That, of 
course, would take a licensed amateur 
station at the broadcast studio, a 
requirement broadcasters would he 
hard-pressed to meet due to commer- 
eifll considerations. The League also 
points out that amateur transmissions 
would be used in heavNy commercial 
time periods, so-called drive times, 
when broadcasters not only have their 
largest audience, but also their highest 
advertising rates. Backing the WBEM 
ptan was the National Association of 
Broadcasters (NAB). The League 
response noted that the NAB was not 
familiar with amateur operations, and 
sought to exceed reasonable limits for 
questionable benefit, in backing 
RM 2830. Buffalo area amateurs, 
meanwhile, were upset by the League 
opposition. Said one local (heard on 
75m L "This isn't the time to split 
hairs when ham radio so badty needs 
better access to the public for PR 
..." As pointed out, however, in the 
League petition, unusual circum- 
Stsnces (such as disasters and so on) 
do allow febfoadcast of amateur 
transmissiorts, with the permission of 
the district FCC enfincer-irvcharge. 



It will probabty be some months fas 
of this MA'iiingl before the total scale 
of amateur operations in spring floods 
and tornados will be known. 
Virginia West Virginia, and Kentucky 
were hard hit by floods and mud- 
slides. Local communications v»nt 
down Quickly^ especially in WV, 
where am&ieurs set up a communi- 
cations center at the state capital, 
operating on a 24 hour a day basis. It 



took as much as 48 hours in some 
areas before National Guard units 
could arrive, and amateurs were 
reportedly working closely with local 
police using HTs and those repeaters 
that could be coaxed back onto the 
air. At Williamson WV, residents were 
warned of the flood by the local fire 
whistle, the only form of communi- 
cation left as the waters crested. In 
another WV town the mayor was 
carrying a pistol to discourage looting, 
he told NBC News^ since rt would be 
days before help arrived. In Alabama* 
tornados tore through Jefferson 
County, three v^rs to the day after 
the last killer storm there. AmateufS 
in Birmingham operated W4CUE 
continuously^ handling traffic from 
the disaster areas. 



There were some new devekipmen ts 
on the FCC's proposal to bafi the 
manufacture of linear amplifiers 
cohering 24-36 MHz and type accept 
amateur r^dio equipment (dockets 
2TTT6 and 211171, At issue is the 
need for point of sale oonstraints on 
the sale of equipment to non-1 roe nsed 
persons (a concept ttie FCC had re- 
jected). ARMA, the TOwly formed 
manufacturer's association, reacting to 
a counterproposal from the San 
Antonio Repeater Association fsee 
"FCC," this issue), argued that the 
Texas -plan would pn^bably violate 
federal restraint of trade regulations. 
ARMA's proposal differs from tfie San 
Antonio plan in one key area — it puts 
the onus on the manufacturers, not 
the dealers. 

The ARM A plan would require all 
manufacturers and importers of rf 
generating devices to affix permanent 
serial numbers and provide affidavits. 
The affidavits wouid be presented to 
the buyer by the deater, who'd have 
to see a valid amateur license (or 
photocopy) prior to cioslng the deal. 
The seiler would witness the signing of 
the affidavit^ which would include the 
type of gear, serial number, call letters 
of the buyer, his name, and a state- 
ment of intent covering the subse^ 
quent use of the gear. A willful 
violation of the agreement would 
carry a S1Q0D fine on the buyer, 
dealer, or manufacturer if the FCC 
found any party in violation. A copy 
of the agreement would go to the 
FCC, dealer, manufacturer, and buyer, 
and, just like a station license, the 
affie^vit would have to be presented 
upon inspection by FCC personnel. As 
an ARM A spokesman put it, '"this 
plan offers fewer loopholes than the 
FCC's type acceptance plan, and 
would n>eet the constraint of trade 
regulations of ttie Federal Trade Com- 
mission. 

One Importer, in a letter to its 
dealers, argues against type acceptance 
as hanmful to amateur radio, ^'Ex- 
pefience wtth type a^^eptance in 
other services is illuminating, A 
typical amateur transcsiwr in the 250 
W (PEP J class today lists for between 
S573 and $900, depending on options 
and manufacturer. A comparable 
marine transceiver, type accepted, fists 
between S2000 an4 S&OOO, and lacks 
many of the technical advances found 



in current amateur transceiver. 



It 



IS 



may be assumed then, thai type 
acxeptanoe qI manufactured amateur 
equipment wilt increase its cost to the 
consumer, and tf^t innovative changes 
will be mucK sfo^Mer in being pro- 
duced, just as in other services," The 
dealer's letter goes on to conclude 
that *'since type acceptance is now 
desirable only as a solution to a 
Citizem Band mtsyse problem, rt is 
beyond our understanding as lo how 
the Commission can expect lo keep 
high powered, illegally converted 
transceivers from such use, by fn 
specting them for purity of 
emissions/' 

A 90 day delay was announced in 
early April, extending the comments 
deadline for both dockets until 
August, thus opening the door lo 
more amateur comment. 



As thij issue went to press, ARMA, 
llm Arnateyr Radto Manufacturer's 
Asiociaiion, was deliverir^g an Itth 
hour appeal to the FCC . . , hoping to 
soften the first ryle and order growing 
out of Docket 20777 (bandwidth j. 
Effective April 15th, new harmonic 
and spurious emissions Itmits were to 
take effect for amateur transmitters. 
The 40 dB limit below 30 MHi/60 dS 
above 30 IVfHz standards replace the 
"according to good engineering prac- 
tices" wording of the amateur regula- 
tions. They have widespread implica- 
tions for amatetjrs and manufacturers 
alike. 

The FCCs intention, according to a 
spokesman in the Chief Engineer's 
office, ts to find a new way to crack 
dovm on illegal CB amplifiers, Bui, as 
the spokesman put it, ''the f>et catches 
a bit more than we bargained for, 
"including several popular bam trans- 
ceivers, (That's based on published 
specifications, not any actual testing 
at the FCC hb.\ 

The regulation covers mafketlng 
aad advertising of equipment as well, 
and* as our source put it, "if ttie gear 
is adveftised you can assume it will 
meet the specrficaiions." Specifics 
wiem hard to oome by at deadline, but 
one thing is sure -- amateur stations, 
upon inspection, vwll be checked at 
the antenrta output, thus including 
antenna tuners, low pass filters, and so 
on. It is the whole operation the 
Commisston will be concerned atiOiJt, 
not the individual pieces of gear A 
quality lOM pass filter then, should 
put most stations in compliance at 



The manufacturer'^ reaction was 
about as you'd expect. One importer 
suggested he would no longer be able 
to advertise or sell gear lo dealers; 
another vt^rned that he'd probably go 
bankrupt, if forced to take back gear 
tf^t wouldn't comply from dealers 
wtw couldn't sell in ARM A President 
Dennis Had of Dentron Radio visited 
Washington with a message from the 
manufacturers — "'We applaud the 
proposal because at long last we will 
have a concrete definition of what 
good engineering practices means , , , 
but we feel the FCC has commrtted a 
grave oversight in not grandfathering 
some of the equipment affected by 



If 



this regulation,' 

Had told 73 ARM A was asking for 
a grandfather clause on transmitters 
and transceivers Inot linear amplifters) 
built bv legitimate manufacturers, 
who'd be forced into bankruptcy if 
forced to take back dealer's Inven- 
tories^ ARMA also asked for grand- 
father clauses covermg used gear that 
would be deemed non-salable by the 
new regulation. Had argued that the 
grandfather compromise would lessen 
the injustices brought by pseud ohams 
operating illegally with amateur equip- 
ment, and strengthen the bond 
between amateurs, the FCC, and the 
manufacturers. A decision was ex- 
pected prior to the April 15th effec- 
tive date. 



A Federal Court judge hm ruled 
that 5 dirty words should not have 
been banned from the airwaves bv 
FCC regulations^ And, no^ as Morton 
Dean fcported on CBS News, "We am 
not going to" (list them hereL 



As expected, GST's ad rates wHl 
jump over 40% with the July edition 
of the League publication. That puts 
one full page of advertising in OS 7" at 
St 300 [one timel, instead of the old 
rate of S91 2. 



Conte-sting may never be the same 
s^ini Irk early April, at a meeting 
attended by 80 contesiors, Murphey's 
Marauders and the Morth East Contest 
Ctub men^ by maiority vote, ihirs 
ending a dyr>asty that iasted decades. 
The new club, named the Yankee 
Clipper Contest Club, unifies the 
northeast, and is expected to 
challenge west coast and mid-Atlantic 
clubs for national leadership through 
aggregate scores in Field Day Sw&ep* 
stakes, ARRL DX, and CQ WW. 



Here's an update on our "Briefs" 
report last month on the stolen 
rep^ter in Minneapolis /St, Paul MN. 
Tfie 16/76 repeater ttiere was van- 
dalized and QRTed March 2nd, with 
several hard- to- rep lace items stolen. A 
temporary repeater was on the air 
within 24 hours, with a new instal- 
lation scheduled to go on the air April 
10th. Meanwhile, the club's rental 
agent has agreed to provide a safer 
location for the machine, including a 
security officer. Donations made the 
new installation possible, according to 
The FM Scanner, monthly bulletin of 
the Twin City FM Club, Brooklyn 
Center MN. 



Neil "Rusty'' Rapp WB9VPG. the 
world's young^t licensed amateur, 
has probably passed his Technican 
exam by rK>w. According to Rusty 's 
mom, the General CW may be a bit 
too quick for him to write down, so 
the General will have to wait Mrg^ 
Rapp herself has probably passed her 
Novice by now, while Ru sty's dad is, 
by now, a General. As for the theory^ 
six-year-old Busty is plugging along, 
according to Mrs. Rapp, who says she 
doesn't see how he can pass , . . but 



she says she didn't think he'd pass the 
Novice either. Rusty has been getting 
plenty of CW practice with his new 
birthday present — a TS-520 trans- 
ceiver from Kenwood. 



As the WARC is coming up in td7B 
to discuss frequency allocations, it is 
worth riding the report or* the 1937 
Frequency Allocation Conference in 
Cairo, Egypt. "The amateur interests 
were represBnted by the IRAU dele- 
gates, led by the ARRL's Mr. Warner. 
The three month long conference was 
not too good for the European ama- 
teurs. The reason was that most dele 
gates of the European countries did 
not empathize with tfie amateur 
movement. There were delegates who 
were expressly hostile to the amateur 
cause. Mr. Warner included the r^mes 
of these delegates in his report. There 
have been some delegates who sup- 
ported amateur aims, first of all. tf>e 
USA delegation. Tlie result was that 
all amateur bands were left intact for 
the Americas, while the Europeans 
lost large parts of the 80 meter band, 
and most of the 7 MHz band to be 
occupied by broadcast stations. The 6 
meter band was completely taken 
away" {Shortwave Review, June/ 
July, 1938, Budapest, Hungary). With 
thanks to W1 PL. 



A good WARC dialog bet ween 
Japanese and Australian amateurs was 
reported at th^ J AR L U^an Amateur 
Radio League! SOth anniversary 
celebration last year. At a commem- 
orative dinner party held in Tokyo 
Michael Owen VK3KI, an immediate 
past president of the Australian 
Wireless Institute, urged the Japanese 
to look ahead to the next 50 years of 
amateur radio, "In 1979 In Geneva, 
the representatives of aH the countries 
of the world will meet and review thn 
bands allocated to each service. There 
are two very important things that we 
should remember. The first is that 
each country has only or>e vote. Japan 




L 



The New 



i«n 




of ffie World 
spapMiis its 



S 



has one vote. Australia has one vote. 
But so also has Tonga and Nauru," 
(Both are small Pacific Island 
countries of 78,000 and 5.000 
isopulations, respectively — Ed.) "The 
second thing that we should re- 
member ts that ttter^ are over 300,000 
amateurs in your country. The next 
largest amateur population in our 
region is in Australia, where there ^t^ 
only 6,000 licensed amateurs. Perhaps 
we should also remember that our 
region, which has 37 wotes at the 
conference in 1979, extends from Iran 
to Tonga — half the glob^?." Owen 
went on to assess the future: "Our 
future is not secure. The amateurs of 
the world are not the only people 
Slaking to preserve and indeed expand 

their bands. We must justify our 
position. We fa<^ particular diff^ 
culties in our region - w« must 
remember that there are some 
countries wtiere ttiere %^ few 
amateurs and other countries where, 
perhaps for security reasons, amateur 
rBdlo is not permitted. Indeed, in 
some countries tt is treated with the 
greatest suspicion/' Further on in his 
address Owen proposes a way 
amateurs in the Japanese/Australian 
corridor can argue amateur radio's 
case for the future. "The amateur 
service is global; the needs of amateurs 
cannot be judged by any country 
looking only at the narrow confines of 




V-k.' 



Si: 



NEHUrp 
Mitt4>tL!rOUIUST 




J^JJL 




irT-niTtfuf 



Neil "Rusty" Rapp WB9VPG, current record bolder as Zfje youngest ff censed 
am&teur, and working hard on his- Genera f at age 6. 



17 



thai country. The unique contribution 
of the amateur service to international 
goodwill, tramtng, and education isst 
the heart of tts contribution to both 
ttie national and intemattooal intemst 
. . . The amateurs of the world must 
'Speak wrth one voice/' Reprinted 
from AntBtBur Radio, ioumal of the 
Wireless Institute of Australia. 



On March 1st, the FCC extended 
permission 1or amateur ATV trans- 
missions (fast scan I In the 420-540 
MHz band. This was to attow for 
further experimentation unless 
changed by bandwidth docket 20777. 
Bruce Brown, operator of WR4AAG. 
the Washington DC ATV machine, 
gets much of the credit for the FCC 
action, which grew directly frorn his 
comments in response to 20777. 
Thanks to the f^F Cerrier. bulletin of 
Iht Dayton (OH) Amateur Radio 
Association. 



ATV is on the air in California, 
according to ATV M^gaiirte, The site 
is just north of Sen Francisco at 
Auburn, with coverage from San 
Francisco to Sacramento, The fre- 
quencies are 437.25 MHz In and 
427,25 MHe out. Meanwhile, in Los 
Angeles the locals are reportedly 
biillding a 434 MH? in. 1240 MHz out 
ATV machine- Back east^ Ed Pilier 
W2KPQ, the Long Island Mobile 
Amateur Radio Clyb (LIMARC) ATV 
chairman, reports he*s still working 
out the bugs on the dub's ATV 
rnadiine. Operating frequencies on LI 
are 439.25 MHz in, and 427.25 out 



The Personal Communications 
Foundation, a legal aid clearinghouse 
set up to advise attorneys representing 
amateurs in tower cases and RFI/TVI 
disputes, has received some substantial 
contributions. Yaesu and Wilson both 
donated SI 0,000 to go with S5000 
from the ARRL, as reported here 
previously. PCF is still seeking legal 
briefs from lawyers involved in 
communications cases. PCF's address 
is 915 W. Lancaster Blvd., Lancaster 
CA 93534. 



AMSAT has arranged Bank Amerl- 
card and Master Charge for oontriby- 
tions and membership dues. Be ready 
with the inforrration embossed on 
your charge cards when calling 
AMSAT at 202-488-8649. 

In other AMSAT news, the battery 
situation on OSCAR & was status quo 
as of deadline. Three ceils are appar- 
ently dead (of the 18 aboard), and 
telecommand stations have been 
instructed to turn the saiellfte off 
after ^ch orbit for recharging pur- 
poses. Both current satellites will be 
coming out of 100% ainli^t now, 
forcing some changes in operarting 
schedufes. Work on A^^D contintjes 
in Washington, now with the help of 
two ARRL staffers dispatched to 
AMSAT headquarters through the 
Lesgue's agreement reported in our 
last two issues. 

AMSAT sources say that A- 0-0 is 
progressing on a tight schedule, with 




The extra effort separstes f/ie ' 'serious" from tf» "enthus/ssP'c^'^ Here, The 
Datfas Amareur Radio Club effort iHuurates the easy vmy to cfamp a tribander 
onto&cnmkup tower. Thanks to the DARC 



the launch date now on a call-up basis. 
At the earliest, that puts the launch at 
the &r\d of the year, or early next 
year, Lloyd's of London is under- 
writing the launch (a stipulation of 
the AMSAT ARRL agreement) for 
S50,000, in case the launch fails or a 
suitable orbit is not obtained. A 
similar arrangement was set up for 
OSCAR 7. according to AMSAT. 

Finally, AMSAT headquancrs says 
there are still sonne 1st day covers 
available from tfie OSCAR 7 launch. 
They 90 for $1 eacii or six for SB. by 
writing (of calling) AMSAT in Wash- 
ington at PC Box 27, 20044, 



An interesting note from England, 
via Radio Communication , Journal of 
the Radio Society of Great Britain, 
February 1977: 

The severe interference emanating 
from the Soviet Union continues to 
cause problems to many services from 
time CO time. It is reported that same 
European administrations haye re- 
ceived the following me^ige from 
Moscow: "'Radio installations oper- 
ated in HF bands are being experi- 
mented with in the Soviet Union and 
these estperimerrts co4Ltld possibly 
cause inter lerence of short duration to 
your radio facilities. We are now 
taking actions tn order to decrease 
eventual interfererwe. Your reports 
will be attentively studied by Ministry 
of Posts and Tefecommunications of 
the USSR. Regards. IVIinsviaz.'* 

On a number of occasions ^ Items of 



news from Radio Communication 
have appeared in the Soviet publi ca- 
tion Radio, They have included 
extracts of information on RSGB 
affairs which have been distorted to 
place an unfavourable light on western 
society, and it is hoped that criticism 
by that same society of the present 
illegal activity by the Soviet Union on 
international frequency albcations 
wffi also receive due ptibUcrty in the 
saine place. 



How do yoo handle the many 
unsavory and questionable conversa- 
tiorw and activities occurring on the 
amateur bands; The FCC says ignore 
/f1 Don't try to contact the people to 
reason or quarrel with them. Don't try 
to jam them, If they break into a net, 
and won't move, wait them out. But 
— do a lot of listening. Get specific 
information on calls, dates and times. 
Write down exactly what you hear. 
Don't send tapes to the FCC or make 
phone calls. Write down all the per- 
tinent information and then mail it^ 
The staff has limited time for these 
problems, but they are willing to 
pursue a good hot lead if it h well 
documented with erusugh background 
information. Reprinted fronn The 
Printed Circuit, Great Lakes Repealer 
Association, Detroit ML 



Another Federal Court decision, 
prompted by broadcasters, will affect 
ham radio. A US Court of Appeals 



panel, in throwing out some of the 
FCC's cabte TV rules, severely criti- 
cized the Commission's rule making 
practices. As a result, FCC attorneys 
afe warning Comtni^on spokesman in 
dect^on nr^king positions not to 
accept irfformal (verbal) comment on 
pending rule making propo^s. It 
could affect "bull sessions" at hanv 
fests and conventions, but ttie full 
impact vwas unclear at deadline. An 
earlier case brought by broadcasters 
resulted in the suspension of all 
ti cense fees, and a Mexican standoff of 
sorts, as the Congress blames the 
Commission, and the Commission 
blames the Congress for the fees 
dispute. 



As we were putting this edition of 
"Briefs" to bed, the word in dub 
bulletins from one end of the country 
to the o#ier was Field Day, It looks 
like another record-breaking year for 
participation, if the bulletins are 
portraying an accurate picture. One 
point to remember is that the ARRL 
has made tf^e CW rule a permanent 
fixture of Field Day ... that is, CW 
contacts count twice a phone contact, 
so get those keyers and bugs ready! 



According to the West Coast DX 
Btitletin, the Soiitheast DX Club 
t Atlanta) ran a poll ol their member- 
ship on the needed ones. The fol- 
lowing is the head of the list, notabie 
for t fie listing of most of the usual 
desperately needed** ones. 



**. 



1. Iraq 

2. China BY 

3. Clip pert on 

4. Khmer-Cambodia 

5. Bouvet 
a Heard 

7. Saudi /Iraq Neutral 

8. Burma 

9. 06-Comoroes 

10. South Sandwich 

11. Albania 

12. Spratly 

13. Okjno Torishima 

14. Kamaran 

1 5. Bhutan 

16. Laocadives 

17. Bangladesh 

18. Cocos-Keelir>g 

19. Annobon 
20k Geyser 
21^ Andaman s 

22. Qatar 

23. Central African-TL 

24. Chad 

25. ZS2-Prince Ed and Marion 

26. Auckland/Campbell 

27. Malpelo 

28. Aldabra 

29. Willis 

30. Mellis 



Clybs across the country continue 
their search for new ways to relate 
fram radio to tfieir communrties. The 
Central Michigaf^ ARC has an interest- 
ing PR' Public Service approach — a 
remote base setup for emergency 
weather alerts aimed at the general 
public. According to the CMARC bul- 
letin iThs Scope), police, fire depart- 
ments, schools, and hospitals monitor 



18 



the 147.10 MHz warning frequervcy 
24 hours a day. Hundreds of homes 
are linked to the system as well, since 
local supply shops are stocking 
scanner crystelf. The remote ba^ is 
con trolled through the club repeater 
system, witli a Vmk to the Lansmg 
Weathef Bureau. Tlie 147.10 MHz 
i^mirvg frequency i% repeated through 
the Lansing: system on a prioritv basis 
— any station on either repeater is 
overridden by the warning broadcasts. 
As John Hackman WB8QPE put it in a 
recent Scope an Fcte, "Einergencies 
conrw up quickly and without two 
weeks advance notice . . . ops who get 
the word off the air are those who 
f^lp, not those who h^s to be 
reached by telephone . , ," 



Two members of ^e North Shore 
Repeater Association (MA), operating 
on 28/88, March 4, at 11:35 pm, 
Joined in a successful effort to prevent 
a tragedy, when Ed WAI LRL/M came 
upon a disabled car on the Cabot St,, 
Beverly, railroad crossing, with an 
approaching train coming down the 
track, 

Dick W1FAW phoned the Boston & 
Maine tower in an attempt to have the 
tiairt stopped, but it had advance too 
far down the trade. 

On bein^ notified of this fact, 
WA1LRL grabbed several r^ flares he 
had with him «nd placed them on the 
track, stopping the train in time. 

Then he and tfie train conductor 
pushed the car off the cross! f»g, and m 
doing 90 discovered two youths who 
were quite ill lying across the tracks. 
They were assisted to safety. Re- 
printed from QRA News, bulletin of 
the Quannapowitt Radio Association, 
Lynn field MA. 



Contrary to some recent rumors 
and quite possibly to the hopes of 
those few who would like to see 
amateur radio's reputation for self- 
discipline destroyed, the second 1977 
meeting of the Ohio Area Repeater 
Council was neither a flying circus nor 
a dogfight. The Council met at the 
Delaware County Historical Society in 
Delaware, Ohio, on Saturday, April 2^ 
with representatFwes of 44 of its 82 
supporting member repeaters in 
attendance (plus 16 guests). 

The committee assigned to examirve 
the use of tfte lower portion of the 
two meter band by Ohio amateurs 
reported that most of those SSB 
operators whose licenses permit 
operation below T45 MHz use fre- 
quencies below 144.5, and the Tech- 
nician Class ficensees now operating 
just above 145 MHz would move 
down If given an opportunity. Having 
already voiced its opposition to un- 
restricted repeater operation in all 
parts of the amateur bands, tfie 
Council voted to support the Iowa 
proposal to establish a new repeater 
band between 144.5 and 145.5 MHz 
and to authorize Technicians' use of 
144 MHz. 

Conflicting claims to priority on 
the 146.34/94 repeater pair in 
northwestern Ohio and southeastern 
Michigan by WR8ACT in Toledo, 
Ohio, and WR8AJV in Belleville, 



Michigan, were reviewed. The Toledo 
repeater was originally established \n 
196&; the Belleville repeater was 
sanctioned by the Michigan Area 
Repeater Council at a time when it 
appealed that Toledo had relinquished 
the frequency pair. After examining 
avaitable records and hearing staie^ 
ments by both parties, the Council 
members concluded that Toledo had a 
legitimate claim to the frequency, and 
reaffirmed ^ts earl^r coordinatkin of 
WR8ACT Without a dissenting vote, 

A strong plea was made to all 
present to write their senators and 
congressmen, urc^nq them to support 
S 864, Senator Gotdvi/ater's bill that 
would require manufacturers of 
household electronic equipment to 
install adequate RF! protection. 
Thanks to W8GRG. 

The Illinois Repeater Council took 
action at the February meeting on the 
issue of 15 kHz repeaters — and 
whether they should be "right side 
up" or "upside down;" Illinois voted 
to adopt the so-caBed ''California 
plan" which follows the "reverse" 
principle. This h the same plan fol 
lowed by western Pennsylvania, Ohio 
and Indiana land Michigan is reported 
to be studying such plan]. Reprinted 
from the Lake Erie ARA Repeater 
Atewifeffer, Lakewood OH. 



Malaysia hm apparently acquired its 
first 2m repeater. Via Anmteur Radto^ 
the official journal of the Wireless 
institute of Australia, comes the news 
that a frequency coordination 
committee has approved 147.90 MHz 
output and 147.30 MHz input for the 
system. It's to be located at Ulu Kali, 
with maximum power of 50 W. 
Amateur Badto also reports that 
Malaysian amateurs are now author- 
ized to use RTTY. 



With A-O-D in the offing. AMSAT 
is anxious to help club groups inter- 
ested in demonstrating the satellites, 
A 00, which will become OSCAR 8 
after launch land is to be controlled 
by the ARRL), will be set aside 
primarily for educattonal purposes, 
due to its low orbit and short acquisi- 
lion time. Contact AMSAT for more 
details. 

The winner of the T976 Amateur 
Radio Biting Bug Awafxf ts Anthony 
R. Curtis K3RXK of State College PA. 
The award, given to the writer of the 
best amateur radio article published in 
a US no n -ham publication, i$ a $50 
prize and plaque. 

Mr. Curtis' article in the February, 
197§, issue of Popaisf Mechanics was 
judged the best of over 50 submitted 
in the competition. Entitled "Mew 
Satellites Make Ham Listening More 
Fun/' the article was accurate, well- 
written, and attracted a targe non-ham 
audience to amateur radEo. Mr. Curtis 
is an assistant professor of journalism 
at Pennsylvania State University. 

There will be no 1977 competition 
for the Amateur Radio Biting Bug 
Award* However, competition will 



resume in 1978 in two categories. A 
plaque and a $200 prize will be 
awarded to the writer of the best 
article about amateur radio in an 
American national I y-ctrcu la ted non- 
ham publication during 1978. To the 
writer of the best ham article pub- 
lished tn a regional or local puhlita- 
tion. there is a plaque and SI 00. 
Articles will be judged on how well 
they attract non-hams to ham radio. 
Writers do not have to be amateur 
radio operators. 

The judge ^s Ray Collins, a profes- 
sional writer and ham operator. 
Judging will be based on an article's 
subject matter, style^. accuracy, 
Accompanying illustratfons, and the 
mention of where a reader may obtain 
more information about the hobby. 

Photostats of articles with the r^ame 
and date of the publication should be 
sent to Ray Collins WA2GBC, Harter 
Road, Morristown NJ 07960. Please 
enclose a setf -addressed stamped 
envelope. All entries must be sub- 
mitted by Jan. 31, 1979. 



Kansas State Police officials have 
decided to do away with the tradi 
tional "10" code, in favor of simple 
words and phrases. "10'4" is now 
"okay/' and "10-13'* is "help, police 
man in trouble/' Officials report that 
the changeover is going smoothly, 
although some officers still forget and 
use the "10" code from habit. Re- 
ported by the A P. 




FCC licensing figures released by 
the ARRL Indicate a total of 293,655 
amateurs in the states. The break- 
down, as of the end of January, was: 
Novices — 38,365; Technicians - 
61,359; Conditional - 22,483; Ad- 
vanced — 71,360; and Es(ira — 
IB, 732. Whether we can break 
300.000 by the end of the year 
remains to be seen, but if current 
application rates continue, the 
chant^s seem good- 

L.A, area repeater ovwne rs and users 
alike are angered by the conieni of 
RM 2344 submitted by Jones P. 
Talley W5JTE, which requests that 
the FCC place a blanket ban on closed 
repeaters. The maiority of those 
OppOfied feel that Mr. T alley's pro- 




^ 




At ih'j March mBetlng of the Ls..:i.J Rsdto Qubs m Safi Pedro CA, Dr. Norm 
Chatfm K6PGX spoke on AMS AT/OSCAR programs past and future. Here, as 
the group ft'stens to OSCAR 7 rnode 8, he points out wftere the spacecraft is at 
the rirne. Tfmrtks lo K6SWD for tfm photo. 



19 



posal \s an Infringement upon their 
right to own and use personal prop- 
erty as they see fii and fear that once 
all repeaters are made open and avaif 
abie to any amateur, the next logical 
step would be to make all amateur 
stations legally available to all 
amateurs at ail times. This they cite as 
a direct violation of the Constitution 
and hawe vowed to defeat the RM. 



receive such calls may iJse them until 
they receive new calls mailed auto- 
matjcatly by FCC. However, they are 
advised not to order QSLs with the 
WC0 call, as tt will not be their 
permanent callsign. From the ARRL 
Bulletin. 



One hundred years ago this year the 



"breaker four." Gary again responds, 
and learns that "Mam Squeeze" had 
blown a fuse the night before. His CB 
power supply couldn't quite handle 
the 20 Watt input radio. Fuse re- 
placed, he Is now able to enjoy the 
peace and quiet of the new FM-CB rig, 
as It h described by Gary- Gary then 
pretends to be interested In 
"Squeeze's" Co bra -200, and asks if he 



was onty to leave the radio beacon on 
the island and then continue on to 
Capetown. No extra effort was 
planned in case of poor weather . . . 
they would just continue on. The 
schedule was to be in the vicinity of 
Sou vet around February 24th or 
25th, and this was reported when they 
were in Antarctica. They were early 
arriving at the island and were there 




visiting views from around the giobe 



OM Winter -East 



Since the btrth of radio communi- 
cation, amateurs have always been 
there to lend a helpirtg hand wherever 
and whenever disaster struck. On the 
last weekend of January, 1977, a 
different kind of a disaster struck 
western (Slew York State. For the first 
time in history, a disaster was 
officially declared due to excessive 
snow? At the first glance, it might 
almost seem funny, or that people 
have turned soft, to be so affected by 
the white stuff. However, when you 



consider that snow fell in one amount 
or another every single day for over a 
month preceding the storm, and that, 
for the country as a whole, this was 
the hardest, ooidest winter in all re- 
corded history, it begins to take on a 
different proportion, 

Friday had dawned dismal, like a 
great many days before It Tempera- 
ttifes ranged from slightly below zero 
to five or ten above. A light dusting of 
snow was added to the foot or so of 
powder already on the ground. The 



■* h 






Before and after digging out. This house, located near the author's home, was 
compfetety buried In snow. SnowmoMes ran oyer the roof, the chimney fat the 
right end of the house) was covered over, and rescuers had to tunnef down to 
the door in order to evacuate the family, f Photos courtesy Albion Advertiser, 
used with permissfonj 




weather remained stable until just 
after lunch, Then the storm hit. In the 
next eight hours, over a foot and a 
half of snow fell. Winds rose to 40 
mph or so, with gusts over 55, and the 
temperature plummeted- 

In less than an hour, the Mew York 
State Thru way became impassable. 
The expressways in and around 
Rochester were closed by the police — 
too hazardous to attempt any kind of 
travel. Other highways tn the region 
quickly became parking lots. These 
were the conditions in Rochester. 
Further west, they were worse. My 
home is in Albion, the hardest hit area 
east of Buffalo, which of course got 
the worst. 

Between the tv^/o cities, Rochester 
and Buffalo, Lake Ontario curves so 
that a wide bulge extends north 
several miles further than the rest of 
the lake shore. Being just on the edge 
of the favored Intercity route, and not 
conveniently handy to either city, the 
land is mostly farmland — flat, open, 
and completeky at the mercy of the 
wind, it is called Orleans County, and 
Albion is in the middle. 

It took me four hours of creeping 
past stalled cars, detouring around 
accidents, and clawing my way 
through snow drifts to reach Orleans 
County, and I thought I'd made it- 
Old Man Winter second-guessed me. 
Five miles east of Albion, a tiny 
village called Fancher can be found (if 
you don't blink on the way through). 
There the State College of Brock port 
NY maintains a rural property for 
ecological research and conferences. It 
was just a mile west of that property 
that I was totd to turn back. Scores of 
autos were bogged down ahead of me, 
and there was simply no passage, 

I turned down a side road toward 
the college property, hoping to work 
my way around this last obstacle, and 
there I bogged down in a large drift It 



Stopping in another building halfway 
there. 

It would have been a pleasant place 
to be stranded, and 1 had good com- 
pany — four cute young school 
teachers. Five miles away, however, 
trouble was starting to pile up. The 
XYL was stranded with a pair of 
stir-crazy four-year-old twins. The 
house is an old one {one of the oldest 
in Albion), and the brutal winds were 
forcing cold and snow in so violently 
that a pile of snow had gathered En a 
room which was separated from the 
outside by another room. The water 
in the bottom of our washer froze. 

My hopes of getting out Saturday 
faded with the day. The snow had 
stopped, but not the wind. As fast as a 
pathway could be plowed on the 
roadway, powdery snow which had 
collected since Christmas had blown 
in to close it up again. Highway crews 
were fighting a losing battle. 

Throughout the county, every high 

''With winds as high a& they 
were, the windchdl factor could 
freeze exposed flesh in a matter 
of seconds. . , " 

school, every recreation hati or other 
suitable building became an emer- 
gency shelter for the hundreds of 
people stranded by the storm. The CD 
director had to coordinate his efforts 
through the sheriff's office, as the CD 
center was all but inaccessible in the 
storm. All over the region, amateur 
radio nets were being called into 
emergency session. At home, pipes 
were freezing and bursting. Barb was 
thinking of evacuating to the high 
school. 

Sunday morning I said^ "To hell 
with thisl" and started walking, The 
snow had packed so hard you could 
walk over the drifts without sinking 
in. IVIy car was buried up to the 
window. I later heard that after one 
car was removed from atop a snow- 
drift, another was found buried three 
feet beneath It, the driver inside 
frozen to death. 

I was lucky. Less than a mile from 
the college property, a car picked me 
up. The driver felt two would have a 
better chance of making it through 
than one. We zipped through one of 
the temporary openings in a half-mile 
long drift, and I saw the top of a 
tractor-trailer sticking out. Occasional 
hints were visible of cars buried in the 
walls of the ravine of snow. On the 
other side was Albion and home. 

To the towns east of Orleans 
County, the storm was over. Highway 
crews trying to clear the roads had 
their work grind to a screeching halt 
as sightseers came in from adjoining 
Monroe Country and found them- 
selves stranded. The sheriff finally 
cracked down, ordered alf roads 
closed, except for official emergency 



chapters! I checked into the New 
York Public Operations Net on 75, 
and than notified the sheriff and the 
Red Cross that I was finally home and 
3 vail ab to. 

The net manager, K2K0C, was 
stranded in Buffalo, far from her rig. 
W2PZL and WA2SYR were holding 
things together. Of course , there were 
plenty of others taking their shifts as 
net control, but these two stand out 
in my mind, especially WA2SYR, He's 
blind, but the best organised net 
control Tve ever heard. 

Fortunately, the telephones 
managed to hang together. Otherwise 
the already busy nets would have been 
bedlam, Throughout the day, how- 
ever, I wQs asked to or [gin ate a fev\/ 
messages out of state for branded 
motorists, I even managed to get some 
of the pipes fixed. Once agajn we had 
water running, and the wife felt 
better. 

The CD headquarters for the entire 
western Mew York region is in 
Batavia, 20 miles south of Albion. 
There an especially energetic group 
was working through the 04/64 re- 
peater. They were under the guidaf>ce 
of WA2AfV, who stayed several days 



"The brutal winds were forcing cold and snow in so violently that a pile of 
snow had gathered in a room which was separated from the outside by 
another room. . ■" 



at the center, and became the first 
person to sleep in the bunk room 
since the pface had been built. Bad as 
things were in Orleans County, we had 
a picnic compared to Erie, Niagara, 
and Chautauqua counties, which had a 
lake upwind which manufactured an 
unreal amount of snow. In Buffalo, 
K2DW1 and others activated the 
station that had been installed at 
Salvation Army Divisional Head- 
quarters after the 1972 floods. But I 
didn't keep track of them. I had 
troubles of my own. 

Sunday afternoon the Red Cross at 
Medina called, A young man was in 
critical condition in the hospital there. 
The telephones vuere log-jammed, and 
they were trying to reach his kin in 
Rochester. For the first time in 25 
years of hamming, 1 listed emergency 
traffic. I wanted a phone patch to Red 
Cross Divisional Headquarters, but at 
that moment there was nobody 
aboard in Rochester. One of the guys 
cut up to two meters and W2QYT 



responded, getting me through to Jim 
Cross, the disaster coordinator. Within 
the hour, the family was on their way. 

Roads were still closed Monday, 
and were destined to remain that way 
through Thursday. By Wednesday, 
most of the nets were deactivated to a 
standby condition. Maybe I shouldn't 
admit it, but in alt my years as a ham, 
this was the first time I had figured 
directly in a genuine emergency situ- 
ation. Even then my contributions 
had been minimal — a mere drop in 
the bucket I wish f could list all the 
guys who worked shift after shift as 
net control, or served as internet 
liaison, those who passed reams of 
traffic, and those who stood by and 
waited, but were not needed. They 
also serve who stand and wait. 

Six days after the storm had begun, 
Orleans County opened the roads. 
Buffalo didn't open for a week or 
more after that. Even though I got off 
as easy as I did, it is easy for me to 



understand the bewildered, almost 
unreal feeling folks out this way have 
over the whole affair. Most of them 
still don't quite know what hit them. 
When I drove to work Thursday, it 
felt like I was driving down a gully, 
and t feEt a bit uneasy. It started 
snowing again Thursday afternoon, 
and everybody beat it home. We were 
all scared. 

Once my car was dug out of the 
snow, the AAA paid the tow* Gettipg 
it going again was another matter. 
That cost over $160, This, plus the 
loss of three and a half days pay, 
made the storm a bit expensive, but I 
still think 1 got off easy —especially 
in comparison to Buffalo. I guess J 
was httte more than a bystander, but 
you really never know just how you'll 
act until the thing happens, and then; 
just like everybody else, you muddle 
through the best you can. It's only a 
matter of how the cards fall that 
decides whether you'll play a key 
part, or just be another drop in the 
bucket Just remember — It takes an 
awful lot of drops to put out a fire, 
but they all help out. 

W. Edmund Hood W2FEZ 

Albion NY 



CM Winter- West 



SERVCOMIVI, a short title for 
service communications, is a group of 
about 100 amateur radio operators 
who live along the eastern front range 
of the Rocky Mountains from 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, in the north, to 
Raton Pass on the border between 
Colorado and New Mexico in the 
south. Recently organized (and within 
the American Radio Relay League 
public service emergency communica- 
tions function), SERVCOIVIM has 
aided a remote community during a 
serious fire, participated in various 
mountain terrain rescues and, more 
recent ty, fully aided in a regional 
search and rescue operation occa- 
sioned by the 10-12 March 1977 gale 



force blizzard that struck £1 Paso 
County, Colorado, with full fury. 

Amateurs answered a call for help 
when authorities had trouble estab- 
lishing communications vital to search 
and rescue operations. SERVCOMM 
responded and filled the gap- 
Ninety -three rescues were made by 
El Paso County Search and Rescue 
teams in close cooperation with 
ground and air units based at nearby 
Fort Carson. Amateurs rode with the 
various ground and air units. 
Equipped with battery powered two 
meter handie-talkies, they relayed 
rescue mission informatior> to and 
from units in the field to a base 
station (WA0HFJ) set Up in a motor 




home and parked next to the El Paso 
County Sheriff's office. US Army, El 
Paso County Sheriff, and El Paso 
County Search and Rescue authorities 
sat side by side in the "Sheriff 
Central" command post and directed 
a successful operation that saved lives 
and greatly reduced suffering in the 
afflicted areas^ 

The Colorado Springs two meter 
repeaters carried most of the emer- 
gency traffic. Primary repaters 37/97 
and 16/76 were backed up with the 
facilities of 19/79, 27/37, and 03/63 
repeaters together with thirteen 
SERVCOMM RTTY stations who 
stood by in the event the situation 
mushroomed. 



Four wheel drive vehicles were 
provided and operated by radio ama- 
teurs in neighborhood assistance 
missions. This action reduced the 
overall emergency problem. Among 
the 4 WD teams were: WA7HKS/0, 
WB0KDN, WA0LRK, W0MBZ, 
WB0MHP, W0MQE, WQNR. W0OQI, 
WB0PNX, KOROL, WBCSDW, 
WBOUIX, WB0WQI, and W(3WY2. 

A local surgeon, WA0RGA, needed 
to be at an operation scheduled across 
the city. K0ROL and WWVX 
hooked up a 4 WD tandem and 
e^entially tobogganed WA0RGA \h 
his own 4 WO and got him to the 
scheduled operation in time. At the 
same hospital was WB0EFU, who had 
given birth to a fine daughter the day 
before, WB0EFU operated a battery 
powered TB 22 from her bedside and 
served as liaison between the 
SERVCOMM nets and the hospital. 
Various missions of transporting 
nr>edical personnel to and from several 
facilities were completed. 

W0OXR left work early as the 
storm rolled into the Colorado Springs 
area. Bound for Falcon^ Colorado, 




The raging biizsBrd penetrated every thing. Thosff at home for days cou/dn 'tget 



to work. 



Search and rescue operations continued after the storm ^ because scores of 
missing peopfe^ cars, and livestock had to be accounted for. 



23 



about twenty miles east of Colorado 
Springs, he could not 5ee well enough 
to drive due to high winds and driving 
snow. Even the slowest speed as he 
groped along did not prevent him 
from bumping into yet another car 
stranded in the road. Some 35 hours 
later, W0OXR and eight others in 
stranded vehicles near him were 
rescued. They came through the 
ordeal without sleep or food by 
rationing fuel and maintaining two 
meter status reports. During the long 
night hours they signaled to each 
other with interior car lights, as head 
lights and tail lights were buried tn 



snow arid car doors were frozen shut. 
Rescuers, guided by SERVCOMM, 
had to battte long stretches of 1 5 to 
20 foot snow drtfts tn almost zero 
visibility to reach them. This rescue 
was typical of the overall operation 
that employed five US Army half 
tracks, each carrying an amateur radio 
operator equipped with two meter 
equipment. During the last phase of 
the operation, when sector sweeps 
were made with various ground and 
air units, SERVCOMM continued the 
emergency communications service* 
Almost all of the emergency commun- 
ications activity waa captured on tape 



for historical record. 

During ensuing days, two debriefing 
meetings were held with representa- 
tives of the El Paso County Sheriff's 
Office, Colorado State Highway 
Patrol, El Paso County Search and 
Rescue Group, US Army, and 
SERVCOMM present. The meetings 
produced 27 suggestions for improve- 
ments In the SERVCOIVIM operational 
plan so that the next tinre 
SERVCOMM is called upon, it may be 
in a better position to serve. 

Behind aSI of SERVCOMM's emer- 
gency capability and potential to serve 



is the fafslghted dedication and ex- 
pertise of the Pikes Peak FM Repeater 
Association that has for a decade 
built, sited, and maintained two meter 
repeaters at altitudes that often 
provide severe lightning and arctic 
environments for equipment and 
those who voluntarily maintain them. 
Without this group, the loss of human 
life and suffering would have been 
much higher. Doing this, of course, is 
what each amateur everywhere knows 
to be a good measure of what amateur 
radio is all about! 

D,A. Bartol Vy0PT 
Colorado Springs CO 



75 Years 



Gugllelmo Marconi came to Cape 
Cod, Massachusetts, In 1901 to estab- 
lish the first transatlantic wireless 
station in the United States. The 
station was constructed on the sand 
dunes of South Weii fleet and was 
completed in late 1902. The trans- 
mitter was of about 30,000 Watts 
power, consisting of a three foot 
diameter spark gap rotor supplied 
with 26,000 volts from a kerosene 
generator. The aerial wires were to be 
supported by 200 foot masts. The 
masts, 20 in number, were piaced in a 
circle 200 feet in diameter in the sand 
dunes. The Cape Codders were skep- 
tical of the masts being erected in the 
sand dunes, and as they predicted, 
the masts were btown down in a 
northeast storm in Movember, 190T 
Marconi then erected four 200 foot 
timbered towers and in late 1902 the 
station went on the air for tests. 

On the night of January 18, 1903, 
Marconi attempted to send the follow- 
ing transatlantic wireless message 
from the then President Theodore 
Roosevelt to the King of England, 
Edward VI h "His Majesty, Edward 
Vil, En taking advantage of tha won- 
derful triumph of scientific research 
and ingenuity which has been 
achieved in perfecting a system of 
wireless telegraphy, I extend on behalf 
of the American people most cordial 



greetings and good wishes to you and 
to all the people of the British 
Empire. T heodore R oose ve It. ' ' 

The message was received at the 
Marconi station En Poldu, England, 
and for the first time the United 
States had been linked with England 
by wireless, A return answer was 
received at South Wellfleet from King 
Edward VII and wasdeiivered to the 
President through the South Wellfleet 
Railroad Telegraph station. 

In 1907, the engineers realized that 
they had built the station too near 
the ocean, and by 1917 the sand 
dunes had eroded close to the tower 
bases- The station had to be aban- 
doned soon thereafter. Today approx- 
imately one half of the site has been 
claimed by the Atlantic Ocean. In its 
15 year history of operation, the 
station had three callslgns: CC, MCC, 
and WCC. Old "CC" was a prime press 
outlet to ships at sea and to this day 
WCC, now located in Chatham, Massa- 
chusetts, is the busiest commercial 
radio station on the east coast. The 
station handles worldwide traffic to 
and from ships at sea, and is still 
communicating by international 
Morse code as used by Marconi in his 
day. 

During the week of January 14-22, 
1978, the Town of Barnstable Radio 
Club will celebrate the 75th anniver- 






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1 


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1 


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II 




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CI 


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1 '^ 

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1 




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31 tj^ 


■ -^T 





""^siv. /905 A/fi32COO/ SWTIOO C C U?^ 

On Jar7U3.ru /d, 1903 from the Mdrconl 
Qotsru 3pd.rk Qa.p 5t^ilor) hca.ted in 

Sourh JVe//f/eet^ Mdssachaae ti^ 
Gu^lielmo Mdrconi succee'sf'ullu example ted 
the first fiuo 4^ Qa.dlo Transmission 
t>etuJeBr} the Ur>ited 3id.tzs A- Curope 






sary of Marconi's first two-way 
transatlantic radio transmission. The 
club will recreate this event with a 
multitransmitter amateur radio station 
operating from the original location in 
the Cape Cod National Seashore Park 
In South Wei I fleet, Massachusetts. The 
station has received a special event 
callsign, "KM1CC", from the Federal 



Communications Commission, and 
will be manned by members of the 
Barnstable Radio Ctub. ''KM ICC will 
be capable of worldwide communica- 
tions. The station will be open to the 
public and we hope you will come to 
visit us. 

Frank Caswell WIALT 
Brewster MA 



Jack Anderson -Nuts I 



The headline, from coast to coast, 
read: "Radio Hams Are Favored Over 
the CBers," f\Jationat columnist Jack 
Anderson had scored with another hot 
story, and ham radio was clearly the 
ioser. 

The story charged that CBers 



haven't gotten a fair shake at the FCC 
because "CB radio has traditionally 
been regulated by hams." Representa- 
tive Ejfiott Levitas (D-GA), quoted in 
the Anderson column, called the situ- 
ation at the FCC like "the wolf 
guarding the flock." Figures that 



raised many an eyebrow also 
appeared, like Anderson's assessment 
of the frequency allocations held by 
300,000 amateurs being "100 times 
more than available to the 9 million 
CB enthusiasts/' plus his statement 
that "hems also have a lock on the 



"The story charged that CBers 
haven't gotten a fair shake at the 
FCC because CB radio has tradi- 
t ion ally been regulated by 
hams. . 4^ 

higher frequencies, which are free 
from interference." At another point 
in the column, Anderson reports that 
"according to one confidential report, 
the hams now control more fre- 
quencies than all the nation's police 
and fire departments combined, plus 
all commercial d^r^^ educational FM 
broadcasters, plus all the TV stations 
on the VHF channels in Los Angeles 
and New York City," 

Anderson's column, which ap- 



24 



pea red the first week of April, went 
on to accuse the ARRL of opposing 
the CB industfv*s attempts to gain 
more rrequencies. And FCC Chief 
Entineer Ray Spence <trew the bigg&st 
barb — "The federal Commiinications 
Commission's Chief Engineer^ Ray- 
mond Spencie^ is a Itf^ime member of 
the League. He cfenied that his inem- 
bership isd conflict of interest," 

In 3*1 interview with 73, Spence 
dismissed the article as *'\\jst another 
Jack Anderson column," In the Per- 
sonal Radio division, an aide to chief 
Johnny Johnston termed Anderson's 
confHct of imwesi charges "just a 
frivolous allegation, a typical Jack 
Anderson column." The aide added 
that he doubted that there would be 
any official response* As FCC sources 
tell it, the slory got started with some 
of Congressman Levitas' constituents 
who had compfained about the FCC's 
lack of action on Class E CB (220 
MH2). The constituents, representing 
an unnamed Georgia CB manufac- 
turer, wrote that they were prepared 
to build a plant to turn out 220 CB 
rigs, which would bring new jobs to 
the local economy. The FCC spokes^ 
man added that it was undeirtood the 
El A (Electronics Industries A^ocia^ 
tion) was also lobbying Congressman 
Levitss on the Class E issue. 

M(chaeJ Vollmer, an aide to Con- 
gressman Levitas. told a sli^itly differ- 
ent story about how the Anderson 



column came to be written. According 
to Volfmer, a constituent In Atlanta, 
who runs a OS factory, requested the 
Congressman's assistance with "an 
FCC problem/' Vollmer refused to 
name the firm, or the constituent, but 
added that the thrust of his request 
was for the Congress to investigate a 
conflict of interest at the FCC. Several 
times during oor 73 tnta^iew, 
Vollmer emphasized that his txiss is 
not concerrved with amateurs, rkot out 
"trying to ^ them/' "Congressman 
Levttas/' said Vollmer, *'ts well aware 
of the fine service hams have done 
both at home and abroad. What 
bothers him the most is whether a 
confEict actually does exist at the FCC 
... a conflict that may deny all 
segments of the personal communica- 
tions industry an equal voice in 
dec i s Eo n s a f f eci i ng it, ** 

Vollmer, In response to a question, 
said that Congressman Levitas was 
responsible for only a small portion of 
the Anderson column . . . but he 
added that the Congressman believed 
most of the at legations contained fn it 
are true. Vol I me r says his boss remains 
open-minded on the subject, however, 
and is anxious to receive some feed- 
back from amateurs. (Address those 
cards and letters to Congressman 
Elliott Levitas, 329 Cannon House 
Office Buiiding, Wa^ington DC 
20&15.^ Levttas had already received 
some comment at the time of our 



"The Federal Communications Commission's Chief Engmeer, Raymond 
Spence, is a lifetime member of the League. He denied that his 
membership is a conflict of interest. . /' 



"The Andenon column came at a bad time 
Appeals Court decision , , /' 



right after a o'itfcal Fedemi 



interview, mostly from amateurs, who 
reportedly appealed for a chance to 
get ham radio a brt rrxire credit than 
the Anderson column gave it. Vollmer 
told 73 his boss planned to deliver a 
speech on the House floor praising 
amateurs for ttieir service, but dump- 
ing on the FCC as an ill run bur^u- 
cracv> (Congressman Levrtas has 
requested a fonnat investigation of the 
FCC by the House Interstate Com- 
merce Committee.) 

The FCC, meanwhile, had other 
problems. The Anderson column came 
at a bad time — right after a critical 
federaJ Appeals Court decision that 
may stifie the kind of informal dis- 
cussions many of us are accustomed 
to havmg with FCC personnel at 
hamfests and conventions. It was a 
cable TV case concerning siphoning, a 
practice that's been restricted by FCC 
rules. The regulation had limited cable 
TV operators' use of new films and 
sports events on their own channels, 
thus siphoning the programming from 
commercial broadcasters. The Federal 
Appeals Court not only threw out the 
ami-siphoning rule, but gave the FCC 
a real going-over on its rufe making 
pnoGedures. At issue are so-called ex 
p^rte contacts, discussions b>etween 
FCC officials in decision making po si • 
lions and p antes interested m 
proposed rules. The court found that 
the FCC had violated its own rules, 



sirK^e the so-calied ex parte contacts 
are not recorded for the public record. 
In future, FCC attorneys say, staff 
members with have to submit written 
summaries of their Infomtai discus- 
sions on pending rule makings. That 
could mean a lot of paperwork, but 
more important, rt could stifle the 
kind of '"let your hair down" meetings 
FCC staffers tike to hold at ham 
gatherings. Another byproduct of the 
court ruling is that the FCC will have 
to end the practice of accepting late 
comments on its proposals. Current 
procedures allow for comment after 
the deadline as a practical matter, 
since the staff rarely gets to the maJt 
untii after its own deadline. 

FCC lawyers are considering a US 
Supreme C^urt appeal, but In the 
interim the Personal Radio Division is 
faced with a sticky problem - the 
largest hamfest in the US at Dayton, 
Dayton, in the words of one staffer, 
**is our biggest effort of the year/' 
with five or six FCC officials planning 
to attend. At press time it was uncleer 
what effect tfie appeals court ruling 
woiiJd have on the Dayton FCC 
Forum — btit as the same (^m 
mission staffer put it, *'at this point 
we can say anything we want atxiut 
pending proposals, byt w« cait't 
listen;" 

Warren Elly WAIGUD 
Assistant Editor 



DeWASETD 



We have been getting a number of 
letters here at 7J concerning excessive 
QRM, jamming, music, etc., on the 
Eow bands^ especially on 7 5m, Several 
readers complained about nets being 
intentionally jammed. I have not been 
especially active on 75, so, armed with 
a new linear thai needed feviewing, I 
proceeded over to a friend's QTH for 
the evening, In a lew mtnutes we were 
ready to go, but it required fifteen 
minutes to find a spot to tune up 
without bombing someone. Yes, the 
band is crowded] However, still no 
mustc or excessive QRM, and I began 
to wonder if the letters were a bit 
far-fetched. We had a few enjoyable 
QSOs, giving the linear a pretty good 
test. Then, while talking to a station 
in New York, I noticed someone 
tuning up dead on my frequency — 
annoying^ but not interfering with the 
QSO. I informed the other station 
that "the frequency was in use," and 
that did lu The character proceeded 
to "tyne up" for the next ten min- 
utes, and tt appeared that his pro- 
cedure repuired continuous whistlmg 
into the mike while tuning. Inter- 
esting. 1 afso noted that the higher in 



frequency I went, the more acute the 
jamming probiem was. Welt, I'm a 
believer now, and I can a^ure you it 
will be awhile before t subject myself 
to the "enjoyment" of 75 in the 
evening. 

Let's face ttf ham radio is in 
trouble. We were lucky to escape with 
our frequervcies virfien the ITU met 
several years ago, but onty a fool can 
hope that the upcoming WARC will 
leave the ham bands unscathed. 
Remember, the USA has only a single 
vote which can be countered by arty- 
third world country (see the "WARC 
Disaster" special report in Feb* 73 for 
details), I can imagine what an yn- 
enlightened foreign ITU representative 
must think when he tunes in on our 
low bands. 

Not only Is there international 
pressure to trim our bands, but we are 
also under attack from within* The CB 
manufacturers would love some extra 
spectrum space to provide equipment 
for, and they have an ear in 
Washington. A day or two ago 
syndicated columnist Jack Anderson 
{of Watergate fame) provided the 
media with an attack on amateur 



radio* The ^senoe of his report 
Indicated that the hams hold much 
more frequency space that our 
numbers justify, and why should three 
million CBers be confined to a few 
kHz while we hold choice "inter- 
ference-free*' VHF spectrum. Mr. 
Anderson's sources obviously are not 
concerned with the future of ham 
radio! 

NEW MODES 

Lately we have tjeen swamped with 
articles on power supplies and mods 
for the new !com 22S transceiver. 
These things run in spuns: neict week 
ft will probably be quad antennas or 
somethtng. Unfortunately, the people 
most involved in tinkering have the 
teast time to write articles. It realty 
doesn*t take a Meter's degree in 
English to write a good technical 
article for 73. If you have a pet 
project cooking, especially something 
involving the special modes such as 
SSTV. RTTY, or microwaves, pass 
along your enthusiasm to those ready 
to try something new. An SASE will 
bfing a copy of Wayne's "How To 
Write for 73." This document outlines 
manuscript requirements and provides 
info about photographs, diagrams, etc. 
Do a fellow ham a favor and ''turn 
him on" to a new facet of amateur 
radio, 73 is willing to publish almost 
anything relating to the speciai 
interest areas of radio, so tet's hear it! 
A point to remember: A single article 
can relieve the financial bite of your 
latest project. The other night I was 
talking to a wellknown EME 



enthusiast who indicated that writing 
for amateur publications had just 
about paid for his station — think 
about it, 

WHAT'S COMING IN 73 

Check the new RTTY feature by 
Marc J^eavey in this issue. RTTY is a 
fast- moving mode with plenty of 
room to experiment and tinker, and if 
you have been hesitant to tackFe 
teletype for want of information, try 
73, 

Marc's column will provide 
monthly info for the tseginner, as well 
as advanced techniques for the RTTY 
pro* Some good articles are coming 
along in future issues, A com pre- 
bend ve look at active filters for RTTY 
is coming, written by Piete Stark, for 
those requiring the ultimate m 
terminat unit performance* SSTV will 
be covered in two upcoming articles, 
as weil as an update on Stirling 
01 berg's "Smoke Detector'* micro- 
wave system. If you need a cheap 
alternative to today's expensive 
transceivers, try lOm with a converted 
CB radio — coming in future issues. 
The new 10 GHz "GunnpleKer" 
microwave transceivers have been 
getting a workout at 73^ Watch for 
technical details in the next couple of 
issues, TeJI a friend about 73, the 
home of special mode articles. I'm 
looking for YOUR article, so get 
writing. 

John Molnar WA3ETD 
Executive Editor 

Continued 



25 



Fireworks 



So ydu feel safe after you have 
disconnected or grounded the antenna 
feedline? Not necessarily! If you have 
a rotatable beam or quad, there is 
usuolly an 8 or 4 wire cable con- 
necting the rotor mechanism with the 
rotor control box. This cable leads 
down the mast or tower into the 
control or operating room. Unless 
there |$ some form of disconnect 
between this cable and the rotor 
control box, part (usually too much) 



of the lightning surge at the antenna 
or tower will find its way into this 
cabte. Very often thi$ cable runs 
parallel with the coax used as an 
antenna feed or transmission line. This 
enhances the chance of capacitive 
pickup from the braid of the coax, 
since the rotor cable is usually un- 
shielded. 

In a recent case, nature added to a 
July 4th local fireworks display by 
lightning which struck the upper tip 



of a fiberglass quad spreader holding 
the 20 meter fed elen>ent of a quad at 
K4NE. The last six inches of the 
spreader disappeared, leaving a "puff- 
ball" of fiberglass resembling a feather 
duster or cotton cone such as one 
finds at carnivals. The eyebolt holding 
the antenna wire was unharmed, but 
dropped down since its support was 
fost. There was no damage to the 
antenna or coax transmission line. 

Afl the antenna feeds were discon- 
nected and grounded outside the 
shack. Yet the lightning surge entered 
the house through the rotor cable, 
burned out the CDR control box, 
entered the strlpline 120 volt ac con- 
nection strip through the control box 
ac cord, passed into the receiver and 
exciter which had their ac cords 
plugged into the stripline, and caused 
considerable damage to the receiver 
and exciter. Some of this could have 
been avoided had the ac cords been 
disconnected. But the best preventive 



measure would have been to discon- 
rtect the rotor cable. 

There is an eight-pin Jones plug 
disconnect In the rotor cable outside 
the shack now which can be con- 
nected to a grounding plug, all eight 
connections strapped together and 
wired to a ground rod. Truly a few 
ounces of prevention are worth a few 
pounds of replacement parts! 

I just walked across the room and 
checi<ed my COR and a few other 
cables on various antennas, such as 
coaxial inverted V, etc., and boy, do I 
need to get busy on some protective 
grounding, I advise all readers to go 
now to your ham shack and check for 
proper grounding. 

Levy is Sieck K4fJE 
St. Petersburg FL 

Thanks to Mike and Key, buifetin of 
Th& GfBat&r Cincinnatf Afnateur 
Radio Association. 



Bandwidth 



The widely publicized FCC docket 
20777, the ''bandwidth" docket, was 
recently commented on by the 
ARRL. The ARRL felt that the 
docket was a step too far in the 
''deregulation'* of amateur radio, and 
that 3 "wait and see" attitude should 
be adopted on many provisions in the 
docket such as not yet outlawing AM, 
and that many problems with mod- 
ulated CW (MCW} in the phone bands, 
RTTY in the phone bands, etc., would 
crop up if the docket were adopted as 

written. 
There are certainly some problems 



in the docket as it stands written, such 
as the (I think unintentional) exclu- 
sion of amateur TV from 450 MHz. 
But does the ARRL seriously believe 
that people are going to start trans- 
mitting RTTY in the phone bands, or 
use MCW in the phor^e bands? RTTY 
in SSB channels would be ju^t as 
much of a problem to reception for 
the RTTY people as for the voice 
people. And MCW might be run 
occasionally for experimentation, taut 
would be no real big problem. Has the 
League forgotten that there are 
gentlemen's agreements throughout 



our bands that make mutual habi- 
tation possible? How often do you 
hear a RTTY station outside of 
14070-1 41 05 on 20, or outside of 
3600-3630 on 80? (Unfortunately, 
some CW stations do break this 
gentlemen's agreement and do 
intrude, but more are considerate and 
there is no tremendous problem.) 
How often do you hear SSTV outside 
of 14225-14235? If we receive more 
flexible regulations regarding the type 
of emissions we use, will we suddenly 
forget these important agreements? 
Will 40 years of learning go down the 
drain? I say no. The League has shown 
tittle faith in its own life blood, the 
amateur. 

I don't think that the League 
decision rose entirely from mistrust in 
hams' ability to govern themselves. I 
think that the directors who, as a 
whole, formulated the League 
response, are long-time hams who 
have not been involved in the majority 
of the innovative new things 
happening in our hobby. To them the 



status quo is just fine, so "don't rock 
the boat," let's just wait and see, and 
join our buddies for a rag chew on 
whatever mode. The experimenter has 
been left out in the cold! 

The Lei^gue is us, it's the greatest 
thing going for us in amateur radio, 
and the League is concerned about the 
members' views. That should be 
obvious from the Docket 20282 
survey, which also shows that the 
members are concerned about League 
policy. If you agree with rrte that this 
issue needs another look, the first step 
is to be sure you are an ARRL 
member. Then let them hear your 
ideas, whether they agree with mine 
or not, so that they can adhere to 
member wishes. The League Is us. 

Bruce Frahm WAfiTAS 
Colby KS 



Reprinted from th& Trojan Harmonic, 
news fetter of the Trojan ARC, Cofby 



Insurance 



Listening on 2 meters during recent 
months, I have heard numerous dis- 
cussions about the problems of 
insuring amateur gear, particularly 
with regard to 2 meter mobile and 
hand- held equipment. There seems to 
be much misinformation going 
around, especially since there are 
numerous ways an insurance company 
may look at equipment and its situ- 
ation in the mobile. 

Radio gear may be insured in 
several ways. First of all, equipment 
which is permanently installed in the 
home is considered as household con- 
tents and should be insured against 
such perils as fire, e>[ tended co\/erage. 



vandalism, and theft, along with other 
personal property under the well- 
known homeowner's insurance policy- 
It is, in fact, automatically covered tay 
this policy, usually subject to a $50 or 
$100 deductible clause. 

Other equipment, such as mobile 
rigs, hand- he Ids, or otherwise portable 
gear, is best Insured through Inland 
IVlarine Insurance, 

The National Association of In- 
surance Commissioners has ruled 
under what is known as the Nation- 
wide Marine Definition that ham 
radio equipment in automobiles and 
otherwise not permanently located in 
a structure qualifies as a subject for 



Inland Marine Insurance, Such 
coverage provides protection against 
all risks of physical loss or damage 
except for specified perils such as war, 
nuclear explosion, infidelity or 
damage while being worked on, and a 
few others, wherever located, world- 
wide. 

Insurance may be provided by 
endorsement to your homeowner's 
policy just as your cameras, jewelry, 
furs, or musical instruments can be 
Insured under a personal articles 
supplement. The rates are generally 
the same as for musical instruments or 
cameras. Should you not carry a 
homeowner's policy, you can pur- 
chase an Inland Marine policy known 
as a Personal Articles Floater on the 
same basis and providing the same all 
risk coverage. 

It is well to have purchase invoices 
or other documents to verify values 
and, as the prices of equipment go up, 
your insurance should be likewise 
increased to reflect replacement value. 
Even though replacement at the time 
of the loss may be on a depreciated 
basis, depreciation is based on replace- 



ment cost at Lhe time of loss and not 
on original cost. 

The third possibility for insuring 
your mobile gear is as a part of your 
automobile policy, which may work 
against you at the time of loss. Should 
you elect to insure your gear as part 
of the auto, it would he well to take a 
Polaroid photograph of the rig in- 
stalled in the car and have your agent 
inspect it and give the Insurance com- 
pany a statement along with the 
photo to the effect that it is a 
permanent installation. 

When insuring your equipment, 
always use an itemized schedule giving 
a full description of all items, 
including crystals, serial numbers, if 
any, and current replacement value. 

In spite of the feeling of many who 
say nasty things about insurance com- 
panics. If you Insure properly and give 
full information at the outset, you 
will be treated fairly when a loss 
settlement is made Should there be 
honest differences^ you always have 
recourse to your state insurance 
department which is charged with the 
responsibility of assuring equitable 



26 



handling of honest claims. Just don't 
trv to get something you are not 
entitled to and, by afl means, read 
your policy as soon as you receive it 
and take up with your agent anything 
not clear. 

There remains one other area of 
insurance wlirch, in recent years, has 
become of great concern to some 
amateurs. This ts the area of iawsuits 
arising from real or imagined intrusion 
by amateurs into the rights of privacy 
of others. /Vluch has been written and 
voiced about the need for such protec- 
tion, but apparentiy, few people know 
that such protection is readily avail- 
able and some probably already have 

It. 

Insurance companies have, lor 



many years, offered what is known as 
"Umbrella Liability Insurance" which 
is catastrophe type protection for a 
person's legal liability arising from his 
negligent acts- You are aware of the 
automobile bodily injury and 
property damage insurance, which is 
now a requirement in most states, and 
the personal liability protectiort, 
which is Section M of a homeowner'$ 
policy. An Umbrella Liability policy 
covers above these policies and also 
covers other areas of exposure above 
what is known as a Self- Insured 
Retention, usually $250 to $1,000. 
Areas covered by the Umbrella, which 
is usually issued for $1,000,000, 
Include "invasion of privacy/' such as 
might arise from interference by an 



amateur station with home entertain- 
ment equipment, television, radio, or 
telephone. The Umbrella policy 
provides cost of legal defense, as well 
as paying judgments for which the 
policyholder is found liable, up to 
$1,000,000 above the amount of the 
Self' Insured Retention which he must 
bear. Such policies are easily obtained 
and are relatively inexpensive. If auto- 
mobile insurance is carried with limits 
of $100,000 per person, $300,000 per 
occurrence for bodily injury, and 
$25,000 per occurrence for property 
damage, and if personal liability of 
$50,000 is carried, an individual with 
one dwelling and one auto can usually 
obtain umbrella protection for under 
$100 per year. Many larger businesses 



provide this coverage as an employee 
benefit at substantially lower 
premiums. 

The insurance coverages we have 
discussed are readily available 
throughout the US and Canada, Any 
professional insurance agent should be 
able to properly insure you as a radio 
amateur in a short time if you sit 
down with him and give him the 
information about your equipment 
and operation we have discussed here. 
Who knows. In addition to properly 
protecting yourself, you may at least 
get the real story of amateur radio to 
someone else or find a budding ham. 

Leonard Fowler Jr., CPCU, WA3TCE 

Bryn (Vfawr PA 



Another Milestone 



Although few hams would agree, 
one of the best things that has hap- 
pened to amateur radio has been the 
advent of the Citizens Radio Service, 
or CB. From the beginning of radio 
communication, the amateur service 
was a non-commercial user of radio 
frequencies and the word ''amateur/' 
denoting unpaid, inexperienced, or 
unskilled as compared to "profes- 
sional" or full time, most certainly 
required strict regulations to protect 
the public interest up and down the 
radio spectrum. Like the new auto- 
mobile driver, this amateur must 
prove to the Federal Communications 



Commission that he or she has suffi- 
cient radio knowledge by personal 
examination to put a signal on the air. 
Thus, the various types of amateur 
licenses have evolved over the years 
and the ham can even build and 
operate his own equipment. 

On the commercial side, it was later 
shown that unskilled persons such as 
police, firemen, ta>;i drivers, pilots and 
others could successfully operate com- 
munications equipment that was 
government type approved and both 
Installed and serviced by licensed 
persons. When the equipment meets 
quality standards and Is adjusted by 



qualified personnel, It is evident that 
the technical knowledge and skill of 
the operator becomes less important 
This latter concept could have paved 
the way for the CBers- 

At least for the first time persons 
over IS years of age could get on the 
air without examination merely by 
application. Even low power hand- 
held units car> be operated without 
any pefmit or restriction. Without 
doubt, the success of CB has exceeded 
all expectations. Not too many years 
ago, the radio enthusiast was asked, 
"Are you a ham?" Now, they nearly 
always say, "Do you have CB?" 

The demand for C8 equipment has 
created a bonanza for electronics man- 
ufacturers. Many new companies that 
jumped aboard the bandwagon have 
also taken a look at the much smaller 
{but more e>:pensive) amateur market 
since the same production techniques 
apply. Competition has probably 
reduced the price of some ham gear 
over what it would be with fewer 
manufacturers. The sheer numbers of 



builders stand out when comparing 
the advertisers of 10 or 15 years ago 
with tlie present. 

It may be a coincidence that the 
proliferation of CB has prompted the 
Federal Communications Commission 
to take a concerned look at the 
amateur regulations from time to 
time. Recent changes like elimination 
of special Novice calls, no advanced 
notice of extended portable opera- 
tion, relaxed logging requirements, 
and others, have reduced paper work 
for the FCC. When your hands are full 
and your budget's under review, the 
only alternative is to look for ways to 
lighten the load. 

Most certainly the spotlight has 
shifted to another milestone in radio 
communications. Has the Citizens 
Service been beneficial to amateur 
radio? Some amateurs are beginning 
to think that it has. 



Reprinted frorrj SARA News, & 
monthly publication of The Schenec- 
tady NY AR A, 



Strip Your Shack 



In my attempts to recruit people 
for our hobby- I have met with 
concern regarding the cost of equip- 
ment — fears that people could not 
afford to venture into ham radio or to 
convert from C8, 

This is a fallacy which must be 
corrected by our own publications 
and should be put into its proper 
perspective. It is high time that our 
hobby rags publicize, via the media, 
that ham radio equipment is really no 
more expensive to the Novice than 
many CB rigs. 

Many wrong impressions are 
created when we invite a would-be 
Novice to our shacks, where we may 
have a fantastic array of gear. Do you 
confess to him that this or that piece 
of equipment is oh-so- many-years old? 
That it has already been robbed of so 
many parts that it is now useless, and 



can never be used again except for 
further pilfering of parts for another 
project? 

Stop this bull! Be honest with 
yourself and with him- If you cannot 
remove the excess gear from his sight, 
then, for goodness sake, at least label 
it as obsolete. You will feel and he 
will feet more at ease. For that reason 
my shack is stripped to the bare 
essentials. 

It is a warm feeling to have a 
youngster say: ''Gee whiz, is this all 
you really need to work across the 
world?" 

You answer, ''Yes. Control your- 
self. Mister. Sit down and 1 shall 
endeavor to show you exactly what I 
mean. New Zealand is now busy with 
WA6 on 15 meters but, just as soon as 
they complete their QSO, I will 
demonstrate an attempted contact." 



' Good fortune came my way with 
propagation, sunspots, and oppor- 
tunity, and Frank ZL1BDG answered 
m^. Thank you, Frank, t made a 
convert. 

This young man Is now asking me, 
"How quickly, how soon, and . , . 
maybe I can use the money from my 
paper route." 

Of course he does not understand 
the CW yet but, with my persistence 
and influence, he will. 

In most photographs with the 
proud owner/operator posing in his 
shack, I see Items of equipment which 
are not really necessary to operate a 
bona fide station. Remove that excess 
gear, OM, and enlist a recruit. 

Only after we make it a practice to 
remove excess gear can we hope to 
initiate or convert people into our 
ranks, The display of expensive equip- 
ment scares the hell out of them. 
Move out the crep and you will note 
an smmedfate and gratifying change of 
attitude. 

I would like to upgrade my equip- 
ment, but looking over price indexes I 
nearly jump out of my pants. How 
does a prospective Novice feel when 
he or she perceives the staggering sums 
demanded by the makers of today's 
boxes? They are turned right off I 

Forty -nine years ago, fresh from 
radio school, I was escorted into a 



destroyer force radio shack and was 
told I had to learn to operate the 
equipment I nearly panicked. 

But I learned a compatibility with 
those ten inch high, five inch diameter 
bottles, which we later learned to call 
tubes. Those "bottles" though, were 
Uncle Sam's investment and not mine 
- . . all I had was patience, and I could 
afford to learn to live with them, and 
them with me. 

Today's people, though, do not 
have this patience. Everything must be 
nowl It's something else. More results 
more quickly, and more demands. I 
sympathize with them. They are the 
ones who will invest in the equipment, 
and if you would help steer more 
hams our way by stripping your shack 
of junk in order to show them just 
how little is needed to operate your 
station, we'd all be better off. 

A, Paul McMonigai WB8VZW 

Caspian IVII 



News? Ws need input, and one of 
the best sources is the dub news- 
letter. Gat one? We reiterate our 
fong&tstnding offer of a free 
subscription to 73 or Kilobaud in 
exchange for a spot an your ham 
or computer club newsletter 
mailing list. De&i? 



27 



Nen^ Products 



CLEGG FM 76 220 MHz 
TRANSCEIVER 
Something has got to give on 2m 
FMI, The biand 1$ getting so crowded in 
the big cities th^e days, thai finding a 
ctear pair is next to impossible. Even 
up here in New England, where terrain 
hm long allowed local repeatefS to 
cdexisi with their big city neightxirs, 
overcrowding is becoming the order of 
the day. The reason? There are more 
amateurs active on 2m FM than aUthe 
other ham bef*dscombined1 

The movement up in ffcquencv 
hasn't beeo as fast as many predicted. 
Repeaters (and simplex use) up on 
450 MHz are growir>g slowiy but 
steadily, fueled bv easity nK>dified 
surplus commercial gear and 2m 
control Jinks, The growth pattern has 
been for groups to add 450 repeat 
capabiFities after estabhshing the 2m 
system and sortirtg out a 4S0 control 
lin»t. It is only natural, then, lo 90 
repeat on the higher band. But for a 
number of reasons this pattern hasrt't 
happened on 220 MHz, the middle 
ground between 2m and 450. 

"Use it or loiB it" was the benle 
cry vtfhen the CB interests first started 
eyeing 220, and considering recent 
statements of a few CB manufacturers 
and coverage in the national media on 
the subject, it looks like the battle 
may have only just begun. FCC engi 
neers have tested 9O0 MHz for CB 
purposes, and agree that's the place 
CB ought to go. Getting the whole 
Commission to agree may be another 
matter, in view of the 220 CB advo- 
cates, but at least the 900 IVlHz tests 
are a start, Another positive develop- 
ment is the marketing of low priced 
220 IVIHz transceivers, and the result- 
ing growth in 220 activity, 

Activity on 220 Is certainly up, 
especially when you consider a 50 
percent increase in 220 repeater list- 
ings in the 73 Repeater A am between 
1976 and 1977. We are quite far away 
from having a 220 machine in every 
state, but few big cities are now 
without them. Another year of 
growth on 2m at current rates, and 



220 may well become the best atterna- 
tive for new repeaters. The two bands 
are pretty similar, with comparable 
propagation and antefina systems. The 
irsaior difference is the lack of crowd- 
ing on 220, and thus the easy avail- 
ability of coordinated frequencies for 
rep^ters. One interesting sidelight is 
that New Englarvd DXers have joined 
220 systems, crossbanding them down 
to 2m in sorne cases, to provide a 
DXatert system stretching from Maine 
10 Connecticut. All those artiumeflis 
for getting on 220 aside, one of the 
best reasons is economics, pure and 
simple. What other band can you get 
onto for less than S200? That's new, 
not surplus gear! 

An ext^llent buy. at this writing, is 
tte Clegg FM-76 priced at $165. H 
your club buys iri qtiantity (from 2 to 
40 at a time! the price can go as low 
as $140. A call to Oegg's toll free 
telephone number (800-223-0250) 
will connect you with some nnore 
^lecific information on group prices 
and related groyp purch^es. 

The FM-76 is basic in concept, a 
feature I'm glad to see after testing so 
many 2m FM rigs overloaded with 
buziers. belts, whistles, and gadgets. 
The simplicity Is a bit misleading, 
however, when you consider that all 
the essentials land a bit more) are 
there. Clegg has included receive and 
transmit crystal trimmers, remote 
speatcer jack, power output switching 
( 10 W to 1 W), a transmit indicator, a 
large 1 1 1 u mi n ated S -meter /ou t p ut 
meter combo* a more than adequate 
built- in speaker {side-mounted, not 
top- or bottom-mounted), and rear 
panel inputs for tone burst and output 
for a discriminator rneter. The Clegg' is 
rugged, with a strong and easily- 
mounted mobile bracket arrangement. 
Rear panel connectors are standard 
SO'239 for coax, with a four pin mike 
connector for the tone burst and 
discriminator connections. The FM-76 
is small and space was found in my 
sports car d^pite the presence of 
several other radios and a cassette 
deck, (I even had room for my wife 




The Ciegg FM-7B -10 Woo 220 MHi for a moder^tE price. 



left over!) 

The layout, as can be seen in the 
photo, is simple and dean. Channel 
numbers are large and well illumi- 
nated, and the radio is very easy to 
operate mobile, day or ni^i. Twelve 
channels are at I owed for, with the 
223.50 MHz simplex pair already 
installed, as standard equipment, at 
the factory, Clegg nets additional 
channels for $8 a pair, when ordered 
at time of purchase. Even here in New 
England, where we are lucky enough 
to fiave quite a few 220 repeaters^ I 
was hard pressed to till all 12 chan- 
nel I ended up with six repeater pairs 
and the simplex channel. 

As this review was being prepared, 
winter was firially ending here in r^iew 
Hampshire. So what tietter excuse for 
3 climb up nearby Pack Monadr>ock 
Mountain, the official 73 test site? 
The rrrauntain comes lo just over 
2300 feet above sea level and is bene' 
known as "Mt Intermod" because of 
its yncanny ability to derrmraliie the 
best transceivers, turning their re- 
oeivers into scramlbled eggs ... a maze 
of cross modulation, intermod. and 
desense. The mountain is so well 
located that scores of contests have 
been won from its peak, the site for 
s^f^nl years of the WRTAAB re< 
pester. This mountain, in a word, is a 
bear. 

Getting up the mottntatn is a lot 
easier than you'd think. Since the area 
is a stats park, a paved road is 
maintained during the warmer 
months, Our lest crew was prepared 
with not only the Clegg Ff^-76 for 
220, but also with some 2m radios, 
just for comparison purposes. 

The comparison was incrediblel 
The 2m band was a mess, with (count 
'em J 4, even 5 repeaters on the same 
frequency in some cases. Not even 
going down to 1 Walt would cut the 
QRM, Simplex operation quicl<ly 
became the only alternative, and 52 
got quite a workout. 

While the others worked on 2m, 1 
set up on 220 with the Clegg. 1 used a 
magnetic mount Antenna Specialists 
5/8 wave antenna. Our test rtg has 
been factory equipped with a half 
dozen repeater pairs. I started out 
with 224.34, easily raising the Fitch- 
burg MA repeater, and Ed KTSSH. 
Then we switched off to 223.50, the 
recognized national 220 simplex fre- 
quency. Ed was loud and clear, but 
50on there was a mini-pileupt tWho 
says there Isn't activity on 220?l Five 
stations were worked, ranging from 
Acton MA to Derry NH. I was able to 
access four other repeaters, indudir^ 
Waltham MA, Quincy MA, and 
Chester NH. All vwere Q5, most of 
them DFQ. Activity, however^ was 
not exactly heavy* It was difficult to 
get QSOs, despite the noon liming of 
our trip up the mountain. To say the 
least, it was a fail dtscouragir^g. 

I began to feel better, thoiigh, as 
soon 35 I switched back to 146.52. 
Bedlaml The boys had quite a pileup 
going, and some of the stations on 
frequency were pretty upset — break- 
ing the channel for a ^'local QSO" 
only * • • no DXl (It reminded me of a 
W2 station on 75m who used to call 



"CQ CQ, no kids, no lids, no space 
cadets who got their tickets off the 
top of a cracker jack boxi ") 

Back to 220. I learned from 
KISSH, via the Fitchburg machine^ 
that activity there was up, that they 
were doing even better Chan the big 
Boston 220 repeaters. Another station 
disagreed when I QSYed to Waltham 
on 223.34, but it was nice to bear an 
argument abotJt increasing activity on 
220 . . . instead of the usual "use It or 
lose it" philosopfiy. 

On the way down the mountain I 
struck up a simplex QSO with a 
Manchester NH station, and as I 
listened on the 2m rig, my com* 
panions (in another mobile} were also 
working a Manchester station. Both of 
us were running compatible power 
and ant^irtas, and reports coming 
back on 2iTi arnl 220 MHz were about 
even, respectively. Interestingly 
enough, both of us lost our QSOs at 
the sanie point — |^t as we drove off 
the access road It was a graphic 
derrrartstratkjn of the surprising simi- 
larity in propagation on the ti/to 
ban^. 

All through this, the Cle^g vw>rked 
flawlessly. The leceiwr v^s not 
affected by the strong rf fields gen- 
erated on the mountaintop by several 
cotfimerciai repeater installations. It 
was easy to squelch out overload from 
my 2m rig^ even when running a 70 
Wan amplifier, without tightening up 
beyond the ability to hear anything 
through the Clegg. And audio reports 
off air were good, with the comments 
indicating sufficient deviation and 
audio gain. 

Power output was measured in 
excess of CI egg's specs, with about 
11.5 Watts out in the high power 
position, 1.5 Watts out in the low 
power mode. By fooling with the 
Antenna Specialists 5/3 wave, I was 
able to get the swr beyond 3 to 1, but 
the Clegg reacted only by reducing 
output in direct proportion to the 
increase in swr, A direct short was 
then set up, but no smokef The Clegg, 
as outlined in the owner's manual, 
simply refused to transmit* 

In the ham shack, the Clegg ran 
very welt off a car battery, and played 
a kev role in gaining several new ones 

durir>g the late winter DX contests. If 
you never have used a DXalert re- 
peater system, you're In for quite a 
surprise — it's really great to know 
wfiat's happening where, and when. 
And when it comes to DXalert ma- 
chines, the movement ts growing the 
fastest on 220. 

So, the next time you're driving 
home in the afternoon rush hour, 
waiting your turn on 2m, give some 
thought to 220 MHz. Wouldn't it be 
nice to actually have a QSO on the 
way frome, instead of finally getting it 
turned over to you just as you turn 
into the driveway? You bet! And 
when you tkt decide to join the rest of 
us on 220 MHz, cor^ider the Cleflg 
FM-76. It is STBaU. well built, works 
without any glitcfies , . . and the pric» 
is ri^L Oegg Commtmications Corp.^ 
208 Cenrsrvitie Raad^ lAncasier PA 
J 7603. 

Warren EllyWAIGUD 

Assistant Editor 



28 




The Heaihkit HH-J680 Receiver 



HEATHKIT HR.168D RECEIVER 

With the advent of the HR-1680, 
the folks at Heath have again sur- 
passed themseives by making available 
to the newcomer as weil as the 
seasoned operator an inexpensive yet 
very versatiie ham band receiver, it is 
difficult to believe that a receiver with 
such sensitivity and design can still be 
purchased for as iiitie as SI 99.95. 

The cabinet which measures 12%" 
X 6%" X 12", is in the traditional 
Heath l<it green to blend with your 
existing station. The dial and S-meter 
are behind the newer style red dial 
window so they can only be seen 
when the receiver is turned on. The 
knobs are traditional Heath except for 
the main tuning knob, which includes 
a convenient finger spinner for fast 
frequency changes. 

Going into the receiver, the con- 
struction is completely of solid state 
design. Four printed circuit boards 
make up the entire unit and each h 
inserted into its own socket. These 
can easily be removed for servicing 
and during initial tune- up. 

Construction progressed in the 
normal Heathk^t style with simple 
straightforward instructions and easy 
to understand diagrams. The entire 
building of the receiver, including 
tune- up, took approximately tour 
nights of work or a total of about 16 
hours. Tune-up is as easy as it could 
possibly be — no external equipment 
is necessary. However, the use of a 
VTVM and rf generator may improve 
the sensitivity to some extent. I did 
not notice any appreciable difference 
in the two methods of alignment. 

The receiver covers the foi towing 
frequencies! 3.5-4,0 MHz, 7.0-7.5 
MHz, 14.0-T4.5 MHz, 21.0 21.5 IViHz, 
28.0-28.5 MHz, and 28.5-29.0 MH^. 
Upper sideband, lower sideband, and 
CW modes are selected through the 
use of a front panel slide switch, A 
100 kHz crystal calibrator is included 
for Instant calibration of the receiver 
on any band. 

A four pole crystal filter is provided 



for SSB reception, while audio filters 
narrow the audio response to either 
2100 Hz minimum at 6 dB down for 
SSS or 250 Hz minimum &t 6 dB 
down for CW. The maximum filter 
response is 7 kHz at 60 dB down for 
the wide position and 2.5 kHz at 60 
dB down for the narrow position. 

The sensitivity is claimed to be less 
than ,5 microvolts for a 10 dB signal- 
plus-noise ratio for SSB operation, I 
compared the receiver to the receiver 
in the popular Heathkit HW-101 trans- 
ceiver and found the sensitivity to be 
much greater in the HR-1680 while 
using the same antenna and switching 
it from one receiver to the other. The 
dynamic range is listed at 120dB or 
greater. 

Operation of the receiver is very 
simple. Front panel controls include 
af gain /power on /off, preselector 
tuning, rf gain, main tuning, band- 
switch, function switch (narrow and 
wide filter and calibrate^ and a mode 
switch (LSB-USB-CW). 

The back panel includes Jacks for a 
4 Ohm speaker, a sidetone input from 
your transmitter, muting, antenna, 
and 13,8 volts should the receiver be 
run from a car battery or external 
power supply. 

The possibilities for a receiver such 
as this are almost unlimited. Besides 
its obvious use as a primary station 
receiver for both the novice and the 
advanced amateur, it can be used as an 
auxiliary receiver with a transceiver 
for split operation. A little ingenuity 
on the part of the purchaser will also 
find many other uses for a receiver 
such as this around the shack- 

Also available is a matching 
speaker, HS-1661. The speaker has an 
impedance of 4 Ohms and its response 
Is tailored to SSB reception. For the 
additional cost of $19.95^ the speaker 
is an excellent value to round out 
your HR-1680, Heath Company, 
Bemon Harbor Ml 49022. 

Rich Foroe WBTASL 
Publications Editor 




The Ken m>Qd R-300 general co verage receiver. 



KEWWOOD R-300 
RECEIVER 

The parade is on I After a long 
drought, the electronics marketplace 
is being provided with an excellent 
choice of moderately priced 
communications receivers. For the 
past few months 73 has been re- 
viewing this new crop of receivers, and 
this month I had the pleasure of 
checking out the R-300 by Kenwood. 

The R-300 is of "classic" design, as 
there are no phase locked [oops or 
other devices employed in the tuning 
scheme* The Kenwood tunes 
continuously from 170 kHz to 30 
MHz, with the exception of a small 
gap from 410 kHz to 525 kHz. Band- 
spread tuning is provided for three of 
the six ranges, starting at 3.0 MHz* 
Both of the tuning dials are of the 
drum variety, controlled by large 
knobs with "rapid-twirl" indentations. 
A six position bands witch controls the 
range, which Is indicated by a green 
semaphore that appears next to the 
selected range. A combination of 
pushbutton and rotary " controls 
round out the available operator func- 
tions. Two-position buttons control 
power, crystal calibrator^ and panel 
lamp, as welf as mode, noise limiter, 
and tone selection. The antenna trim- 
mer, audio and rf gain, and BFO are 
conventional rotary controls. All func- 
tions operate smooth iy, and the 
tuning and bandspread are without 
whiplash. Back panel options consist 
of speaker lack, antenna connections, 
external battery jack, and l-f module 
adjustments. An S-meter zero controf 
is also provided. 

This receiver functioned well on the 
test bench. A long wire antenna as well 
as the Kenwood- provided random 
wire were used during the test 
Sensitivity is good on all bands; 
however, a preamp would be required 
for serious work on ten meters. On 
the other end of the dial, the sub- 
broadcast range was interesting. VLF 
enthusiasts wiil be pleased by the 
R-300, as any number of code, 
weather, and information stations 
were copied in the 170 kHz band. The 
crystal calibrator was most useful 
when calibrating the main tuning and 
bandspread. The main tuning can be 
roughly set to allow bandspread 
tunmg, then tweaked exactly on 
frequency by listening for zero beat 
after the 'spread frequency is set- 



Bandspread scale increments are 20 
kHz, and can be easily subdivided by 
eye. The BFO is stable, and it was 
easy to tune SSB signals accurately. 
IVly impression is that the R-300 could 
serve as a backup receiver for the 
advanced ham or Novice operator. 

The Kenwood B-300 is priced at 
$239, a price that should interest 
serious SWLs and the amateur in need 
of a second receiver. The battery 
option makes it a natural for the 
summer season that is finally arriving. 
The receiver is a good value, as it is 
unusual to find a calibrator and full 
complement of controls on a rig so 
reasonably priced! 

JohnlVtolnarWA3ETD 
Executive Editor 



A GUIDE TO 2IV1 SYNTHESIZERS 

When the first repeaters were 
developed, they were few and far 
betvueen. Any given area had only one 
repeater and only the more enthu- 
siastic amateurs modified their con- 
verted commercial FM transceivers to 
provide for a simplex channel as wefl 
as the local repeater channel. The first 
transistorized transceivers designed 
specifically for the two meter band 
had provisions for three channels^ 
deemed generous in the early days. 
Soon, however, the availability of 
relatively inexpensive transceivers and 
the multiplication of repeater Installa- 
tions created a demand for 6, 12, and 
even 22 channels in the transceivers. 

With 22 channels (some areas 
support 22 or more repeaters), the 
cost of crystals becomes a major 
factor. At $5,00 3 crystal It could cost 
over $200 just to fill all the positions 
in the transceiver, and even then you 
v^uld not have the flexibility needed 
in some areas of the country. To move 
to another area could be a financial 
disaster. 

More and more amateurs are turn- 
ing to synthesizers to solve this crystal 
problem. The manufacturers have 
come out with a variety of adaptors 
and complete rigs which efiminate any 
need to buy [ots of crystals, and 
which will access almost all repeaters 
and all simplex channels. 

This article is designed to sum- 
marize the important characteristic^ 
of most of the synthesizers available 
for two meter FM. Only FM (and not 
the all mode) rigs are considered here. 



29 



Tsbfe J. List of synthesimrs and synthesized transceiven. 



Spurs 









Stab. 


Temp. 






Wt. 


Si?e 






Equip* 


Range (MH^} 


Offsets 


(ppm) 


rcj 


IdB) 


Power 


(tbs.) 


(in.3) 


Kceive 


Cost 


1. Amcomm 


143-149 


R +S1 


10 


-20 +60 


60 






1B7 


Yes 


500 


2. 8 'stone 144 


1431 BO 


S + all 


10 


-11 +54 


70 


High 


8 


313 


Yes 


480 


ISC 1800 M 


145-143 


R -H S + 32 






60 


Low 




67 


No 


225 


4, CE20O13 


146-148 


R + S 


20 


0-38 


45 


Lovv 






No 


300 


5, CleggFIVlDX 


143.5 148.5 


R+S + 3 


5 


-50 


66 


High 


7 


262 


Yes 


600 


6. MFA-22 


144-14B 


R -F S + all 


5 


-10-? 


? 


High 




137 


No 


3004 


7. Mid 13-510 


144-148 


R + S + 2 












171 


Yes 


390 


8. GLB 200 


146-148 


R 






60 


Low 






No 


260 


8. GLB 300 


144-148 


R+S 


a 


-10+50 


60 


High 




79 


No 


135K4 


8. GLB 400B 


144-143 


S+al 


5 


'10+50 


60 


High 




111 


No 


150K^ 


9. Wi-800 


144-148 


R + S 








_ow 


2 


102 


Yes 


390 


10, TR 7400 A 


144-148 


R + S 




-20 +50 


60 


High 


6 


216 


Yes 


400 


11, VHFSYM [I 


140-150 


R+S + 3 


10 


0-50 




High 


VA 


110 


No 


170K 


12. lcom22S 


146 1485 


R + S 






60 


High 


4 


120 


Yes 


290 


12. Icom DV21 


146-1 48 


al|6 






60 


High 


n 


234 


No 


390 


12. Icom tC'245 


146-148 


R + S + all 


10 


-10+60 


60 




6 


200 


Yes 


500 


13. EBC 144Jr 


1435-148,5 


R +S + al 


10 


0-55 


60 


High 


67^ 


245 


Yes 


530 


14. Vanguard 


Any lOfyiKz 


none 


5 


-10+60 








36 


No 


160^ 


15. KDK FM 144 


144-1407 


R +S 


20 


0-50 


60 


High 


5 


104 


Yes 


390 


16. HW 2036 


144 1487 


R + S + 1 


15 


-10+50 


50 


High 


6 


223 


Yes 


270K 


17. VHF/ONE 


144-1 48 


R +S 


2 


-10+50 


60 


Low 


4 


160 


Yes 


350 


18. Yaesu 200 R 


144 1487 


R + SS 








High 


7 


247 


Yes 


4509 



^±1 MHz also available. 

^Spedal Channel Misfnory. 

■?For USB only with a Motorola HT-220, and fits insjde ornni case. 

4 Costs less without 5 kHz capabilky.. 

I Any 22 channels, 

■oprograrnmable for arty split; will automat lea tly sian band;^ 

'Will cover only 2 MHz without retuning; 

8|^o & kHi spading ay^il^ble, 

■^No longer in production; soms units available from Amateur Etectronic ^pplv l^tir S300. 



A description of these rigs is given in 
Table 1. 

An explanation of the columns in 
that table is given here. 
CoL 1 — Lists the name of the unit. 
The number refers to the manufac- 
tiirer or main distributor, with address 
and telephone number, in Table 2, 
CoL 2 — Lists the frequency ranige 
covered by the synthesizer. 
CoL 3 — Lists the various offsets 
avstlable^ R stands for plus and minus 
600 kHz:, S stands for simpler. The 
number of switch -selected offsets is 
also given. Alf implies that the 
transmit and receive frequencies can 
be independently selected and hence 
cover any repeater split. 
CoL 4 — Lists the frequency stability 
in parts per million {1 part per million 
implies a frequency uncertainty of 
about 150 Hz at two meters). 
CoL 5 - Lists the temperature range, 
in Celsius degrees, associated by the 



manufacturer in the specifications. 
CoL 6 — Lists the degree of suppres- 
sion claimed for spurious frequencies 
(not harmonics). 

CoL 7 — Indicates the power con- 
sumption of the synthesizer. Those 
labeled tow are usually based on 
CMOS ICs and will consume less than 
10 mA. 

Col 8 - Lists the weight of the unit 
in pounds. 

CoL 9 — Lists the size of the unit in 
cubic inches. 

CoL 10 — Differentiates between 
synthesisers alone and synthesized 
transceivers. 

CoL 1 1 — Lists the costs of the unit, 
with a K indicating the cost of an 
unassembled kit. 

If no entry appears in any column, 
it means that the manufacturer does 
not establish a value for that quantity 
or that information was not available 
when the table was prepared. 



There is a lot of information in the 
main table; however^ there is a lot of 
important Information which cannot 
be given in any table. Quality of 
construction is one type which is 
impossible to objectively present. The 
completeness of instruction manuals 
and the avail ability of service has not 
been considered. Neither have the 
teriTis of any warranty or the reputa- 
tion of the manufacturer. Few com- 
panies will tell you how long It takes a 
unit to lock onto a frequency. If ar^y 
unit has special features of great sig- 
nificance, a footnote to the table so 
indicates. 

Some of the columns will be of 
greater Interest to some prospective 
buyers than to others. At the present 
time, there is not much FM activity 
below 146 MHz. Hence it is of little 
importance to most amateurs whether 
the synthesizer covers 145 MHz or 
noL But 144-145 MH^ coverage is of 
great importance if the transceiver is 
to be used overseas in areas where 
repeater activity ^s below the US 
frequencies. I^urthermore, if the 
repeater to be used is a MARS re- 
peater, the synthesizer must cover the 
frequencies just outside the two meter 
band. 



If your area contains no repeaters 
with an oddball separation, you need 
not be concerned about any offsets 
other than the regular 600 kHz up and 
down and simplex. But, if you travel a 
lot, the availability of a nonstandard 
offset might be important. 

The next three columns have to be 
treated with a certain amount of 
skepticism. Here there is a lot of room 
for specmanshlp. The definition of 
stability at or>e company may not be 
the same at another. This difference In 
definition Is partlcuiarly important 
when considering a quantity like 
spurious output. The Heath company, 
for instance, lists their spurious 
output as better than 70 dB down 
within 20 MHz of the carrier, but only 
50 dB down if one goes further away. 
Another company might fust forget 
about those spurs at the greater 
distances from the carrier. Heath 
claims only 40 dB of suppression for 
harmonics. It Is safe to say tiiat most 
of the other companies could not 
apply their spurious suppression 
claims to their harmonics either. 

The power consumption will be of 
interest only to those who contem- 
plate battery operation away from an 
automobile or other charger — as with 













e,trtfic«rina_ 



4 7 .9 9 



The icom iC-22Sand matching Engineering Specialties Synthacoder 22^ 



The VHF Ef^gineering Synthesizer if. 



30 




Spectrum Communtcauons SC- tSOO. 



1. Amcoflnm 
730WesiMcNab Road 
Fort Lauderdale FL 33309 

2. Tec Kam Inc. 
2916 Arnold Ave, 
Salina KS 67401 
(913) 323^2235 

3. Spectrum Common icatiofvs 
Box 140 

Worcester PA 19490 
(215)631-1710 

4. Communication Electronics 
Box 1002 

Ann Arbor Ml 48106 
(8001 521-4414 

5. Clegg Com n>uni cation Corp. 
203C«nt€rville Road 
Lancaster PA 1 7603 

(800) 233-0250 

B. RP ElectHDnics 
BOK 1201 

Champaign IL 61820 
(21 7} 352-7343 

7* Midland International 
Box 1903 

Kansas City MO 64141 
(9131 384-4200 

8. GLB Etectfonlcs 

60 Autumn wood Dr. 
Buffalo NY 14227 
(716) 66^0566 

9, Wilson Electronics Corp. 
4288 S, Polaris Ave. 

Las Vegas IMV 89103 
(702) 739^1931 



10. Trio- Kenwood Communications, Inc. 
116 East Alondra 

Gardena CA 90248 
{213) 770-4350 

11. VHF Engineering 
320 Water St. 
eir>ghamton NY 13901 
(607) 723^9574 

12. tcom West. Inc 
13256 Nofthrup Way 
BellevueWA98005 
(206) 747-9020 

13. Emefgency Beacon Corp. 
15 River St. 

New Rochelle MY 10801 
1914) 235-9400 

14. Vanguard Labs 
196-23 Jamaica Ave. 
HoiltsNY 11423 
(212) 46^2720 

15* Amateur Wholesale Election ics 
8817 SW 129th Terrace 
Miami FL 33176 
(304) 233-3631 

16. Heath Co. 

Benton Harbof Ml 49022 
(6l6r982 34n 

17. Henry Radio 

1 1 240 W-Otympic Blvd. 
Los Angles CA 90064 
(2131477 6701 

18. Yaesu-Musen USA, Inc. 
7625 E, Rosecrflns No, 29 
Paramount CA 90723 
(213)633-4007 




Cornmamcatfons E/ectranics CE2001 synthesizer moduie for us& in ti7& 
Motor of a HT-220 HT. 



Table 2. Names^ addresses, and tsfe- 
phons ffumbers of manufacfurefs^ 

an HT, perhaps. The power consump- 
tion ts basjcally a function of the 
complexity of the drcuil and whether 
the ICs used are of the CMOS (low 
power consumption) or TTL (reJa- 
tiveiy high power) type* 

Size miy be a limiting factor if the 
unit is to be added to an existing 
mobile installation or tf the available 
space issmaU. 

Most of the units listed are com- 
plete transceivers, but soine are 
desigr^ed to replace the crystals in 
existing figs. No atterrtpt has been 
made fo indicate with vi4iich rigs the 
various outboard synthesi^rs will 
work. The best way to find out if a 
given unit Is compatible with your 
particular rig is to write the manufac- 
turer whose synthesizer you are con- 



sidering. 

Of course, everybody is corM^rned 
with the price^ Like calculators^ the 
prtoe has been coming down, and I 
expect that tr^nd to continue. But I 
know of nobody who will predict how 
far down ihe price of a good rig will 
go, or how fast the price will falJ. 

There have been advertised two 
synthesizer- related pieces of equip- 
ment worth mentioning. Engineering 
Specialties (Box 2233 Oxnard CA 
93030, phone 805^486-08171 has 
offered a Synthacoder for 587.95. 
This unit is designed to plug into the 
Icom 22S to permit ar>y channel to be 
dialed into the I com by thymb- 
wheei switches. Thus, the owner of 
that rig vMiuld no Jonger be limited to 
the 22 channels usually provided by 
hand- wired diodes, 

The other interesting unit is offered 
by Amateur-Whoksale Electronics 




1% . 



J/J\^0^.A.a^ 



14 6.9 4 



^EQVENCV Sy«TH£SfZtfl 



id 





The GLB Model 400B. 



The Vanguard Synthesizer, 



31 




i^ 




The Jane! Labs QSA 5 preampfifier^ which cart handle up to 30 Watts of 
transmit power through au to mat fc switching. 



(see number 1 5 in Table 2) for owners 
of the KDK FM 144. The FMSC 1 
Scanner plugs into that rig and 
permits ft to automatically scan a 
selected ] MHz portion of the two 
meter band, fts introductory price is 
about $170, and it is easily installed 
Of course, this newest segment of 
the two meter FM market is changing 
rapidly and new products are coming 
In faster than old products are dis- 
appearing. But the tables presented 
here should give you a good idea of 
the variety of equipment presently for 
sale, as well as some idea of the state 
of the synthesizer an with which to 
compare any rtew equipment that you 
come across. 

Alex F. Burr WBQNQ 
Las Cruces NM 

EDGECOM SYSTEM 3000 

Edgecom of Torrance CA has 
announced a new microprocessor- 
based 2m transceiver. The new rig 
features programmable priority chan- 
nels, monitor aEarms^ 3 built-in scan- 
ner, subaudible tone encoder/decoder, 
variable frequency offsets, and push- 
button frequency control. Output is 
adjustable up to 25 Waits from 1 
Watt The System 3000 will sell in the 
under-$500 price cfass, Edgecom Inc., 
2909 Oregon Ct. i^A3, Torrance CA 
90503. 



70 WATT, FM/AM/CW/SSB 
2 METER AMPLIFIER 

A new 70 Watt, 4 mode, 2 meter 
amplifier has been introduced by VHF 
Engineering of Binghamton NY. This 
new amplifier, the Blue Line BLC 
10/70, is designed to be used with the 
popular 10 Watt FM transceivers and 
Che popufar multimode transceivers in 
the 5-15 Watt ciassand will deliver 70 
Watts output in both the class C mode 
and the linear mode. A front parrel 
switch permits simple selection of 
ctass C or linear mode. An additional 
model, the Blue Line BLC 2/70, offers 
the same features as the BLC 10/70 
but will operate with transceivers or 
transmitters in the 1 to 2 Watt class. 

The VHF Engineering Blue Line 
series of amplifiers have been designed 
for retiabiilty and long life and feature 
unique broadband, strip line designs, 
which require no tuning or adjustment 
during their lifetime. Automatic 
sensing and relay switching are provid- 
ed to automatically switch the am- 
plifier into the circuit when drive is 
applied Iv) the class C (FM] or linear 
(SSB) modes. The amplifiers of1er 
high efficiency and introduce a receive 
insertion loss of less than 1 dS. They 
are designed for 12-14 V dc operation 
in base station or mobile service. VHF 
Engineering, 320 Water St., 
Binghamton NY 13902. The BLC 



10/70 sells for Si 39 .95 and the BLC 
2/70 sells for SI 59.95. 

NEW 80 WATT, LlMEAR/CLASS C, 
450 MHZ AMPLIFIER 

A new broadband, high efftclency, 
4 mode amplifier for the 420-450 
amateur band has been introduced by 
VHF Engineering of Binghamton NY. 
This new amplifier, the Blue Line, 
BLE 10/80, will deiiwer 80 Watts 
output in either class C or linear mode 
with a nominal 10 Watts input. It is 
designed as m\ amplifier to be used 
with FM, AM, SSB, or CW rigs En the 
10 Watt class. A similar amplifier, the 
Blue Line BLE 30/SO, is designed to 
be used as an amplifier for rigs in the 
30 Watt class. 

The Blue Line series of amplifiers 
from VHF Engineering are high 
efficiency, broadband, stripline am- 
plifiers, which have been designed for 
long life and reliable operation. Be- 
cause of their unique, broadband de- 
sign, they contain no tunable or ad- 
justable components* Tuning or ad- 
justment will not be required during 
the lifetime of the units. Automatic 
transmit/receive switching is provided 
through the use of sensing circuitry 
which detects the presence of drive 
power in either the class C tFMl or 
linear (SSB) modes. They are designed 
for 12-14 V dc operation in base 
station or mobile service. VHF Engi- 
neering, 320 Water St., Binghamton 
NY 13902. The BLE 10/80 is S289.95 
and the BLE 30/80 is $259.95. Both 
units are wired and tested. 

JAN EL LABORATORIES 
MODEL QSA 5 PREAMPLIFIER 

A new two meter preamp has been 
introduced by Janel Labs. This pre- 
amp is specially designed to Improve 
the sensitivity of transceivers and 
includes all necessary bypass circuitry 
for carrying transmit power through 
the unit. The low noise figure of the 
preamp gives excellent sensitivity for 
weak signals. An adjustable delay 
circuit (similar to that used in VOX 
circuits) allows for use on all modes — 
FM, SSB,AM,andCW. 

The gain of the QSA 5 has been 
optimised for transceivers. The 15 dB 
gain level is sufficient to improve the 



sensitivity as much as is practical, but 
low enough to avoid creating unneces- 
sary overload problems. 

A front panel switch is included on 
the QSA 5 to disable the preamp from 
the antenna line. This allows one to 
cut the gain on local signals and also 
allows for experimentation on weak 
signals. A LED pilot Jight is used to 
indicate when the preamp is in the 
line. This same LEO also indicates 
when transmit power is being sensed. 

The QSA 5 is available from Janei 
Laboratories, 3312 S.Er V^n Buren 
Bivd., Corvaiiis OR 97330. The unit Is 
avaiJable from stock at $39.95 plus 
postage. A full 1 year warranty is 
provided. 

NEW SIGNETICS LSI CIRCUIT 

PRODUCES HF AND VHF SIGNAL 

GEWERATION 

A frequency syntlHesTzer that uses 
digital phase iocl<:ed loop techniques 
to generate radio frequency signals Ih 
the HF and VHF range is now avail- 
able as a large scale integrated {LSD 
circuit from Signetics, 

With low power Schottky and 
emitter coupled logic (ECL) tecfi- 
nologies integrated into a single sub- 
strate, the new Signetics circuit, 
designated 8X08, operates at 80 MHz 
input frequencies with typical system 
power of t.6 mW per gate. 

As unique design features, the 
8X08 incorporates an onboard refer- 
ence crystal oscillator and an ECL 
prescaler, according to Dr, John 
Nemec, Product Planning Manager in 
Signetics' Logic Division, 

Dr. Nemec said the new frequency 
synthesi3^er is expected to have major 
applications in the design of aircraft 
and marine radio equipment, in instru- 
mentation circuits such as for signal 
generation in Eest equipment, as well 
as in synthesized AM/FM radios. 

The 8X08 provides the major func- 
tional elements of a pha^ locked loop 
frequency synthesizer within a single 
LSI device. A VCO and loop filter are 
ail that are required to complete the 
synthesizer circuit. The 3X08 contains 
ajl other major functional blocks^ 
Including a fixed frequency reference 
oscillator and divider chain, a phase 
comparator, and a programmable 





The Edgecom System 3000 microprocessor-based 2m Transceiver. 



The new VHF Engineering Blue Line series of VHf/UHFamp/ifiers. 



32 




H^ath *snew H 0-1426 ft&id strength meter. 



counter chain for channel selection, 

The fixed pre sea let for the FIV1 
input is a key to the design since it is 
requfred in phase locked loops where 
WfY high frequencies are to be gefi- 
efat&d as a means of dividing the local 
osciildtor frequency down to a fre- 
quency compatible with the pn^grBm- 
mable counter. Dr. Nemec said. 

In the 8X08, the £CL prescaier is 
trtHiied to TPake possible program- 
mable channel spacing to 100 kHz for 
py -receiver local osciHator genera- 
tion, when using a 3,6 MH^ reference 
oscillator crystal and an external >2 
circuit A total of 2000 channels is 
possible when using the FM input. 

Operating features of Xhe circuit 
include maximum powver dissipation 
of $80 fnW and a single 5 V power 
SUppIV- Sign^ucs. 8Jf East Argues 
AyenuBt Sunny vaie CA 94086, 

HEATH HD-1426 
FIELD STRENGTH METER 

Heath Company. Benton Harbor, 
Michigan, has introduced a new kit for 
amateur, CB and marine radio oper- 
ators. The HD'1426 field strength 



meter measures the relative field 
strength of signals from transmitters 
from 1 to 1000 Watts covering 1.8 
MHi to 250 MH£. It can be used to 
check transmitter operation and to 
make transmttter and antenna adjust- 
ments. The HP 1426 will fijnciion 
with any transmitter having an output 
from T to lOOO Watts. 

The HD'1426 incorporates both a 
buiU-in printed circuit antenna ar>d a 
whip antenna as well. It may be used 
as either a mobile or fixed station 
device, and is mail order priced at 
$10.95. 

For more information about the 
HD-1426, send for a free copy of the 
latest Heath kit catalog. Hesth Com- 
pany, Dept 350-23, Benton Harbor 
Mf 49022, 

NEW MOTOROLA HEP CATALOG 

Motorola's HEP semiojnductors are 
offered as replacements for over 
60,000 different discrete devices and 
ICs. Intended for, but not limited to, 
the hobbyist, experimenter; and the 
professional service technician /dealer, 
the HEP products are specified to 





The Signet ks 8X08 frequency Synthestier 
generate rf in the HF and VHF range. 



— dtgttsf PLL iechnfques to 



meet or exceed the important 
mechanical and electrical charac- 
teristics of the replaced device. In 
many eases, one HEP device will be 
recommended as the replacement for 
a large number of components. Be- 
cause o^ this one-to-many ratio, the 
HEP device specifications will often 
exceed sofT>e of tfie specifications of a 
number of the replaced devices- 

Because Motorola is not responslfate 
for the design of the circuits in which 
HEP products are installed, and be- 
cause the HEP device parameters may 
exceed the original. Motorola Semi- 
conductor Products does not guaran- 
tee that the HEP device wilt perform 
exactly as the original device. How- 
ever, the availability of this vast array 
of potential replacement devices, 
through a large national network of 
retail outlets (over 1500), can offer a 
considerable savings of time or 
money, or both, to the hobbyist and 
professional technician alike:. 

The latest edition of the Motorola 
HEP S&tniconductor Crass RefsreriCB 
Guide and Catafog was scheduled for 
May, T977. This 184 page book 
describes discrete silicon and ger- 
manium power transistors, thyrisiors, 
smalhsigna! FETs and bipolar 
transistors, CB rf power transistors, 
zeners, rectifiers, and optoelectrontc 
devices. Digital tCs, in RTL, HTL, 
DTL, TTL, and CMOS technologies, 
are aiso ir>cluded as well as linear 
bipolar radio /television ICs. voltage 
regulators, op amps, etc. 

One hundred ninety -eight new 
products have been added to the 
Catafog - 104 are newly offered TTL 
functions. Industry popular TO-220 
packaged components are also in- 
cluded. A single chip, 3% digit OVM 
IC that utilizes CMOS technology to 
provide both linear and digital circuit 
functions is also covered. The Catalog 
atso described the Educator II micro- 
computer and power supply kits. 

The unit price of this new Motorola 
HEP Semiconductor Cross Reference 
Guide &nd Catafog is S2.CX}, available 
from HEP/MRO Operations Head- 
quartere and HEP distributors. Tech- 
fticaf Information Center, Motorofa 
Semiconductor Products, Inc., PO 
Box 20294, Phoenix AZ 85036. 

GOLD LINE 
MrCROPHONE CLrp 

A new microphone clip (the No. 
1108) h^ been introduced by Gold 
Line Cormecior of East Norwalk CT. 
A Gold Line spok^man said tfiat it is 



someiimes ir*convenient. or very 
undesirable, to drill holes or to rely on 
a magnet to hold your mobile micro* 
phone in position on the dash of your 
car or truck. The 1 108 is backed with 
a rugged adhesive that gives excellent 
holding power. It can't vibrate or pull 
free. 

Gold Line designs and prodiices a 
comptete line of accessories, including 
noise fitters, antenna matchers, coax 
switches, and vsrattmeters, to name a 
few. Goid Une Connector, Inc., PO 
Bom 893, East fVorwafk CT 06855. 

GOLD LINE NOISE 
FlLTERirsJG HOOKUP HARNESS 

A new noise filtering hookup 
harness (the No. 1106) for the two- 
way communications market has been 
introduced by Gold Une Connector. 
A company spokesnnan oommented 
that noise affecting two-way commun- 
icatior^ is generated from varkjtis 
sources in your automobile and is 
picked up by either the radio antenna 
or the vehicle wiring that supplies 
power to the communications equip- 
ment. 

The primary function of the 1106 
is to reduce the noise picked up by 
the wiring. Double barreled filtering 
action is supplied by heavy-duty 
coaxial cable for the power pickup 
which shieEc^ against unwanted noise 
and a ferromagnetic filter that funtier 
reduces any remaining interference 

Gold Line designs arKi produces a 
complete line of acoessories for the 
two-way communications marketi 
which it sells through a national distri 
but or system. Gold Une Connector, 
inc., PO Box 893, East Norwalk CT 
06855. 




The Gold Une rmise filtering harrtess. 



33 



FCC 



BafDFe the 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS 

COMMISSION 

Washington OC 20554 

Docket No. 20777 

RM-U29RM'2163 

RM 2170RM-2330 

RM-2429 RM 2S07 

RM'2545 RM-2650 

In the Matter of 

Den&gularioii of Part 97 of the Com- 
mission's Rules rggarding emissions 
authorized in the Amateur Radio 
Service. 

FIRST REPORT AWD ORDER 

Adopted: March 2, 1977: 
Released: March 10, 1977 
By the Commission: 

1. A HCftiiSi of Pwpased nult Mateing \n 
the ibove-captioAKi matwf wai released 
Apfit 22, 1976, ind pubHsKed ^n th« Federal 
aeBSstBf on April 26. 1976 Kl FR 17789}. 
The dcodlinv fariubmiBsion of common cs by 
ih* public was June 23, 1976, Reply com- 
n^ents wen; due by July 23, 1976- In 
r«$f3ioniHi to 1 petition by the American 
RidiD Re^av U!«9u«, the timt for filing 
ccunimtrtif and fvpty oommcny woi ex- 
tended to Augtist 4, 1976, and September 3, 
1976, respectively. 

3. Docket 20777 proposed, tP revise the 
amowiir rules rtaflrdini^ eutharfzed emis- 
sIouSk Rather then atterrtpl piec^-m^al 
refornrt, the Notice proposed to delete all 
references to ipecllic emission types and to 
replace them witti^ limitatfons cm tile F»r- 
miuitile bvidwidih an ameteur tignal may 
ooojpy in the vanoLri b9id&, Addiiiofiallv, 
th« Noti^ profiled a purity of erm^om 
i^Emiford Mhich ^^rould irfilacv iht present 
regulattOfif. 

3. A total of 333 pdrsoni and B dubi 
filed individual comments. In addition, 23 
petitions were filed &s comnnontf, adding 
625 names. All of these comments art being 
carefutiy revdewed. Th<* first Report ar>d 
Order will addre^ the problem of purity of 
emiisiorw only. A ttitur^ Report jnd Ordef 
will deal with ttie maj&r issut o* authorized 
bvc^ictthL 

4, Th« pr^ent slalemient uf Commlsitcin 
policy ic^rdin^ emission purtty in the 
Amateur Radio Sarvi€e js found In Section 
97 J3 of the Commission's Rule*. Section 
97.73 states in part that "(slpurious radia- 
tion frotm an amateur stall on being operated 
with a carrier fttt^uency below 144 mega- 
hoftf f^ll be reduced or etimiriaied jn 
•ooofdmce with good engir)e«rinQ praaioe 
..." The Uhit£d States, as a iiTiatcry to the 
Internet ifonal Telecom miaiEcanoni Conv^iv 
tion {Geneva, 19&91 ls bound to the intema- 
tionpl standards of emission purity. Article 
12^ Appendix 4 of the Radio Regulations of 
tho LT.Ua requires an attenuation of 40 d6 
for spiriou^ emissions Ibelow 30 MHi, md 
60 dB^ for «mi5$ion^ between 30 MHz and 
235 MHz. By this Report jind Order^ ttie 
Commission brmgi amateur rules into exm^ 
formity with interrmtiooal stv^^fd^. 

g. Standards iw emtssion p\jnty in the 
Sitaty Miii Special Ratdio Services are tased 
on the nature of ihe signal transmitted. The 
modulation of the tran$rnitied signa) pro- 
duoai ildebandi needed to carry Information 
to tt^ receiver, plu( add [lionet products 
cauted by the modulation and amplification 
pfOQBss. It IS difficult TO suPor»s comp|«tely 
fh9 unde!»red e>mission prodycti Aithsut 
csustng unacceptable suppression of die side- 
bands carrying the mfor mjtion being trans. 

'40 dB for transmitters havtng mean power 
of 2& Watts or less. 



milted, A r&asonable degroct however, of 
suppression of the undeiinfrd emis^iiOnl j$ 
neirded^ Thii ts achieved try a tiiree-stap 
approadi. For e^amp^e, the l_and Transpor- 
tation Services require that for spurious 
emiEsions rfltnowd from the autihiorized 
bandwidth by rnore tfarn 60 percent but leis 
ihin 100 percent of the authorized bend- 
width, the meati power rmisi be attenuated 
at least 2S d»citiels b^low the mean power 
(PfTi) of the emission. For amissions removed 
by more than 100 percent but less than 250 
percent of ibe author ixsd bandwidth, 
attenuation must be at It^t 36 decibek 
below Pn|. Ekyond 250 fxrcent, artenuition 
mu$? be ett^ier 43 d3 + 10 lo^^p ^m <^ 90 
dB below Pri, whicfw^wr it iets attenuation. 
This three^ep atti^mation rs what can mtm. 
likely be obtainea with the usual tuned 
circuitry of rf amplifiers. Beyond 260 
percent h contsidemd a reasonable point to 
hav^ othBf additional circuitry which will 
provide the attenuation we wish for the 
other spurious and harmonic emissions, 

G. The standard propoted tor amateur 
fldio in our Notice in [>ock«t 20777 was at 
toest 40 dB for emissions removed from tf« 
authorized baridwidth by 250% or more of 
tf>e authon^d bandwidth. In determining a 
level of emission purity for the smatfiur 
service, the 26 dB and 3B dB steps were not 
proposed since it was Intended to have this 
rule remain simple. The adjacent channels 
wtiich the firit two steps might affect would 
generally be within tf% amateuj bands and 
the maintenance of non-inlsfilierence vwfwld 
be handled on ■ salt-en lor cm g basis among 
amai^un. However, beyond 250\ there 
exists an entire range of spurious and har- 
monic emissions wtiich oouFd create prob- 
lems outside the amatsur bands, and would 
not be as obvious to the operator until a caie 
of mterferencD occurred. 

7, The 4D dB sptcificBtion was proposed 
as a first step toward The problem of purily 
of emission. 40 dB ns presents an artenuition 
of spurious and harmonie tmisisions to a 
lew) of 1/10.000 thai of the furufamemil. 
This means that for an vnateur itation 
which has a 200 Witt output, spuriof^ 
emissions may be no more than O.02 Watts. 
Therefore, 40 dB should provide a degme of 
protection to operations whidi would not be 
Affected by iinterfering signals of Q.02 Watts 
or less. The effects will vary from lotAlon to 
location ^ from band to band, and For differ- 
ent emission modes. It ii a l«vel of sttenua- 
tion vrfiich tf^ Commission believet can be 
readily m«t by most tquipmem on (he 
market today, and would not require eiiptn- 
live remodeling of equipment by the atma- 
teurr It wIN, however + restrict the use of 
llrwar amplifiers which am not meeting v^at 
the Commission fegards as minimal stan- 
dards of purity. In a memorandum to the 
Office of Chief Enflneer written hdovember 
26, 1976. FCC/0C:E |_AB Projeca 82-026, 
82-026, 62 027, 82-028, the Labor«tory 
division detaited tf*e je*ults of tests of tinear 
amplifiers purportedly sold for use in tfie 
Ama^ur R»dio Service which indcste that 
many such amplifiers achieve harmonic 
suppression far less than 40 dB.espe dally In 
the second and third harmonics. 

8, Tht mw rule, as adopted, is a modifi- 
cation of thf rule proposed in the Notice of 
Proposed Rule Making. Because there he$ 
been no decision regarding Docket 20 777 's 
pmpDsed bendwidth tuki, we ve unable to 
enact [he rule as proposed. Seiction 
663(aK3} of the Admin istraiiwe Prootdures 
Act requires thst genertl notice of a rule 
contain eithar the terms of substance of the 
proposed rule or a description of the sub- 
jects and ittueE invQlvsd- Therefore, in keep- 
ing with tf^ scope of this rule making, we 
are adopting the internal iofta I standards of 
emis^on purity Which generally relate io tf>e 
40 dB level of attenUiiiion propcned by 
Docket 20777. 

9, thei International' Tekcommunici- 
|ron$ Conveniion of 1950 requires that all 
spurious emi^ions be ^Etenuated by 40 dB 



when transmitting on frequencies be^ow 30 
KfHZ- When utitiring frequendais between 30 
and 23B MHz, transmh^ers with power 
output below 26 Witti wilL be required to 
attenuate thek curious emissions by 40 dB: 
transmitters with power output of 26 Watts 
or more will be required to attenuate their 
spurious emissions by 60 dB. Atnateurs 
ope rating near the edges of amateur tjands 
should pve due consideratkm to these 
atten union fequirvments. We consider these 
international stantdards to be a mmlmil level 
of purity^ bvt to haiic required hijijher levels 
of attenuation would not have been within 
the scope of this proceed ng. The Comm«- 
sion will be rnstttuting a rule making to 
invesllgatt tfie need for higher t^vels of 
spurious emission attenuation in the Ama- 
teur Redio Service. Additionally, upon the 
dtspoiition of Docket 20777, Section 97.73 
will be rnodrfted to reflect the docket's 6nal 
outcome, 

10, Wfc received 12 comments tpecifical' 
fy arddtesising the proposed changt in emis^ 
sion standards. Of the 12, 2 i^pported the 
rule change fully, 2 supported sorne definite 
standards, but offered a different standard 
of emission than the one proposed by the 
Commission, 6 expr«$sad misgivinp over the 
expense to the amateur and the enforcement 
of such a standard, mti3 expressly preferred 
the pr^eni standard. Of tfiose Mho erther 
expressed misgiwngs or opp09«d the chsip 
entirely, the comnncnis of John V. Durant of 
AlbuqueTqiA^ fStew Mexico, are ryfiical: 
"From a fHjre technical startdpoint. deter- 
mi^nation that the emission Is at least 40 d^ 
below the peak output power on any fre- 
quency removed from tfie upper and lower 
limits by more than 250% is a controversial 
ttubject to several interpreiatiOfif^ and a 
WfV sophisticated measurement. I do not 
beticm that even t% of the presermly li- 
ceitied amateur radio operatorf have th« 
caCkability of will ftttmpt to acquire the 
capability to make such a measurement. 
Further, I doubt that from an enforcemeni 
standpoint | presumably FCC monitors) that 
sucl^ a regulation h enforceable/' Other 
comments raised iimilar issues; the expense 
of obtaining equipment to moniior the 
spurious emissioni; the resultant lack of 
adherence to the new rule by the bulk of 
amateurs; and the difficulty of enforong the 
rule, 

11. The problem of enfbrcenrwnt men- 
tlonecf by several comments would be no 
greater than enforcing any of the standards 
of Section 97,61 through 97,73. Inuestiga- 
tjon o1 interference complaints and normal 
FCC monitoring will bring the obvioiK viola- 
tions to ligiTt. However^ establishment of ■ 
readily measured stindafd will provide a 
davly defined meaiurement by whrch to 
deterrnine oomplianfiB. "Good engirkeering 
practices." tfw present stan<brd, ha$ proved 
to be loo indefinite i regulation to enforce 
effectively. The change,, ratfief than hamper- 
ing enforcement, should aid it, 

12k Finally^ we note that two of the 
comments offering technical critidsm of the 
emission standards as propo$@d make valid 
ar^ments, Juries £, McShar^ of Omaha, 
rsleb^aiyci^ nnei^ 'The proposed section 
97.65 and 97.73 bandwidth lirrfttation 
standards do not take into considtrttion the 
ranp of imat«ur power usages, hom t/tO of 
a Watt io the proposed 2^0 kW spread . , , 
Different regulations should be adopted for 
low power operation and equipment, or In 
the alternative, the regulation should be 
based on a minimum specified power, or 
actual power, whichever is greater/' Gordon 
Sditeiinger of S&n Dicgo^ California, com- 
ments, "t propow that tf>t Commissicn 
bring the stated purity standard of 40 
decibels of attenuation below peak carrier 
power more closely into line wrtti tfvs 
standards existing in the Land Mobile ser- 
vice, A standard of 40 dB + lOlogio (pe^lt 
carrier poiA^r, in watts) woyld establish an 
atKOlute standard for attenuation of spuria 
ous emissions. Since power delivered to the 
input terminals Of a reoeiver ti proportional 
to the absolute I not relatjvel tsutput power 
level of ifie transmitter whose emissKjns are 
being r«oeiwed, it makes senie to require 
maximum absofute limits to spy^rious radia- 
tion in the Amateur Service." 



13. The above ccnrmiinti are weh-takea 
As Mr. McShane profKisod* Mi h»t adopted 
die )TU reguUtiorts wtth nspvct to ccrtaui 
low power tryismittert. Moreover, tha 
Commission would tike to (Mxiv that tht 
Notice of Proposed Rule Making, Docket 
21000, which proposes increased attenua- 
tion for spurious emissions In the Personal 
Radio Servian^ contains a statement of 
Commtsion policy which promises futurer 
Notices addressfng the matlsr ot harmonic 
and sfHtfiout attenuation for #11 other ser^ 
vkm betow 1 GHz, indfodrng Amateur radio. 
We would fike to reaffirm thei st^errvnt 
here and suggest itiat the above commffits 
are excellent examples of thie ideas the 
Commission will be seeking. Adoption of 
these present emissiOf> standards will not end 
the Commission's interest in purity of emii- 
sions, and we solicit noteworthy comma ne 
such as the above in future proceedings. 

14. Additiofiuitly, the Commission hM 
rvcentry proposed in Docket 21117 type 
aoeeptancs tor oommerciaJfy rnarkei:ed arrt*- 
leur equipment The type accefrtance st»r»- 
dards proposed would require a 43 t 10 log 
{mean power in Watts) decibel suppression 
of spurious emissions, a standard similar to 
the one suggested above by Mr. Schlesingar. 
As stated in the f^otice ot Proposed Rule 
Making, thii degree of attenuation would 
apply only to amaintr equtpm^i which 
would he commefCiaUy market*! Home- 
made eiiuiprrTent woukj be exempt from this 
ttmds-d and therefor? adoption of Docket 
20777^1 proposed standards is r^etOisary to 
bring tfw entire amateur community into 
conformity with existing Intemational Man- 
dards. Until adoption of a Report and Order 
in Docket 21117, the standards herein 
specified shall apply to both home con 
structed and com mercj ally marketed ama^ 
teur equipment. 

1& In v*ew of the foregoing, m are of 
the opinion that th« amended rule as dis- 
cussed atxive is in the publEc interest, cor^ 
Vemence, and necessity. Authority for this 
Amendment is contained in S<action 4(i) and 
303 of the Communications Act of 1B34,aE 
amended. 

ia Acoordinglv, IT 15 ORDERED, 
effective April 15, 1977, ihai Part 97 Of the 
Commission'! Rules IS AMEf4DE0 *s tet 
out in the attached Appernfix, IT IS 
FURTHER ORDERED that this prooeeding 
IS CONTINUED. 

FiOERAL COMMUfy FCATIONS 

COMIVtISSION 

Vincent J. Mullins 

Secretary 

APPENDIX 
Fan 97 of Chapter I of Tide 47 of ttw Code 
of Federal Regulations is anwnded. a$ fol- 
lows: 

In §97,73, the headnote and text are 
revised, as follows: 
tJ97.73 Piifitv ofemissfam. 

{a I The mean power of any spurious 
emission or radiation from any amateur 
t ran sm itter or e x tema I radi o f requa ncy 
power amphfier being operated with a 
carrier frequency tfilow X MHz shall be at 
l«ast 40 decibels below die mean power of 
the fundamental without exceeding tlie 
power of 50 milliwatt^. For equipment of 
mean power less tfian 5 Watts, the atttnua- 
tion shall be at least 30 decibels. 

lb) The mean power of any spurious 
emission or radiation from any amateur 
transmitter or external radio frequency 
power amplifier being operated with « 
carrier frequtrKy above 30 hAHi but below 
235 MH2 shall be at least €0 decibels below 
the mean pow^r of the fundamental. For 
iransmiTters having mean |N»w«r of 25 Wat& 
or less^ the rvioan power of any spurioitf 
radiartjon supplied to the antenna trs^smrs^ 
fion line shaCi be at least 40 decibels below 
the mean power of the f undamenial without 
exceeding the power of 2& microwatts, but, 
in any event, need not be reduced below the 
powier of 10 microwatts. 

(of Spurious enttssion or radiatjon from 
VI: amateur transmitter or evtemaf radio 
frequerKy power anplifier being operai«J 
with a carrier frequency abov? 235 MHi 
ff^ll be reduced or eliminated in accordanoe 
with good engineerirHg practice. 



34 



id) For the purposes of this sect fan, a 
spurious emEssJon or radiation fs any emis- 
Stan Of radiation from a traf^snnitter or any 
external radio frequency power amplifier 
winch is outside of the authorized Amateur 
Radio Service freqoericv barid being used. 

(e) The above notwithstanding, should 
any spurious radiation, induding chassis or 
power line radtatfon, cause harmful imterfer- 
ence to the reception of other radio stations, 
the licen^i may be required to take such 
further $lep$ as may be necessary to elsmj- 
nate the inter ferer>ce in accordance with 
good engineering practices. 

Before the 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS 

COMIVJISSIOIS! 

Washington DC 20554 



In the Matter of 

Report and Order Numbef 20777 
Grandfather Clause 

To: The Commission 

ENDORSEMENT OF REPORT 
AND ORDER s^ 20777 

Tfie Amateur Radio Manufacturer's Asso- 
ciation (ARIVIAI was formed on January 7, 
1977, at a general meeting of sJI manufac- 
turing interests attending the SAFtOC Con- 
vention in Las Vegas, Nevada. The organisa- 
tion is a self-governing body formed in order 
tc3 en=courage hi^ standards and ethics in the 
Amateur Radio Indus-try, The basis and 
purpose of ARMA is to promote the general 
growth and we J fare of amateur radio and to 
vtfork toward favorable rule making and 
Iff^slation for the benefit of the industry, as 
we El as to function as a Nafson between the 
member firms and the Federal Cornmun Na- 
tions Commission ^FCCJ. ARMA is also 
jntended to collect and to disseminate 
market information to the members. 

The membership of AR1VIA generally 
applauds Report and Order Number 20777: 
At long last, we wiiJ have some concrete 
spec ffi cations from wfi-ich to engineer our 
products rather than merely following good 
entjineerihg practices. 

We are aware of the decision -ma king 
power which must go into this rule making, 
but we have also come to realize that there is 
a grave oversight on the part of the FCC in 
one area. Th^s is the subject yvhich we wish 
to follow up with the FCC. in the form of 
this pet ft f on for a "grandfathering" (grand- 
father clause) of com mercia fly -built amateur 
radio transmiitei' and transceivers manu- 
factiired prior to April 1 5, 1977. 

The reasons tor this petition are as 
follows: 

1) These products have been built by the 
legitimate Amateur Radio manufacturers who 
have not violated good engineering practices 
or the "spirit" of the law. Should these 
manufacturers be forced to take back the 
equipment frorn inventory of their stocking 
distributors it would be a significant hard 
ship, possibly to the fwirit of Chapter n 
filings, 

2] The distributors and retailers would be 
faced with horrendous inventories of non- 
salable used equipment on the shelu'es. 

3) The Amateur Radio Operator as an 
individual would be adversely affected once 
again with financial burden when he dis- 
covers that his present equipment is no 
lonper legally marketable for outriglit sale or 
for trade-in on new equipment that does 
meet the specifications \n Report and Order 
#20777. 

4) The legitimate, self-policing Amateur 
Radio fraternity and industry would bo dealt 
an injustice brought on by the pseudo- 
Amateur Radio violating the spirit of the 
law. 

We wish to have the present equipment 
which does not currently cause harmful 
intfirferenqe to Other Services put under this 
grandfather clause, And, we feel, this action 
in addition to the Report and Order #20777 
would then strengthen the bond between the 



Amateur Radio manuifacturer and the in- 
dpvidual Amateur Radio hobby tst with the 
FCC. 

Last^ but not lea^, we must conclude by 
saying that this grandfather cfause would be 
a positive move in the public's interest, 
convenience, and necessity. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Dennis Had 

Edward CI egg 

George Perrine 

Marvin Druskoff 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

for ARMA 

Before the 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIOIMS 

COMMISSION 

Washington DC 20554 

In the Matter of 

Petition for Rule Making RM-2a39 
Comments 

To: The Comt^jssion 

ENDORSEMENT OF 
RM-2839 

The Amateur Radio IVlanu fact urer^^ Asso- 
ciation (ARMAi was formed on January 7, 
1977, at a general meeting of all manufac- 
turing interests attending the SAROC Con- 
vention in Las Vegas, Nevada. The organiza- 
tion is 3 self-governing body formed in order 
to encourage high standards and ethics in the 
Amateur Radio Industry, The basis and 
purpose of ARMA is to promote the general 
growth and wwflfare of amateur radio and to 
viifork toward favorable rule making and 
legislatioiT for the benefit of the industry, as 
well as to function as a liaison between the 
member firms and the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission (FCC)> ARMA is also 
Intended to collect and to disseminate 
market information to the members. 

The members of ARMA have studied, 
with more than a little interest, RM-2S39, 
and find ourselves in agreement with many 
of the proposals contained therein. We find 
also, as a representative group, that we have 
developed a feasible alternative solution to 
the portion of the ruling involving Type- 
Acceptance and/or elimination of ampiifieir 
equipment in the 24^35 MH? range. We feel 
that a major change is necessary in this one 

The organization submits that the legality 
of licensing retail dealers and/or distributors 
is not within the jurisdiction of the Federal 
Communications Commission and, in our 
opinion, another solution is possible. Wa 
propose to the Commission, therefore, this 
avenue which would enable the FCC to 
enforce point-of-sale restrictions on a// 
parties concerned, whether it be manufac- 
turer or importer, distributor, retailer, con- 
sumer, or oonsumer resaler. 

tn brief form, for your convenience, we 
propose that the following data encompasses 
a viable system: 

1 i All manufacturers/importers of amateur 
radio rf generating devices would be required 
to serial number each and every unit pro- 
duced and to include a Buyers' Affidavit. 
The manufacturer would record, in his fEles, 
a cross reference of serial number and 
purchaser data. 

2) The Distritautor-Wholesafer- Re taller who 
selEs products in the amateur classification: 
would be required to visually inspect a valid 
Amateur Radio Operator's License {xerox 
copy acceptable) and to present the buyer 
with the multi-copy affidavit. The seller 
would serve as witness to both the trans- 
action and to the actual signing of the 
affidavit. 

3a) The affidavit itself would require the 
following information: type of product, 
serial number, call letters of the licensed 
purchaser, full name and address of the 
purchaser, and a signed statement of intent 
that the equipment is for personal use on the 
frequencies for which the purchaser is so 



licensed and that he accepts the responsi- 
bility for the subsequent u^ of the equip- 
ment upon resale to an individual or group. 
3b]i Willful violation of any or ail of the 
above stipulations would result in a 
$1,000-00 penafty fee per occurrence to be 
levied upon the buyer, dealer, manufacturer, 
or other party who is responsible in each 
case. 

4 J The system would atso provide for com- 
parable requirements for mail-order &itu- 
ations. The purchaser would be required to 
forward the necessary forms and aiso identi- 
fication in completed manner prior to the 
actual delivery of the product. 
5) The multi-copy affidavit would be 
distributed after completion by the pur- 
chaser in the following manner: one copy 
each to the buyer, the dealer, the manufac- 
turer, and the FCC. 

We envision this procedure as a more 
perfectly legal recourse for the FCC to 
pursue in order to halt the proliferation of 
illegal CB/pseudo- Amateur products cur- 
rently on the market. And along these same 
lines, ARMA feels that the manufacturers 
should be required to file a separate affidavit 
supplying the FCC with direct seriat num- 
be r- pr odu ct desc ri pt i on-d i st r i buti on i nf or- 
mation. 

This alternative proposal, as we see it, 
offers a path of action with fewer loopholes 
than the Type-Acceptance route which 
might well require the elimination of the 
24-35 MH^ range. 

The Amateur Radio Manufacturer's Asso- 
ciation remains in total agreement, then, 
with the FCC't aim to efimlnate the Illegal 
use of amplifiers and related equipment. 
However, we feel that Type- Acceptance in 
itself is actually an "overkill" and would 
adverseiy affect the amateur radio operators 
as well as the industry itself. Such a limita- 
tion would stunt the inventive contributions 
so often available because of the technical 
knowledge in the amateur radio world. Our 
proposed foint effort would form a solid 
alternative solutiorr which would benefit all 
parties concerned and would not require 
more "red tape" or additional enforcement 
staff at the Federal Communications isevel., 
Respectfully submitted, 

Dennis Had 

Edward Clegg 

George Perrine 

Marvin Druskoff 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

for ARMA 

Before the 

FEDERAL CQMMUNICATIOftlS 

COMMISSION 

Washington DC 20554 

Docket No. 21 T35 



In the matter of 

The simplification of the licensing and 
call sign assignment systems for sta- 
tions in the Amateur Radio Sef vice. 

NOTfCE OF PROPOSED 
RULEMAKING 

Adopted- March 2, 1977; 
Released: March 11, 1977 
By the Commission: Chairman Wiley 
concurring in the results 

1. In accordance with the Administrative 
Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 553, and Section 
1.412 of the Commission's Rules, 47 C.F.R. 
^1.412, the Commission hereby gives Notice 
of Proposed Rule Making in the ataove- 
captioned matter. 

2. During the past two years there has 
been an unprecedented explosion in interest 
in personal radio communications in the 
United States. The popularity of the CB 
Radio Service has mushroomed to the point 
where there are now 6.5 mil lion CB li- 
censee$, representing an estimated 20 million 
users of the CB Service, As recently as 
February, 1975, there were only IT million 



CB licensees. The Amateur Radio Service has 
also grown substantially, Althougfi the 
population of the Amateur Service had 
remained fundamentally static for several 
years, the number of licensees has begurt to 
rise, and the number of newcomers to the 
Service, those obtaining Novice Class oper- 
ator licenses, has shown particular growth. 
In December, 1976. for example, there were 
36,OQO Novice Class licenses outstanding, 
wt^ile in December^ 1974, 21,000 operators 
held Movice Class licenses. The overall popu- 
Fation of the Amateur Service is now ap- 
proximately 293^000. Two years ago it was 
25&,Q00, 

3. This surge in interest in personal radio 
com mm uni cat ions has placed a heavy bur- 
den on those members of the Commission's 
staff engaged in the processing and issuance 
of licenses for personal radio communica- 
tions. Aithough the workload imposed upon 
the Commission's staff at our Gettysburg, 
PennsyJvania, license processing facility has 
increased approisimately 1QO0 per cent over 
the past two years, the number of per- 
manent staff employees at Gettysburg has 
increased by only 50%. This has led, in turn. 
to an increase in the length of time necessary 
to process and issue Amateur Radio Service 
and CB Radio Service licenses. Altfiough 
temporary permit procedures in the Ama- 
teur and CB Services allow, in some in- 
stances, operation pending issuance of a 
license, we are very much aware that many 
amateur radio licensees are dissatisfied with 
the speed with which their regular licenses 
are processed and issued, and wb are investi- 
gating methods by which, assuming no new 
resources to be forthcoming, service to our 
amateur licensees might be further im- 
proved, 

4. The Rulei governing the Amateur 
Radio Service contain licensing and callsign 
assignment systems of some complexity. At 
the time these rules were adopted, the size 
and workload of our Gettysburg staff were 
such that routine and special amateur appli- 
cation processing could be accomplished 
without undue delay, Asvve indicated in the 
preceding paragraph, however, our resources 
have not kept pace with the increased 
demand for personal radio communications. 
Given these limited resources, we have been 
forced to assign priorities to our current 
licensing activities, W^ bef!e\^ our most 
important task m the Amateur Badio Service 
to be the f^rocessin^ 4/^d t$stis/ice of amateur 
operator and primary statiof} licenses. We 
have reached the point at which our lack of 
resources simply precludes all but the most 
basic licensing functions. Our reguiatory 
obligations have outstripped our current 
capabilities, See paragraph S^mfra. 

S. During most of the boom in personal 
radio communications, the Commission has 
been engaged in a program to deregulate the 
Amateur Radio Service, The proposals and 
amendments adopted during this period have 
been intended largely to simplify the I It 
censing and operation of stations in the 
Amateur Service, and to that extent they 
complement our desire to improve our pro- 
cedures in processing and issuing amateur 
licenses. They have also been intended, at 
least in part, to reduce the Commission's 
workload, whenever such a reduction is 
consistent with the Commission's regulatory 
obligations. For example, in a Notice of 
Inquiry and iStotioe of Proposed Rule Making 
in Docket 21033, released January 6, 1977 
(42 FR 20 B9), we proposed, tnter ^/^a, to 
eliminate from Part 97 of the Rules repeater 
stations^ auxiliary link stations^^ and control 
stations. Under the terms of our proposal in 
Docket 21033, the functions of such sta- 
tions could be conducted by other amateur 
radio stations without prior Commission 
authorization. If adopted, our proposals in 
that proceeding would afford amateur li- 
censees much greater flexibility in their 
operations and would also result in a con- 
siderable reduetion in the workload of the 
Commission's amateur radio processing staff. 
Such a vvorkload reduction would, in turn, 
enable us to redistribute our resources and 
provide our amateur licensees with better 
service in other f more vital, areas. 

6. We believe the concepts underlying 
the proposals in Docket 21033 are sound 



36 



tnd may logically be exliended to several 
other Bipects ot station licensing anil opera- 
tion m the Arnateur Radio Servioe. We ans 
by Tt»tt Moifce propof^g ravt&iont of Part 97 
of it» ^ules f^idv. if «dopud. would mult 
in ■ ti^griificsin $imp1ific«|ion of ifw li^censing 
f tructurc of the Aminyf Setvioe and of Part 
d7 itwif . 

7. Under the e?ctitir>g ftrnateur fadw 
lloensjng systefn, a liesentfev mun obtain both 
•n operartor license' a-nd a station license. A 
licensee holds onlv on« optfitor l{c«ri$« and 
it required by Section 97.40 of the Ryts to 
have« at a mini mum, a primary ft^tion 
license, as wetl. There ar«r sever at other 
•tat ion licenses available, however, including 
military rBCreatmn, ClMb, sp&ci^l eu<ent, 
Radlcj Amflt&ur Civil Emorgsncv Service 
t RACES!, and sec^^n diary station tl censes, 
and menv ^n^teur operators have obtained 
onft or more (occa^ionaJly, many morel such 
Hcaniet. Additionally, many amateur r^po 
Ofitfftor^ arc eligible for specific st^ion 
call signs or catUlpis baSid on oarticutai 
"prelefred** formatt 

S. Wv do rtfit beli«vft thci tha coniinua- 
tton of ttm issiflVHZ of the vkious station 
li«en$«, other than 0*imary tut ion (icenses, 
lined above or the existence of the currem 
ea^kga usigomifit Ev^^rn (^ tx etsemiat to 
the Amateuf Service. The entire system has 
b«eome eitTTBOrdin^riilv burdensome and 
difficult to adminmur pfOperly: A dispro- 
portionate percentage of our resources irtust^ 
btcnuSQ of existing rulflt, b« d^vpted to the 
processing of special calltivi requests and 
non -primary station license applications. 
Prdcessing oi prlmarv station license appti ca- 
tions and operator license applications suf- 
fers as a result. For eKample, as of January 
31, 1&77, apprOKimat«iV 308,000 stations 
¥»Tt licensed In the Amateur Radio Service. 
Of these, aboiit 96% were primary stetions. 
The other 5% were secondary stations^ dub 
itaxions, military recreation ststions., ^d 
RACES Et3tior»i, Yet proceising applirations 
for th«m rwn^marv ftitiont rvqutred 
resourcn nevly equal to the resotjrGes 
iiMdifl to pcocns ptimary siation license 
appilicartlofti. Similairjiy^ Amateur Extra Gass 
licensees comprise ottly 6% of tti« amsteur 
popotation, but processing spectfk callsi^ 
requests from such I teeniest requires a$ 
much jiH not morel fima as i$suing callsigns 
to the remaining B4%, Clearly, our resource 
are not allocated inr the most effective 
mannflr, 

9k In this prnctieding vi/a are proposing to 
flmplify the ba&ic licensing striicture of the 
Amateur Service by dilCOntinulng the h$u- 
ance of all amateur station licenses, other 
than primary station licer^tes and spac« 
station licenses. (Space rtationi are under 
oontideration in Dockat 198S2, Notice of 
Inquiry adopted October 2B^ 1973^ and w& 
Mt fiot propoting thrir deleiion.l All sma- 
teur radio operators would ba limited to one 
station, license. Specifically^ we propose to 
datete from Part §7 of the ftules milrtary 
recreati»on stations, dub fiations, RMIES 
ntljons {but not RACES itielf), and atl 
additional staliom, indudtrvg secondary 
ttations and sp&dal event staticHis. (As vm 
indicated above, we have already proposed 
Ii> Docket 21033 to alimintte repeater, 
auxiliary link, and control stations.) U^ 
ceniees holding the types of tftarinn licenses 
liflted abdv« would be ptrmitted to retain 
them until expiration ot the licenses but 
would not be permitted to renew them. 

10. We recoffiize thai the proposals con- 
tained in the preceding paragraph vvould. If 
adopted^ have an Impact on certain groups 
and individuals. We believe^ howevt?, that 
any such impact would be relatively minor 
and that the Commission and its licensees 
would realize significant benefit io the long 
ri^ from the deletion of the station types in 
question^ including the more efficioit i$$u- 
aooB of operator and primuv station Ih 
censes. With r«pact 10 the tpacinc station 
types wm are profKHlfit to eliminate and the 
prelMliie effects of dicir elimination^ we 
would make the fof lowing ob$ervatior&: 

J. JRspesrer satiota, ^uMifiaty link 
ststions, flotf cofttfoi tairom. Ouf 
proipo^s concerning these stations are 
fully expialned In our Notice of 
Inquiry and Notice of Proposed Rule 



Making in Docket 31033, FCC 
7&119e, 42 FR 2089 11977}. Baslcd- 
ly^ the functions now conducted by 
such itatfons woyld be permiTt«d all 
remaining am>ateuf statkms without 
separate CommrssJon author iiatioii- 
No one would appear to be advarsely 
ifltfCted tiy atdbption of this proposal, 

b, Miiitary rscf&tion smion$. At 
the end of 1976 there were only 425 
licensed mlHtery recreation stations^ 
Which are arosteur stations hcensed to 
the person4n-charge, often a nois- 
amateur, of a (and location at which 
an amateur station has been provided 
for the use of operators under the 
auspices of the United States armed 
forces. We &re aware of no need for 
continuing the separate licensing of 
WCh stations. Those amateur operators 
wishing to operate such stations may 
do so by operating portable under 
itietr OVW1 iridj:virkjat station authorifa^ 
tioni. Vfe note that one possible dtfr 
advantage to portabte operation^ the 
requirement ihst trammissions from 
iiattioits in portable oparation be 
dt^irKtrvely idemifled^ w« eliminated 
by the Commission's Report and 
Order in Docltet 20686, 6t F.C.C 2d 
337 119761. 

c. Chb statkms, Th«rt art present- 
ly 4,600 licensed ciob nations. 
Although the eliminalion of separate' 
ctub station licenses would have an 
Impaa on certain amateur operating 
programs and traditions, vw believe 
separate licensing of such stations^ 
which may be held by a club com- 
prised of as few as two persons, to be 
non<essential. Operations now con- 
ductad by club stations may be 
conducted either by club members 
operating their stations portable orbv 
club members acting as control oper- 
Itori of iBiother dub member's sis- 
tion. We are, however, p^rtJcultrly 
interested in receiving comments 
eonomir^g the eornmued usefulness to 
the amateur community of upirsttfy 
lioeriting dub stations. 

d SKondmy smtiotrt, A secondary 
nation ts a separate station licensed to 
be an individual amateur operator for 
a location other than the primary 
itation location. Typically, such sia- 
tfont h&vB been licensed for vacation 
homes or offices. We bailava there to 
be no need to continue to isaue 
authorisations for secondary stationsp 
because, as we noted in paragraph 
10{b). supra, amateurs may, under the 
rule amendment? adopted in Docket 
20086, operate their primary stations 
it portabk and mobile locations with- 
out the previous inconvenience of 
distinctively Iderrci^ifing their transmri- 
liorif or provtdtngi the Commission 
wffth tdvance notrfHoatiOfi of extended 
pOrOfble or mobile opef ation. Further, 
final the tuspension of all lioeming 
fees by the Comnnistioo, effective 
Jbpiuary 1, TS77, vw have beeo 
receiving muhipJe — «nd in many 
Imtances, frivolous - applications for 
ucondary station licenses from indi- 
vidual amateurs. The iippllcallons for 
licondery station licenses we have 
received since January 1, 1;97?p are 
already beginning to burden our pro- 
ce$i,ing staff, and we anticipate a flood 
of new set^ndary station licence appli- 
cations as soon as this Notice of 
proposed Rule Making is releoMd to 
the public. For this reason^ and to 
enable the cootinued eff ioent prooess- 
ifHI of other amateur radio license 
tpp hot ions, we are hereby dedaHng. 
effect in with tfie release of the New$ 
Releue arwioundng ^doptipn of this 
document, a ''dosed season"* on the 
fiiing of appficitlons for new 
tecondary fftit^Dns or iptoal event 
ttations (lee below). All applications 
lor new secondary stations received on 
Or after the effective date ol the closed 
season wilt be returned. Applications 
for renewal or modification of existing 
lecondary station licenses will con- 



tinue to be accepted, however. The 
dosed season on filing applications (or 
special event ar^ new secondary stoh 
tton licenses wilt continue la^tit 
Commisston policy in this mwmu tl 
determine dL 

e. Sf»c»t nenr Mattom. Speeiil 
event ttatkim are licerKed h>r tempo- 
rary use in connection with the oel*- 
bration of an ewrrt of either pneral 
Imerest to the public or of particular 
Interest to amateur racdio operators, 
and are intended to bring favorable 
public attention to the Amateur Radio 
Service. In 1976 approximately 100 
special event ttations were licensed. 
Special event stations are assigned dis- 
tinctive, unutual call signs, and it fre- 
quently appears that such stations are 
used not io much to cetebrate special 
events as to enable amateur operation 
with "exotic" callsigns. We solicit 
comments concerning tine continued 
usefulnes), H iny, of special evem 
stations arvd wish to be provided widt 
ipecifjc, concrete examples ol special 
event stations that have brought favor- 
able public attention to the Amatei^ 
Radb Service, For retsona oytliined 
above, we are ioduding special event 
stations in the dosed season on the 
submission of station license applica- 
tions. 

f . RACBS starions. Radio Amateur 
Civil Emergency Service stations are 
station^ licensed to civil defense organ- 
Izations to provide the iaciUties lor 
amat«!ur radio operators to conduct 
communications iri RACES. Such 
stations are assi^cined distinctive call' 
signs prefixed by the letters "WC", 
Such stations must In alt instances be 
op<erased by licensed amateur radio 
operators^ and for this reason we 
believe fuch {^seration can be con- 
ducted by amateur operators under 
their indivtdiial station f ice noes. Func- 
tions now condifcted by RACES 
stations and amateur stations partici- 
pating in ftA€£S would be combined 
in a form of amateur operation known 
as *'RACES operation/' Under this 
pnopoial, there vuould be no chan^ tn 
tfte btin and purpose of RACES iisetf, 
and we believe RACES operations 
would not tie seriously affected if our 
proposal is ultimately adopted. Wa do 
wish to raoeive comments addressing 
the utility of separately licensed 
RACES stations, however. 

Deletion of the types of amateur stations 
listed above would have the added advantage 
of enabling us to delete the FCC Form 
610-B, Application for Amateur Club, Mili- 
tary Recreation, or Radto Amateur Civil 
Emergency Service Station license. 

11. Wie are also proposing in This pro- 
ceeding to simplify drstically the syttcm of 
amalEur radi.o callsign assi^mcnt. Under 
Section 2 302 of the Rules, ^e Amateur 
Radio Service Is altocated certain blocks of 
call«igni. Sections 97.51 snd §7, S3 of the 
Rules oontarn rather compd^ex rvgirfstiom 
and policies governing amateur radio callii^ 
assignment. Certain licensees are eligible for 
"1x2" calisigns (caitlsigns consisting of one 
letter, one digit, and two letters), o theirs are 
eligible for certain n on -specific "preferred" 
cattsigns, while ttlH others must take the 
callsigns assigned them by the Commission. 
We believe there to be no compelling need to 
continue the complex system of callslgn 
assignment that now exists, a system which, 
as i^e indicated heretofore, occupies an 
inordinate amount of our staff's time^ and 
vw are propoimg, accordingly, to arnend 
Section 97.51 ot ifie Rules lo state scmply 
that amateur radio calbipis will be assigrwd 
on a tvstarnatic basis. Section 97 S3 of the 
Rules would be deleted entirely. Lioenscct 
holcGng Amateur Extra Dass ofSerator \'t* 
censes would be afforikd the opporti^ity to 
obtain 1x2 and 2x2 call$ipis, but fud^ 
calisi#ns would be ^issi^ed systematically try 
the Commnsfon, fAmateur Extra Oils 
licensees would not be permitted, as they are 
nowi, to obtain specific 1 x2 consigns of their 
choice.} LtcerHsae$ moving from one callii^n 
area to another and modifying their licenses 



to reflect the move^ would not continue to 
be assigned new calisl^is of the $ame format 
ai the callsi^s rehnquished. Nor would we 
continue to issue specific caltsigns^ to former 
holders thereof » We v«nitd not iss£» any 
rrrore distinctive callsigns to stations m 
repeater or RACES operation.' Our pro- 
posal^ ff adopted, would result in a Tnudi 
simpler and fairer cailsign assignrneni sysiem 
and would pern^t us to concentrate our 
limited reiourcas in areas more productive 
foe the Amateur Radio Service. 

12, T^e sped fie rule ammdments we are 
proposing are set forth in the attached 
Appendix. Authority for ihe$e proposals and 
lor the "closed season" announced herein is 
contained in Sections 4(i|, Sje), and 303 of 
the Communication& Act of 1934, as 
amended. We invite intisirested parties to 
submit comments conerning our proposals 
on or before June 2, 1977, and reply 
comments on or belore June 30, 1977. Alt 
original and five cojliei of all corrhmenis and 
repl>y rs^mmenii shall be fumtshed the 
Commis^on. pursuant to Section 1.419 of 
the Rules. Re^porxtenti wishfing eech 
Commisstonet to have a personal copy of the 
co m m ents may submit mn sddittonali tix 
copies. Memberf of the public wishing to 
expres interest in our proposals but ur>able 
to provide the required copies may paftict^ 
pate informally by submitting one copy of 
their comments, without regard to form, 
provided the Gorract docket number b 
speciified in the heeding of the comments. 
All comments ar^d reply comments filed In 
this proceeding should be sent to the Secre- 
tary, Fedijral Communications Commission, 
Washington DC 205B4, 

13. Individuals wishing to inspect the 
comments and reply comments filed in this 
proo^ding may do so during regular busi- 
ness hours, B:00 am to 4:30 pm Monday 
through Friday, m the Commission's Pubiic 
Reference Room, 1019 "M" Street, N,W., 
Wshingion DC 20554, 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS 

COMMISSION 

Vizicent J.Mullin$ 

Secretary 

APPENDIX 

Part I and 97 of Chapter 1 of Trite 47 0# 
ttie Code of Federal Regulations afe prt^ 
posed to be amended^ as follows: 
S 1-922 lAmende<l! 

1. In §1.922, FCC Form 61 0-B is deleted. 

2. In §1.926, paragraph |bM4ii Is deleted and 
designated [Reserved I, and paragraph (b)fl) 
Is amended, as follows: 

§1.926 Appff€<ation for renewal of it' 
cense. 

Ibltll Applications for renewal of sn ami* 
leur operator license, an amateur station 
license, or a combined amateur operator/ 
station license, shall be hied on FCC Form 
6tQ. 
141 [Reserved] . 

3. §1.951 taf ia amended to read as follovirr 
§1.951 Mow ^pfr^tfOns are d&tribtftui^ 

(a| Pergonal Radio Div^sjon: Amateur, Di- 
saster, and Personal 

4. §1.952 is amended to read, as follows: 
§1 .952 How We numbers ^ne ^sstgrwd. 

|b| File nurnber symbols and service or clas$ 
of station designiaiorii 

Amateur and Disaster Services 

V— Amateur 

D— Disaster 
G. §T.1115 is amended to read, as follows: 

§1.1 11 B Schefiutff of fees for the Safety 
ffftrf Sip^fsl R^io Services. 
CaJ- 
Amateur Service 

Modification of lioente without Teinewii 
... S3 
\h\ * • * 
fc) * • * 

16) Application lor Interim Amateur Permits 
or Npvic? Oass licenses in the Amatei# 
Radio Service. 
6. In §97.3, para^aphi (tL tgl. 1^1. and 0) 

' We are aware that m Dock^ 21033 wa 
proposed to continue in certain Instances to 
issue distinctive callii^s to stations in re- 
pester operation and that our proposal In 
this proceeding to eliminate such catisigrti 
entirely is, to thit exterrt. inconsistent. 



36 



arfi deleted, ptr«^iph£ H) through {y^L 
[ndusiv^, art rtdatignated p^rdgraphs CfJ 
throu^ \u), rtsptctively, Anct parap^aphs ic\ 
and (dl are imvnd^d lo read, as follcuriist 

§97 J Dr (inn Nam 
(elf Amat^t/f fad*0 oper&wr. A person hold- 
ing a valid licenie to operate an amateur 
radio (tattort issued by the Federal Cofn^ 
municatiKC^m Comrni$$ion. 
td) Amateur radio tkxfom. The mstnifnent pf 
auttHHi£atiCHi is$u<d by the Federail Com- 
fnunica$H>n$ Co^mis$io^ opnsi^img of a 
station license airKi pr qpefator license. 
Operator fk^emr. Tli« infuument of amtioTi- 
jatHxi ifladudfrig the dass of pperatdr 

Ststkfn ticertm. Iht ir^iruin^i^t of auttioriza- 
tKm tor a ndto nation in the Amstefur 
Radto Service. 

iniertm Amattuf Permit ^ A temporafv 
opetator and Hat ion authorization issued to 
Eioenseef £UOC»t$Mly cpfripleting Com mi s^ 
sion supervised CKamtnatiQns for higher class 
Operator lioertses. 

7. \in §97,37. the hoBdnoie and text are 
amended to r^Bd, ^s foHowns; 

§97.37 B/tgibt'lhy for smtion license. 
(a^ An amateur radio station license shall he 
Ifsu^d only to i licensed grnateur radio 
operaiDr. 

[bj An an^ttur fidio itatlpri fi cense shalf 
not be issued to a school, cJub, company^ 
corporal ion, ttuodition, or other organiza- 
tion* 

{c} An amateu-f radio operator shall be itsuad 
no more iKan one amateur radio station 
licEfise, fH^is p^rs^aph does not «ppty to vi 
amarleur radio operfltor applying for a space 
radio station licinie.f 

197.39 IpQleEndi 

8. 1^97.39 11 deleted. 

9. p7.40 it deleted and redesignated 
§97.39^ pdrayaphi (cj. (dK ffnd (e| srv 
deietHt, VKt p«r|.graph [bl ts amended to 
read, a$folto^vi: 

^97,39 Statton fkemr rwqi/ifcti. 
[hi i¥trv *matf ut radio op^ator shall h»ve 
m\ amateur radm itattcn licerne. 
la In 1^97 41, paragraphs \hK kL and ld\ 
are deleted, paragraphs |el, (O, and {q} are 
redniqnaied paragraphs \b\. \t^\. antS Id) 
ne(pecTiv«ly, and paragraphs ia) and \h} are 
amended, as follows; 

§97.41 Appfkatttm for statior^ ffcen$e. 
\&) E^ch dpphcation for an amateur radio 
station HcBnie ihall be made of> FCC Form 
610. 

ibj II the appiicfllion is fpr a station (kcensa, 
o^^y, .itihall be submitted to the Federai 
Communications Commission, Sox t020, 
Gettysburg Penniyfvflnia. 17325. 
11. 1^97.47 is r«^ised to reaci, as follows: 

§97.47 ^ene\mt itnd/or modification cf 
amatBur slatfoo ftce/i$e. 
(aj ApphcaEbOn for r^n^wat ^d/or mod rfi ca- 
tion of a station license shall be submitted 
041 Fee Form 310. In every case the 
appl^ationi shall be accomp^ted bv the 
ap^litant'i hctfife or ■ photocopy thereof. 
ApplicatiOfis for renewal of unsKpirvd li- 
c»n:se rrajtt b* madt during the hcense term 
and should be filed not later than 90 liays 
prior lo the eftd Of tht ticeme lerm, m any 
£8$« m which the licerBec has. in accordari'ce 
wfth the piovitiiCKit of mil chapter^ made 
limcly Mifi luffiEienl amplication fc»r mntwM 
o1 an unexpired licence, no (ioenie with 
refer^noi! to any aciivitv of a cominyin'g 
nature shatl «x,ptr« uniil iuch application 
shall have beeii finally determined, 
(M If a lioeltM it allovi^d ^o empire, applica- 
tion for r«n4wat maY be made during a 
period of grace of one v^^ aftef the 
expiration date of the license, During this 
one year period, a license is not valid. A 
license rericwcd during this one year period 
will be dated currently and will not be 
backdiited to tho date of eKpirstion. 
(c) Wlien the name ot a licensee is changed, 
or whan ths mailing address is changed 
{without changlnu I ha authorized location of 
the amateur radio station) a formal applica- 
tion for modificotlion of Ifcense is not 
retfUirad Tfi^a licensee shall notify the 
Commission promptly of these changes, 
however. The not^ot, Which may be rn letter 
form, shall contain The name end address of 
the licemee «s they appear in CcMTinriissicri 
reoirds, the rww name and/ or addrlfss^, as the 



ffl*y be, and the cafJsign and Class of 
operator license. The notice shall be sent to 
the Coflimitiion, Gettysburg^ Pennsylvania 
1 732&^ and a copy shall be maintained with 
the Moeni&e of eadt station until a new lioiarije 
tf issued. 

12. In §g7.S1, para^aph (af is amended, 
para^iph (b) if red^^^ated para^aph (d|, 
and new paragraphs {bl and (c) are ackJod. as 
follows: 

§97.51 Assi^nmenT of calls i^s. 
UJ Thie cailsii^ of an amateur T^£io statior) 
fhaJI be assiTied by the Commission on a 
syitemaitc basis. 

<b1 Arik AmatfliiT £xtra Oass tsperator may 
obtain on iwjjuim. Subject to availabulity^ a 
station catlsifpi consisting of otk letter foh 
lowed by one di^t foltowed by two tetten, 
or a catlstgn consisting of t¥iro letters fol- 
lowed by one dtpt totiovued by two letters. 
Callsifns assigned under thi$ paragraph shall 
be aiiigned by the Cgmmi^sjon on a sys- 
tematic basis. No request for a specific 
calls! gn or call sign format shall be grsnt4*d. 
{d No request for a spedfic caNsign or 
callsign format shall be granted. 

im '^* 

§97 63iDBlQtad]. 

13. J^97.53 IS dfilaifid. 

14. §97.S7(b| is amended to read, as foi- 
laws; 

^97,87 Station identification, 
(b^ tf the oontrol operator of a station i£ not 
the statiOf) Ii4:ensee, the ^tatiort identifica- 
tion nequired by this section shall be ihe 
callsiqp assigned that station. If a stalion is 
operated on frequfnoes auttiortsed by 
§97.7 lot use tjy the control operator but 
noi authors ;«d for use by the station li- 
censee, the reouired station identification 
shall be the call (490 ot Thai scaiion followed 
bv tfw ftation lallsign of the control oper- 
ator (e.g.. WBBXYZyweXVh 

15. §97 9&|afl1} ar^d |a){?» pre amended to 
fMd as follows: 

§97.95 Operation awsy from the author- 

br ' ' 

U) Whtn there is no change in th« author- 
iied hwrd operation j^taftion locatiort, vi 
amfliaur radio station may be operated 
under ill station (icense anyv^er^ in the 
United States. iU [erritories or possessions^ 
as a portable or mobFle operation ^ subject lo 
tf97.61. 

{2} Wfien the okithorized permanent Station 
location is changed, formal application {FCC 
Form 610] must be aabmitted to the Com- 
mission prior to any qperation and within 4 
months of the move for the purpose of 
n»odifying the station tioense to show the 
new permanent station location. Operation 
at the new location lis permitted, under rhe 
license for the former station from the date 
th9 modification application i.^; mLgiied imtil 
the applicant i$ advised of Commi^ion 
a^rtion on ihat application, 
rs. Ij97:l03tb)ni it amend&d to read ^ 
follows: 

§97,103 Saiion toffrvQuif&nentf, 
(bJ * • • 

111 Tha dite and tirne periods the duty 
control Qf»ntor for itie station was other 
thiHi the station licens^^. snd the signai:yr« 
and station ealliiign of thai duty oontrol 
operator 
17. |97;1 f2(b) dafr^nded. ^ fptlowi: 

§97.112 li/o nmiMtefsTkm for use pf 
statkm. 

(b) Control operators of an amateur stBtion 
may be compemated w4ien die station i$ 
operated primarily for tfw purpose of oon- 
ducting amateur radiocommunication to 
provide telegraphy practice transmissions for 
persons learning or improving proticiency m 
the IniernatlonBl IVIorse code, or to drs- 
seminaiG informatioh tautEetins consisting 
solely of subject matter of direct interest to 
amateur radio opdrators^ provided: 
13. §97.1 63(b] Is amended to read, as 
folCows; 

^91 A B3 Definitions^ 
lb) RACES opBrarioft. Amateur r^dtooom- 
municatloo oonducted by amateur radio 
stations In th« Radio Amateur Civil 
Errwrgancy Servica- 
19. ^97.185 ts amended to read, as followii 

g97,1 65 Appticabifit^ of mfes. 
In all caset not specifically covered by rhi^s 



Subpart, amateur radio stations engaging in 
RACES operation shall be governed by the 
provisions of the rules governing amateur 
radio stations and ofKrators |5ubpart$ A and 
E of this Parti. 

20. §97.169 s amended to read, as follows: 
§97 J 69 St^km /roer/se rvquir^. 

No station stiall en^ge in RACC^S operatiiyi 
unless- tfw station is an amateur radio station 
licBfised iw the Federal Cornmunicaitonji 
ConUYiiision and ts certified by a responsjbi* 
civil defense orgpsniz^tion as being rvgirster'Pd 
With that or^nization. 
§07.171 [Deletedl 

21. ^97.171 isdeteted. 
|97 J 73 I Deleted) 

22. 197.173 is (feleted. 
§97.175 [Deleted] 

23. §97.175 is deleted. 

24. §97 J 77 is amended to read, as follows: 
§97.1 77 QperatGt mqufretnents. 

Mo person shall be the oantrol operator of 
an amateur radio station engaging m HACES 
operation unless that person holds p vslid 
amaieur radi^O operator license issued tay the 
Federal Communications Commission and is 
certified by a responsible ciuij defense ofgan- 
Izatlon ae being registered with that orji^nl- 
2 at ion. 

25. S97.181 Is dDleted and a new §97JB1 
added, as follows: 

P7 -IBIS tatiOff (dsn r/ffcaf /Ort , 
In addition to the station fdontificatlon 
requirements of §97.87« each amateur radio 
station engaging in RACES operajign shall 
transmit the following additional informa- 
tion: When tdenlifying bv r^dioteFe phony, a 
station in RACES operatic^ shall transmit 
the word "RACES" at the end of th« stall on 
catjisign. When identifying bv radiotela- 
graptry. a station in RACES operation ihall 
trannniT ftie fra^jon t>ar DN followed tiy 
the tetters *^C' or "CD" at the end Of tt» 
Station csflsign. 

26^ §97.1d5[b| i$ amended to read, as 
follows: 

gS7 . 1 85 Fmquen&e& sv^tlati^ . 
fb) In the event of any emergency which 
necessitates the invoking of the President's 
War Emergency Fowen under tfie provisions 
Of Section 606 of the Communications Ad 
of 1934, as ameruled, unless modified or 
o^erwise directed, ama^ur radio stations 
en^ging in RACES operation will be limited 
in operation to the to ho wing frequencies^ 

27. §97.189 is amended to read, as fotlowtt 
§97 . T 89 Points of communication . 

Amateur radio stations engaging in RACES 
operation may be used gnly to cornmunicata 
with the following, upon authorization of 
Ihi) res pons ibie civii defense official for the 
organization in which the amateur radio 
Station ii feglste^ed: 

tol Afnaiauf radio stations registered with 
thg tanre or another civil defense organtia- 
liof»; 

(b) Stations in the Disaster Communications 
Servfce; 

(c) Stations of the UnhEd States fdvemment 
authorized by a responsible agency to 
ejfcHange communicatJqns with stations 
engaging in RACES operation; and 

(d) Any other station in any other service 
regitlated tiy the Feifer^l Communtcalkms 
Commiss.ion, vrfwnever such station h 
Buttioi'iied by tfw Commission to eicchanp 
commurticftions with stations eftgaiging in 
RACES operation, 

28. In §97.193. the hea<^ote ts revised and 
tfie tent amerHled, as folicnnrsr 

§97.193 Umitstfwfs on the u» of sti- 
Tioits op^rming in f^ACES^ 
All meaBp>s which are transmitted in con- 
nection with drills or tests in RACES shall 
be dearly identified as such by the u^ of 
the words "drill" or "test/* as appropriate^ 
In the body of the rriessag^. 

WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA 
REPEATER COUNCIL 

In the Matter of 

Der&gulation of Part 97 of the Com- 
mission's Rules to simpUfy the 
ficensing and operation of complex 
syslems of Amateur Radio stations 



and modification of repeater stib- 
bands. 

Docket No. 21033 



and Comments 



Mardi 17, 1977 

by the Western PennsytvEnia Repmim 
Council 

The fo I louring fesponse and comments to 
tfie doclc^et in question are rriade in coopera^ 
tion witti a committee of members from the 
Western Pennsylvania Repeater CoundL Thw 
oonients of this response are api>roved by 
the total membership of the council (at this 
lime, thirty -eight trusteesJ. 

Thie council agrees virith the genera! Intent 

of Docket No. 21033. but feels that tha 
extern of the dere^lation exhibited by this 
docket is such that it Vi/ill be abused. We feel 
that deregulation without structure Is not 
good. The complete ralaxation of rapeatef 
subbands would create chaos on all bands 
and make the voluntary jobs of tht fre- 
quency coordinators or repeater councils 
one t^lch would be excruciating, We do 
raalj^e that amateurs have t>een, by and 
targe, self-regutattng, but there ii always that 
one fanatic who goes to extremes v^en 
interpreting nites or the lack thereof and will 
Cr^te fuvoc on the bands. We feet tf^t 
structured deregutation is necessary^ 

To be more specific: 

Referring to paragraph iIk cri iN dockets 
we feel that ifiere is a dafinita need to 
l»oense repeaters separately from those of 
tiotiUarv^ control, or remotnly controlled 
stations. PereguJatian w]^uld permit wiy 
amaiteur to put a repeater on the air without 
prior exhibition of technical competence 
vttilch your licensing procedure now rtt- 
^mr&^ Th« ottter alternative would be to 
re<^ire the amateur wishing to place i 
repeater on the air to prove hit lechnicfl 
competenoE^ and receive a frequency from a 
recoil ized area council. Furthermore ^ delete 
the vrard repeater from the following siatt' 
merit and have it readj All amateur station 
licenses would convey authority to optrata 
as control, auxiliary, link, and remotely 
controlled stations. 

Referring to paragraph seven of the 
dot::kQt, we a^ee with the wording. 

Referring to paragraph eight of the 
docket, we again state that repeaters should 
be licensed as a separate entity and therefore 
should be liven a distinctive "WR'" callsign. 

We therefore disagree with the need for 
the suffix Of prefij< "R" or "RPT" or tht 
word "REPEATER," but do see the need in 
iuxiliary operation for a descriptiwe term. 

Also referring to para^aph nine of the 
dodiet, the council do«s not care viliot 
length of time stwiid be required ^r station 
ickntificatMin. Trustees of repeaters would 
set tfteir ictentrfi cation interval at any si^ 
Ouence that tfwy deemed sufficient lo let 
the users know what repeater they are 
working up to ttie majdmum alkiwAbla tima 
anyway. 

Wt ai^ee with paragrvh ten and woufd 
like to make an adtfiiiona^l comtnerit, We feel 
that deregulation ooutd be extended to ttie 
point of eliminatjr>g the control operator 
and making the iiKlividual amateurs i^ing 
the repeater responsible for tf>eir aCti-ontand 
words v^ile using the repeater. 

We also agree with paragraph eleven. 

Referring to paragraph twelve of the 
docket, the council totally disa^eel with 
removal of repeater sub bands as stated in a 
previous paragraph of this response. Wa 
further wish to state that repeater subbanris 
should not interfere with other modes of 
operation within the same frequency band. 
We feel that there is no place for repeaters 
below ten meters and that they should be 
assigned to specific blocks of frequencies 
Ofiily on or above ten meters. We do, 
however, agree that monitoring of the fra- 
quencv used far auxiliarv operation before 
Mtid during operation i^ rtec^s^ary and in 
accordance with good operating praclice- 

Conceming the requBt for oonvnonts 



37 



about powef timttaUonii, we feel that the^ 
Itrrtitltiori^ should be conlini^d. Ttie bask 
concept of repeat^^ w» to provide intra- 
cismmufiftY oocnmunicjili<ini, ifid a limit on 
the 1 mount of power accomplishes this 
peripemivie. We do niBVil • modif legation of 
the poiMcr limitation rule e il now redd(» 
amji that a to r^wchrdl ft 10 ttve eH&ct of 
mutwtffinn pQwr at the base of the antenna 
{M the 9itenfts enil o( th^^ te«^ine|' ^d not 
the thedireticar vaiie required l3V Qilojlatjng, 
tffectjve radiated pow^r, 

Fmquency isoordin^ton or area councils 
(If they handle frequency coord irntion) 
mu^t be given additional' power to meet 
anticipated congestion due to the g^c^wi^pg 
number of repeaters, A mandoiofy requifs- 
ment of every group or Individual wishing to 
place a repeater on the dlr thould first be to 
iccurfi ^ frequency ffom a coordinator or 
Coui^iL It should be additionally noted that 
giving th^ [;:oordinatOf$ or oaurkCik pfftciaJ 
power IS nol a far-fetched idea or just a 
vt^im — the Commitsion refen frequer^cy 
tidordtFiation for the mmmercl^l srvice^ to 
■notJtlide firm. 

Respectfully subfnittedL 

Daniel H. Habinovilz K3ISO 
Secretary, WPBC 

TO: 

THi FEDERAL COMMUNICA- 
TIONS COMMISSION 
Washington DC 20554 

COMMENTS OF; 

Thomas M. Gooding 

206 West Maple Avenue 

Sterling VA 221 70 

Licensee of ABS K4LHB and 

WR4ABR 

m THE MATTER OF: Docket No, 
21033. Notice of Inquiry and Notice 



of Proposed Rule Making Adopted 
D&cambar 22, 1976. 

TiTLEDt Derogylation of Part 97 of 
the Commission's rules to simplify the 
licensing and operBtkin of complex 
syitems of Amsteur Radio stations 
and modification of repeater ?ub- 
bands. 

1 . The foUoMng com merits are bajied On 
my exper jence of nearly twenty years as an 
amateur licensee with emphasi* on activity 
in the VHP region. I am trustee for the 
Northern Vlrglrii:^ FM Asisociatjon. Inc., iof 
the repeater license WR4AQR and havs 
served &ino@ )970 a& an officer and director 
of that organifation. 

2. It would appear that itie effort to 
defegulate the Amateur Service is beginning 
to eKoeeff prudent restraint. White much 
deregulation is pcrssible without changing the 
bi&ic princ>pl« ind tradition^ of the Servi«, 
ouikMi is ffeecetsarv to pf«$«rve tbo» t^adt- 
tions which have made the Amateur Servts 
ind thv hobby it reguLata v> valuable to the 
public int<Te^. 1 urgi tiie CommHUion to 
iBke « Inrd look at the disruption thai iKti 
and tubiequerit F^^oposab nfty ctum to the 
o>AraJI tervjce and to coniider that some 
resirairrt in dervguHatioo is necessary > 

3. I Sfiree with the proposal to del'ite the 
nsquiirement to sepsratdy author is canTrol^ 
auxiliary link, ^nd other remotely controNed 
stations, including repeiat^r stations. Since it 
Is no longer necessary to submit to the 
Commission t^chniical showings to obtain a 
repeater license, h is only logical to make 
thete types of operation an ihherent 
privilegi! of a primary or clubs^tat^on license, 
the addition of "/fl" or ^'/flPT" is quite 
$uMicieiit to identify this activity h 

4. tt is still necessary to limit the re- 
peater activity to specific subbamft, ho«i^ 



ever. Except for i^Qlaied cases, the gmateur- 
administered pr4){|rBm of fret^uency coordin- 
ation h« worked vwB, This pro^'am ii based 
on bend pfint whidhi ste forimulawd on 
specify subband Hsi^iments for repeeten. 
The com inuoui use of a particular froqMn>cv 
by a repeater ctHild gr^e sn utifair adwvnta^ 
to Ihe repealer siaiion over non-repeater 
stations^ ihotHd ill frequs^des be available 
fix rsf^ter operation, 

5. An tKpanston of the present alloca- 
tions ts certainty appropriate^ howevet. I do 
believe thai the natore of the VHF repeater 
vs. the propagatiort iirasaries and lack of 
tr^di^ti^Qn^l channel ixstion make& the MR and 
HF bands a poor choice to even attempt 
repeater operetlon. Therefore, I recommend 
that reiieeter csporation be limited to fre- 
quencies above 29.0 MHz and that present 
repeeiter allocation's be expanded as follows: 



29.0 


to 


29.7 MHz 


• 145.0 


10 


146.0 WH7 


221.0 


to 


224.0 MHz 


M20-0 


lO 


431 .0 MHz 


M37.0 


lo 


4501} MHi 



TtK expar^too of the 14&143 MH; band 
to ttw limiti above (*| rm/st be predicated 
on the expamioo tri tht privifegei of the 
Technician Cla^s licefisee to itictude the band 
144 to 145 MHj. Thii is wftsi to preserve th* 
non- repeater operation, and non-FM ace^vnty 
now in the trcquencv band 145 lo 146 MHz. 
Thtsmovc would consolidate the weak si^^al 
actiuity to ju^t abo^e 144 MHz. 

It is also necissery to protect the weak 
signal and Amatdur Television activity in the 
band 431 to 437 MHz (**}. Tfte Commitslon 
may also wish %o protect the satellite activity 
in the VO, 2, ind 3/4 meter bands. 

6. I concur in the propo^d del^iion of 
tfe recording requirement of automatic 
control t§97.111(g)l2H and atree thit 
satis factor V rules compliance is practice 
wtthin the provlsioris of proposed 



§97.B5(eK However, ^97.8B{€] should he 
modified to permit radio control vit the 
rtpea^r receiving frequency as a setxmdary 
system to the control facility provided by 
vwir^lirw or other radio trequefThCuei. This 
wotrld gr^tly mcracM the poien.iEal for 
prompt exsrcHe of the eontfol hmctiion 
frcHti portidile arvi mobib units, particularly 
when the station ts beirig operaEsd under 
autornatic controJ. It is inr^ponant that ih'ti 
uplink control be ooly secondaty «nd cannot 
relieve the stalkin of maintaining positive 
control as novtf set forth iri the rules. 

7. After noting t\ in paragraph 3 of the 
Docket 21D23 Notice, the Commission 
omitted any further reference to the pati- 
tbner's request In RM2780 to delete she 
requirement for noting third party traffic in 
the station log |§97,103{b|i(2J). The same 
reasons that make logging under gutDmatic 
coturol unnecessary also make this loggmg 
requifement umwoest^ry. The licensee has 
the aption not to in ilia te or to term male 
thtrd party traffic which is contrary to the 
fvgulations, 

0. Since on(y isoJated cases of si^ificant 
prob]«ni% hav€ OOCutrC-d in the ^ea '^ 
frequency co^dina{H)n» I urge the Corn- 
mtssjon to rnake fuj panicutar state n«iit on 
rtpearer freq^ncy attignment. It mf^l ha 
wise to permit the Commission to official I y 
arbitrate disagreem^ents between intfividual 
rgpe3ler stdtiQin& wher« they Cari show tha^t 
ihey are unabie to reconcile iheir differences 
in any other way. The proposed §97.63 \% 
probably sufficient if any re^uletion in 
needed at all. At hO time should the Com- 
mission designate n on 'Com mission personnel 
to administer a frequency allocation pro- 
gram. This is best homJled by ihe ARRL or 
iimllar groups af Amat^ui's, 

9. 1 would endorse the provision in 
proposed §97,B4|cl io permit up to 10 
minute rnterval^ befwMo required trans- 
mission of repeater station indent iticatior^. 

Thomas M. Gooding K4LHB 



Ham Help 



I am at present preparirrg for the 
Extra exam and would like a Ifttle 
information, i am a subscriber to 73 
Magazine and enjoy ft very much. 
Also have the 73 Extra Cf3ss Ltcertse 
Swdy Guide, and 73 20 wpm tape, all 
of which t find very helpful. However, 
do you krvow of any CVV magazine 
that I can subscribe to? By that I 
mean any rnagazine devoted exctu- 
sively to CW, I thought I read about 
one in the March issue of 73, but am 
unable to locate the article. Thank 
you for your kind atterttlon lo this 
inquiry. 

Frank Travick 

2140 Indian Lake Hoad 

ISfties Ml 49120 



I have two pieces of gear that might 
be salvaged, bux no schematics. One Is 
an HP 524B frequency counter, with a 
525 A scaler. The basic counter is 
inoperative. Also, \ have a Poly- Co mm 
62 transceiver for 6 and 2 meters AM, 
Again, no schematic I would be 
wJUtfig to r%^mbur% any reader for 
info on tfie above units. 

t am cm Social Security disabititVr 
and this ts the only way \ oan get on 
the air within my tHjdget Anything 
you can do v^uld be greatly 
appreciated. 

John P. Dieringer W6RVP 

9010 Ramjgate Ave* 

W. Los Angelas CA 90045 



I am very Interested in becomrng a 
ham operator. I started reading your 
fine magazine 3 months ago in my 
high school library. I eagerly await 
each new issue so I can check out last 
month's magazlrte and I can study it 
more closeiy. I really like your 
columns* and especially your radio 
construction projects for t>eglnners. I 
also think your "Ham Help" column 
is a terrific public serviced 

Several of my friends and I want to 
move up into ham radio, but we are 
having trouble with the code and 
desperaieiy need help. We would sure 
appreciate help from anyone in otir 
area. Also, there are many potential 
hams besides us, and I think a class m 
amateur radio would go over very 
well. 

Ronald Games 

PO Box 285 

Leitch field KY 42754 



I would like to hear from hams 
knowfleilgeable in the solar power 
field. I v«nt to build nicad chargers, 
and twelve volt suppiies for ham 
equipment in field i^e. 

t can hefp those inter^ted in Zepp, 
random, and other antennas, as well as 
tiansmatches and tuners. 

James G. Coats WB6AAIV176 

6525 Elder St 

Lo£ Angeles CA 90042 



Do you know of anyone in tfie 
Nuemberf area of Gertnany wtio 
would be willtng to fielp me prepare 
for my Novice license? ) have been 
interested for a long time and have 
made many false starts on my own. 
but need a person to help me with H 
to succeed. 

SP4 Charles W, Espey Jr. 

HHB, 1st AD Arty 

APO NY 09070 

I reside near the Powghkeepsie area 
in Dutchess County I NY), and would 
like lo taJce the Novice test* I would 
appreciate hearing from any ham 
willing to monitor ttietesl. 

F.Cuillo 

Box 14S 

Wassaic NY 12592 



I am eleven years old and deepty 
into amateur radio. I would {ike to ^t 
into a computerized RTTY system on 
24 GHz that will send ou[ a signal In 
microsecond bursts, but I need a 
transceivef for that frequency that 
will handle that situation. Can anyone 
help? 

iim Woodyatt 

6646 Moselle Cir. 

Yorba Linda C A 92686 



Would like to hear from present 
owners of the Hallicrafter^ FPM 200 
(rKit 300) with possibility of forming 
a club to eMchange information of 
interest. 

Jerry Swartzlander W8EPI 

PO Box 666 

Fremont OH 43420 



i am a man 84 years old, \ received 
my Novice license on April 7, 1976, 
and have had 1 contact so far. E have 
been off the air for 26 years — had a 
Technician license for over 20 years, 
and took sick and while sick my 
license lapsed. Could you put me in 
contact with some Novices who need 
help with the code like I do? 

Glenn N. Crawford WB0SLV 

207 5th Ave. N. 

Humboldt I A 50548 



I have 3 problem I think you can 
help me with. Over the years, t have 
picked up a lot of very nice equip- 
ment at very reasonable prices. Unfor- 
tunately, the f/0 code is EBCDIC, 
tony of the boys are handimg this 
problem with software, but this seerns 
an awful waste of RAM: 

There are ROMs available, but the 
quotes I have received range from 
$58.00 to S72.50 for single units. 

If anyone in your very large reader- 
ship knows where 1 can obtain Read 
Only Memories which convert ASCII 
to EBCDIC and back for $10,00 or 
leas, would they please let me know? 

If [ can get my hands on one of 
these chips. Til put something 
together and send you a piece for the 
I/O section of 73, There must be a lot 
of good EBCDIC equipment just 
gathering dust. 

Richard Wright 

676 Coe Streei 

Tiffin OH 44883 

P.S. Does this problem remind you of 
the old 400 cycle power supply prob- 
lem? 



38 



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Looking 14/est 



BiiiP&swrmk WA6tTf 
J 4725 Titus St. ^ 
f^noran^ City CA 9H02 

A^IYONEHAVE A 
SPARE ICEBERG? 

A sky so blue \x IciDks m though It 
were a painting by one of the masters 
rather than a creation of IVIother 
Nature herself. In the niiddle of this 
blue panorama hangs a sun whose 
white hot rays bring 80' warmth to 
this scene daily. Nestled below this 
sky are the mountains, deserts, wood- 
lands and dttes thai make up the state 
I call home: CaBfornia. Only one 
proWeiti, though. For all her pJctyr- 
esque cr^tivity in building this scene. 
Mother Nature hes gone a bit awry. 
VcHj s^, one would expect to have 
this scene from mid June until the 
beginning of October. However, It's 
now April, and wtth little exception 
the rains we need to grow our crops 
and provide water to our cities have 
yet to come. 

Wer are In pretty bad shape out 
here. At least that's what the TV and 
the newspapers tell us. Norma Hy out 
rainy season, approximately mid- 
October to early June, would bring 
I he water necessary for the rest of the 
year. However, this y^r something 
weni wrong, and while rnost of the 
rtation froze in sub-zero temperatures 
that were accompanied by heavy 
snowfalls, out here on the West Coast 
it was warm and dry. Now the time 
has come when It looks as if we are 
going to have to pay the piper for his 
nice music. Already, a number of 
Northern California cities Nave im- 
posed severe restrictions on the 
amount of water to be used by each 
person and for eac]i task. Soon I 
suspect that we here in the Southland 
wlJI be forced to follow in the same 
direction. It's a rather heavy price to 
pay for a warm vwinter, IkjI it is 
something that we have no control 
over. As I said, the time has come 
when we most pay the price for this 
winter, unlss one of you out there 
has a spare icet>eri} or two lying 
around and wishes to donate s^ne to 
a worthy c^ose. Any takers? 

When a sioluntary coordinating 
council such as the SCR A administers 
an area as large as Southern California, 
It is obvious that the tour people who 
make up the elected directorate along 
with the members of the two techni- 
oa! committees cannot be everywhere 
at once. Problems ariie, and it v^^ould 
be nice to know when such ''brush 
fires" ignite, so that they can be 
solved before they reach the "forest 
fire*' stage (as has happened In the 
past^. Then too, v^en you issue a "90 
Day Test Sanction*' for a new sYstem, 
It would be kind of nice to have 
s>meone available from the organiza- 
tion to work with those involved^ so 
that they can more easily interface 
with existing activity. If such Is not 
possible, it would be nice to at !east 
have someone to turn to with a call 
for help. The evening before the AprfE 
2nd SCRA nneeting, Jim Hendershot 



WA6VQP and my^f sat in my living- 
room porKdering just such a problem. 
U was no secret out here that both 
Jim and myself were running for 
elective office within SCRA (Jim for 
Chairman and ( for Vice Chairman), 
and we wanted to have a few new 
ideas ready thai would enable us to 
hetp build even stronger unity within 
the organization (should it come to 
pass that one or both of us were 
elected). The key, we felt, would lie in 
developing quick lines of intercom- 
munication between us in Los Angeles 
and the rest of the administrative area. 
While Jim says it was my idea. I really 
feel that I must share credit with him 
for the idea that follows. We t^W it the 
"SCRA Af^ Advisor" — an amateur 
from each given area recommended to 
us by his peers who will act as an 
interface between the people of his 
area and the SCRA proper. In that 
way, we felt th^ any situation that 
might arise could be handled a lot 
faster. The fact that such was being 
dealt with by an area resident rather 
than a group of "outsiders from the 
big city" would tend to bring "vibes" 
of goodwill rather than help fan the 
flames. We felt that the only proper 
way to select such people was to let 
those whom he or she would be 
working with cr^ke the choice, since 
oniy in such a way ^njld that person 
hope to get the support of all aroa- 
teurs in his or her area. 

Both Jim and myself were elected 
to the offices we were candidates for, 
along with Incumbent Don Root 
WA6HJW as Secretary and Warren 
Andreasen WA6JMM as Treasurer. 
Jim has already opted to reappoint 
Tom Rutherford W6NUI as 220 MHz 
Techicat Committee Chairman, but as 
of this moment has yet to pick a 
leader to handle the same position for 
two meters. However, we are proud to 
announce that the first SCRA Area 
Advisor's position has gone to Paul 
McOure WA6HGK In San Diego (on 
the very strong recommendaipons of 
tftat ar^'s representatives present at 
the meeting^ It's only been three days 
since the meeting, so we are still 
waiting to fiear tfie recommendations 
from Santa Barbara, Ventura County, 
Orange County, the High Desert, and 
the Low Desert. By next months we 
should have the names of those who 
will be taking on this responaibhiity 
for the areas they reside in. 

On motions brought from the floor 
by immediate past Chairman Bob 
Thomberg WBBJPt. the membership 
voted to actively seek and implement 
direct technical committee interface 
between the SCRA, the Southern 
California Repeater and Remote Base 
Assoctatton, and the Mexican Coor- 
dinating Council, so that each can 
know what the other is doing and 
thereby avoid any form of "rf** con- 
flict. The establishment of such ^n 
interface only awaits action by these 
other groups^ Fred Deeg KSA£H will 
be acting as liaison to 5CR3BA if all 
materializes as we hope- A number of 
people BIB being considered for the 



post of Mexican liaison. Again, nrore 
on this as it materializes. We also hope 
to develop dlra^t lines of communica- 
tion with NARC (the Northern 
Amateur Relay Council}, so that we 
can work together on any problems 
common to both or^nizations. Jim, 
Don, Warren, and myseff have taken 
on a big responslfoilitv: however, with 
the help of the technical committees 
and the overall support of the organ! ■ 
zation as displayed at the April 2nd 
meeting, we feel that we can accom- 
plish a lot In building strong repeater 
and human relations. At least we 
intend to give tt the old "'college try," 
Special thanks must be given to Bill 
Carpenter and the JPL Radio Club for 
the exceptional meeting facilities 
provided. We met in the Von Kar- 
ma hn AudTtorium at JPL — a place 
that nnany of you have viewed on 
your TV screens during US space 
missions -* and it Is, from a techno 
logical standpoint, the finest facility 
that SCRA has access to. There Is 
something special about holding a 
meeting there, holding a meeting 
dedicated to the future of amateur 
relay communication In a place where 
history was created, A very special 
feeling of pride- 

SUNDAY AND DOCKETS 
IN THE PARK 

21033 ... 21116 ... 21117 ... 
21135... R(V1-2S44... BM2839 . . . 



letters and numbers that hold the 
future of the amateur service in thelf 
collective rwmenclature. But, how 
many hams really know or realize 
what effect action on any of these will 
have on his personal amateur career, 
or on the careers of us collectivety. tn 
an effort to educate and motivate 
interest by area amateurs in just this 
very thing, a coalition consisting of 
Alhambra RACES, the Mt. Wilson 
Repeater Association, and the 
Amateur Radio Media Workshop 
sponsored an open format discussion 
on this topic in Alhambra Park on 
Sunday, April 3rd. Though hurriedly 
put together, this meeting was attend- 
ed by about 70 area amateurs who 
came to ask questions of such well- 
knovm amateurs as Herbert (Pete) 
Hoover ill W6ZH, Dob Thomberg 
WB6JPL Lenore Jensen W6NAZ, Al 
Ogden W6SPK, Don Root WA6HJW. 
and yours truly. They came because 
they cared about their own future, 
and realized that if they were going to 
air their views on these matters to the 
Commissiori, they first had to ttxjr- 
oughly understand exactly what was 
transpiring in Washington. 

They also needed to know what the 
proper method of filing such res^ 
pon^s was, and the intricate why's 
and wherefore's to include in such 
responses. They came, they listened to 
the "experts/' they asked questions, 
and hopefully they went home to f ite 




The panBt of mipsns incisJC^ (L to RJ: Dg/j Root WA6HJW, f^te Hoover 
W6ZH^ {^tairman Bob Thornbsrg WBBJPi, Ai Qgdm W6SPK ^r^d WA6ITF. 
Not shown: Lenore Jensen W6NAZ^ Photo by Chrh Witiisms W86HGW. 




n 




Arriving in st^fe: Pete Hoover W6ZH and XYL with BMW, 



40 




Providing audio engineering is the master iiimseif, BUI Orenstein KH6IAf* 
Photo by Chris Wifliams WB6HGW, 



their own personal vtews on the 
pending deregulation and reregulatlon. 
With only two weeks' lead time, it 
would not have been at all possible to 
make this a go if it had not been for 
the efforts of such concerned ama- 
teurs as Paul Wirt W6A0P [who 
procured the meeting site), the ever 
present and ever available Bill Oren 
stein KH6IAF (along with hts fine 
Shure Vocal -Master PA system}, Orlo 
Brown K6SUJ (who obtained free use 
of the dJas Eable and seating^ Bob 
Thornberg (who doubled as event 
organizer and meeting chairman), and 
many many others who realized the 
necessity to both "educate and moti- 
vate" amateurs. Although quickfy 
planned, for those in attendance 
{including a contingent from the 
SAMDRA organization who mobiled 
up from San Diego, and a duo who 
flew their Cessna 182 in from up 
north) it was indeed 3 success, 3f they 
each file a response, it will have been 
even more of on^. 

JACK ANDERSON VS, 
AMATEUR RADIO 

Last month t was pretty hard on 
the ARRL for their failure to act and 
assume responsibility for the creation 
of a Mational Voluntary Band Plan- 
ning Council. It's now April 5th, and 
to date I have yet to hear of any 
positive action in that direction 
coming from Newington — nor do 1 
expect to hear any in the near future. 
On this one I hope that I am proven 
wrong. Come on AR1=?L, how about 
surprising us with some positive and 
quick action on this one! 

Now, however, comes an attacl< 
upon the ARRL, the FCC and the 
very structure of the amateur service 
(tsetf, from none other than the cele- 
brated cofumnist Jack Anderson. Mr. 
Anderson writes a widely-read syndi- 
cated column for United Feature, 220 
East 42nd Street, New York City MY 
10067. \n this column Mr. Anderson 
states that in effect it is the amateur 
service that is holding back the future 
expansion of the citizens radio service. 
He goes on to state that from confi- 
dential sources and reports, including 
one prepared for Representative 
Elliott Le vitas of GecB'gia, he has 
learned that we amateurs "control" 
the FCC (ah , . . if only that were 



true), that the ARRL is a "lobby" for 
amateur radio (we should only be so 
lucky), and that we amateurs have ''a 
lock" on the higher frequencies which 
are interference free (whatever that's 
supposed to mean). He states that 
hams control more frequencies than 
all of the nation's police and fire 
departments, commercial and educa- 
tional FM broadcast stations, and TV 
stations in New York and Los Angeles 
— combined f Weil I guess that's true if 
you count some of the stuff up in the 
GHz region and light, but tell me, how 
many QSOs fnave you had with your 
flashlight lateiy, fellow hams? Out 
here if you stand on your roof calling 
CQ in CW with a flashlight, the 
response you get will probably be a 
police helicopter circling above you 
with a rather bright light of its own, 
and a number of police officers on the 
ground who will want to know why 
you were up there in the first place 
and exactly what you were doing. 

Anderson claims that FCC Chief 
Ray Spence has made decisions 
detrimentaf to GB. I suppose that if 
one (S in a position of having to 
enforce the Commission's rules he 
might be placed in such a position 
from time to time. However, Mr 
Anderson fails to mention that it is 
the Board of Commissioners, and not 
Mr. Spence, who makes the decisions 
around the FCC. in Field Operations, 
Mr. Spence is only doing his duty to 
his employer — in this case, the 
Federal Government in the form of 
the FCC, Since when is it improper to 
obey the directives of your superiors. 
Jack? rd get fired if I did not follow 
my bosses' directives! 

There is more to this story, but by 
now it should be clear what the 
whole thing is about: another attack 
from GB in the hope of grabbing 220 
from us. 3t was a cruel story, one 
without any reaf basis in fact and one 
that we have heard time and time 
again. However, I find it a bit hard to 
hold Mr. Anderson totally responsible, 
In that I doubt if he has any first-hand 
experience with either service. I sus- 
pect that he thought he had a good 
story and went ahead with it without 
bothering to check as carefully into 
the facts as he should have. Unfor- 
tunately for him, this is one that just 
did not pan out as expected. Even 



more unfortunately for us, though, 
this column may weff have caused 
irreparable harm. I sincerely hope that 
when Mr. Anderson learns the true 
facts, he will foHow up with the kind 
of story that will punch lioles big 
enough to let alt the hot air out of 
those who would act to discredit the 
amateur service for the sole purpose 
of the theft of our spectrum. If 



anyone can do it, Anderson can. 
Educate hi ml The ARRL a lobby for 
ham radio? We should only be so 
lucky! 

Don't forget to write a letter of 
education to Jack Anderson. If he gets 
enough input, and it's the right kind, 
we just might be able to make a friend 
of amateur radio out of him — rather 
than have him as an enemy. 



Oscar Orbits 





Qtcsi 


G Qjhital IrtfQrm^tbn 




Oiear 7 Drbilal Infofmation 


Oflit 


t 


Date 


Time 


Lnngiitudi 


Orbit 


Date 


Time 


Langitude 






(Jukiq) 


(CIWT) 


olEq, 




<Jlin«} 


(GMT^ 


Crossing "^ 


NA 


21 1 55 BTN 


1 


0138:29 


fl5.E 


11S30BQ 


1 


0030:49 


61,0 


N 


21167 


2 


0038:25 


70.8 


1 1 &43 e Q 


2 


012S:0e 


74.6 


NA 


21 180 BTN 


3 


0133:31 


e4,e 


11655BQ 


3 


0024126 


59,4 


N 


21 VS2 


4 


0033; 17 


69.6 


llfiBBA 


4 


0118r43 


73.0 


NA 


21 205 BTN 


5 


0128:12 


83.3 


nesoB 


5 


0018104 


67.8 


H 


212T7 


€ 


0O2S;03 


68.3 


11 693 A 


6 


0112:21 


71.4 


HA 


?1 230 BTN 


7 


0^23:04 


82. t 


11705 B 


7 


0011:42 


56,3 


NA 


21242 BTN 


8 


0023 L 00 


67.1 


1171SAX 


3 


0105:59 


69. B 


EM 


21255 


9 


0n7;56 


80.8 


11730B 


9 


0005:19 


54.7 


NA 


?1 267 STN 


10 


0017:55 


65,8 


11743 A 


10 


0059:37 


68,3 


N 


21280 


11 


0112:47 


79.fi 


insse 


n 


0153:54 


81.9 


NA 


212S2BTN 


12 


0012:43 


64. e 


1175BA 


12 


0053:14 


66.7 


N 


21305 


13 


0107:39 


78.4 


1T781 BQ. 


13 


0147131 


80,3 


NA 


,21317 BTN 


14 


0007:35 


63,4 


11793 A 


14 


0046:52 


65. 1 


NA 


21330 BTN 


15 


0102:30 


77.1 


11806 BX 


15 


0141:09 


7B.7 


N 


21342 


16 


0002:25 


62.1 


11818 A 


16 


0040:30 


53.5 


NA 


2135SSTW 


17 


00 57 L 2? 


7S.9 


11831 B 


17 


0134:47 


77.1 


H 


21368 


}& 


01 52; IB 


89.6 


11843 A 


18 


0034:07 


62.0 


NA 


21380 BTN 


19 


0052:14 


74.S 


11S56B 


19 


0128:24 


75.S 


N 


21393 


20 


0147:09 


88.4 


11 868 A 


20 


0027:45 


60,4 


NA 


2t40B BTN 


21 


0047:05 


73.4 


11361 e 


21 


0122:02 


74.0 


NA 


2141EBTN 


22 


0142:01 


B7;1 


11B&3AX 


22 


0021; 23 


5S.e 


*t 


21430 X 


23 


0041:57 


72,1 


11905 B 


23 


0115:40 


72.4 


NA 


21443 BTN 


24 


0136:53 


35.9 


11918 A 


24 


0015:00 


57,3 


* 4- 


214E5X 


26 


0036:49 


70,9 


11931 B 


25 


0109: V7 


70.3 


m- -* 


21450 FD 


26 


0131:44 


84.6 


11943 BFD 


26 


0008:38 


55.7 


N 


214B0 


27 


0031 L 40 


69.6 


11956SQ 


27 


0102:55 


69.3 


NA 


21493 BTN 


28 


01 26: 36 


B2A 


11963 A 


28 


0002:16 


54.1 


NA 


21 505 BTN 


29 


0026:32 


68.4 


11981 ax 


29 


0QB6:33 


67.7 


N 


21518 


30 


fti^n?? 


B2.1 


1ieS4A 


30 


01 50:50 


Si. 3 



w 



The listed data tells you the tioie and place OSCAR crosses the equator in an 
ascending orbit for the first time each day. To calculate successive orbits, make 
a list of the first orbit number and the ne?<t twelve orbits for that day. List the 
time of the first orbit. Each successive orbit is 115 mmutes later (two hours less 
five minutes). The chart gives the longitude of the first crossing, Add 29^ for 
each succeeding orbit. When OSCAR is ascending on the other side of the 
world, it will descend over you. To find the eQuatorial descending longitude> 
subtract 166 degrees from the ascending longitude. To find the time it passes 
the north pofe, add 29 minutes to the time it passes the equator. You should be 
able to hear OSCAR when it is within 45 degrees of you. The easiest way to do 
this is to take a globe and draw a circfe with a radius of 2480 miles (4000 
kilometers) from the homeQTH. If \t passes right overhead, you should be able 
to hear it for about 24 minutes total. OSCAR will pass an imaginary line drawn 
from San Francisco to NorfoJIc about 12 minutes after passing the equator. 
Add about a minute for each 200 miies that you live north of this line. If 
OSCAR passes 15 degrees from you, add another minute; at 30 degrees, three 
minutes; at 45 degrees, ten minutes. 



OSCAR 6: Input 
145.90-146.00 MHz; Output 
29.45-29.55 IVlHz; Tetemetry 
beacon at 29.45 IV) Hz. 
OSCAR 7 Mode A: Input 



145.85145,95 IVIHz; Output 
29.40-29.50 IVIHz. 
Mode B; Input 
432.125-432.175 MHz; Out^ 
put 145,925-145.975 MHz, 



Orbits designated "X" are dosed to general use. "ED" are for educational 
use. "BTM" orbits contain news bulletins. "Q" orbits have a ten Watt erp limit 
"U" indicates link orbit. "IM" or "S" indicates that Oscar 6 is avail abie onfy on 
northbound or southbound passes. Satelfites are not available to users on "NA'' 
days. 



Tracking 

the Hamburglar 



STOLEN : Heathkit DX40 transmitter, 
VFI, VFO, SB301 receiver, s/n 
6490878. SB401 transmitter, s/n 
10346, SB600 speal<er. The trans- 
mitter was newly constructed and not 



yet aligned. Taken from my former 
residence in Lethbridge, Alberta on 
February T8, 1977. Richard Lol^en 
VE4ABV, 1114-666 St James St., 
Winnipeg, Manitoba R3G 3J6. 



41 



■V* 1 1 ^f^j n ^"^ ^ t^ r r^ * "^ +■:* V p ^* r\ ^^n > '^^ "^ 



V ^lY* ,^> -^j i?»i^-i. ^ y 1 - *-. i|i 

from page W 



ir-* 




BhvTU 



the light of ail the extra tntie un- 
heeded gadgets available on present 
TV and stereo &ets. Why not dispense 
vvitli them and build a realty decent 
set? 

The El A will also say that govern- 
ment is trying to over-regulate the 
industry- Weil, the rules of free enter- 
prise dictate, and quite rightly so, that 
if a product is not improved, and 
needs to be, either the public wil! 
mandate it, or the government will 
regulate it. At this point, the public is 
not sufficient ly aware of the signifi- 
cance of this problem. So, we must 
rely on regulation to do the job. That 
is why we need S-364. 

i said earlier that S-864 would be a 
"good start" At this point, this bill 
does not cover such things as TV/FM 
antennas and antenna amplifiers, both 
of which are potential BFI sources, 
not only to the equipment to which 
they are attached, but to the equip- 
ment of neighbors as well — I should 
like to see S-S64 amended to cover 
such exigencies. 

Arthur ReisWB9YUB 
Wonder Lake IL 



[ 



NOCB-ITLT 



Several of your readers seem 
worried about the proposed 220 MHz 
Class E proposal. On page 36 of the 
January issue of Wifeless World, a 
British publication, we read, ''As far 
as the international control of radio is 
concerned . . . Citizens Band radio 
does not exist. The countries that 
operate a service are taking advantage 
of another agreement made in Geneva 
that countries may use frequencies 
allocated elsewhere, provided such use 
has no effect outside their own 
borders, it was because of this provi- 
sion that the FCC had to shelve their 
plans to introduce a Class E service on 
220 !VIHz. Canada and Mexfco said it 
would interfere with their television 
services." 

This might explain why the FCC is 
now considering the Detroit-backed 
plan to use 900 MHz for future CB 
expansion. It would also explain the 
extreme actions which the FCC has 
been considering with respect to lirtear 
amplifiers. 

I was surprised to learn that the 
British Post Office controls all the 
radio communications in England. 
They have their own WARC disaster 
since the Postmaster General doesn't 
think that he has to reveal any of his 
proposals for WARC. If anyone ex- 
pects expansion of amateur radio fre- 
quency allocations, then they should 
ask, who will make the proposals? 



I've been working on my code and 
hope to go for my ticket soon. It 
would appear that in the future all 
amateur radio may be limited to the 
code, since everybody Is looking for 
more frequency allocations, and you 
amateurs have such a fipe tradition for 
giving, I can see it now — In 2027, the 
FCC is permitting micro processor-con- 
trolled SSB slow scan audio with an 
ERP of % kW, except during Family 
Time, which was only temporarily 
defeated by the major networks in the 
late 70s, during which time transmis- 
sions shall be limited to 4 Watts input 
power at 27,185 MHz. 

Alan Ames 
Quincy MA 



[ 



WINTER 



D 



Whoever coined the phrase, "when 
the going gets tough, the tough get 
going/' must have had ham operators 
in mind. 

1 would like to bring particular 
attention to the Cuyahoga Amateur 
Radio Society ICARS, 146.22/82), of 
Cle\/eiand OH. t am sure that this past 
winter will long be remembered by all r 
and on 1-28-77, winter dealt Its final 
blow, closing atrports, roads, and yes, 
even whole cities. In their homes, 
vehicles, and at the Red Cross head- 
quarters in downtown Cleveland, were 
members of CARS, giving their all in 
an emergency, throughout the long 
weekend. 

The following were active during 
the 72 hours that the storm whipped 
through the Cleveland area; K8TIA, 
WA3EYF, WB8JSC, W8PSX, 
WA8GE0, WA8YWIM. WDSCHL, 
K8MBV, K8PPZ, K8AJG. WA8DXY, 
WD8AJJ, WB8LDA, WASPIW, and 
WASIMI L. To ail others who assisted in 
the weather emergency, the entire 
membership of the Cuyahoga Ama- 
teur Radio Society (CARS) would like 
to extend a heartfelt, "Well Done." 

Wflliam S. Savage WA8GE0 
Sever> HIUs OH 






HORSE AND BUGGY 



in reply to your request for input 
regarding use of our HF bands, ! 
would say that I don't have much 
comment regarding AM because it just 
seems to have died a natural death 
anyway. Why forbid horse and buggy 
rigs after they're gone? There are 
times when AlVl is, in my view, justi- 
fied, even on 20 meters. Take, for 
example, when a court strips a man of 
his funds and possessions, and leaves 
him in deep financial debt and poor 
health. (Wouldn't such make one at 
least in mentally poor health?) And 



don't say that such doesn't happen 1 I 
know that it does, from first-hand 
experience! All after a fellow is too 
old to make a new start, and too poor 
in health as welL So if that fellow has 
some old gear or can scrounge some, 
AM could be a means of keeping him 
from going off the deep end, through 
moping in his troubles. He could get 
his mind on other matters by yakking 
with others. Enough of that. 

What I would like to propose are a 
few frequency use changes inside 
some of our bands. For example, 
some foreign stations use frequencies 
above 14.200 for other foreign con- 
tacts. The almost universal use of 
same-frequency transceivers finds 
many foreign stations above 14.200 in 
order to work W/Ks t which I don't 
complain about). But I would much 
prefer the old method of "split fre- 
quency" operation. There seemed to 
be far fewer pileup situations that way 
compared to the messes now. I see no 
way to outlaw transceivers. That is 
not my thought, My suggestion for a 
step toward relief is to ban US 
domestic QSOs in certain portions of 
DX bands, especially when the band is 
open for DX to at least a portion of 
the US. Also, because the "foreigns" 
are allowed in the "US" portion of 
the bands, why not be reciprocal? 
Allow W/Ks to use a portion of what 
is now DX territory for OX contacts 
only. My example is referenced to 20 
meters, but it can apply to 10, 15 or 
40m just as well, 

JoeDemke WTKCF 
Vernon ia OR 



CA KW 



I wanted to tell you about an 
incident that happened Sunday 
evening around 4 pm. I have a sick 
sister in San Diego CA> She Is in her 
middle 30s* I heard a San Diego 
operator calling someone on schedule. 
He called for 30 minutes and no 
contact. This was on 15 meters. I 
made a quick break- In and asked if he 
could make a phone call for me in San 
Diego. He said, "Sorry, old man, I 
don't have time/' 

Wayne, I just got my Advanced in 
November and I do not operate very 
much, but IS this what the amateurs 
are coming to? This is the type of ham 
that raises cane when you get 1000 
Hertz off his frequency and call CQ. 
That is what I started to do. 1 started 
to wait until he made his schedule, 
then move 1 kHz and call CQ San 
Diego* But, t thought, well the ham 
bands are getting like CB, so I just 
won't put myself in his class. A 
typical California kW. By the way, all 
my folks Hve in California. When I was 
there last year when my mother died, 
I went to visit a ham that had a 
fantastic antenna setup, but iie was 
too busy to let me see his shack. 
Probably 6 kW. We sure need some 
editorials on operating procedures and 
our responsibtfities as hams in emer- 
gencies and to our fellow hams. I have 
b&&n the communications officer for 
Civil Defense here since 1968 and 
believe me, tt is hard to get enough 
licensed hams to iielp. They want the 



publicity but don't want the work, I 
bought them aM new equipment plus a 
2 meter Motorola repeater, Phelps 
Dodge dup lexer, Hal ID, power sup- 
pi Ees, you name it. They use the 
repeater regularly, but where are they 
when you need them? My CB is more 
reliable! I now have gone commercial. 
A complete setup including mobiles 
and remote base. I intend to get the 
job done one way or another. I will 
equip CBers with commercial radios. 
I agree this sounds bad, but the 
hams, of which I am an Advanced 
class, are bringing it on themselves. 

Franklin J. Christian WA4DIU 
Johnson City TfM 



AR VS. CB 



] 



Last summer I got a letter from a 
friend whose husband had just had a 
heart attack. Because he was tempo- 
rarily in Calgary, Alberta^ her phone 
number was under another name. It 
would have taken hours with iVla Bell 
trying to locate the number. 

So I tried amateur radio, A call to 
the local repeater elicited, "We'll see if 
anyone has low frequency capabili- 
ties." 48 hours later, no phone num- 
ber. 

My own son, 14 and a IMovice, was 
too frightened to originate an emer- 
gency message at his minimal 5 wpm. 
So many kids jumped on him so fast 
when he first CQ'd that his operating 
experience had been unpleasant. 

So, we joined the local CB club. We 
are teaching and graduating quality 
operators into CB, and working road 
and weather emergencies regularly. 

IVty son and I will be trying for 
Technical licenses this spring. We 
won't give up on ham, but it won't be 
because CB is bad. It will be because 
we may face our own long distance 
emergency situation again. 

Foncey Taylor KACF898B 
Laramie WY 



JAMES 



James Electronics gives fast service 
even here In the Western Pacific. I 
mailed an order to them on the 
morning of January ^ and I received it 
on January 16, while at sea. 500 miles 
from the nearest land I 

Max Cornell WAI^SIG 
FPO San Francisco 



HOT WATER 



The- following two lelten concern 
the article "An Automatic Thermo- 
stat/' by George R. Allen WIHCh 
which appeared in the January, 1377, 
issue. After receiving Mr. John P. 
McDermott's letter, we asked Mr. 
Allen for 3 reply. — Ed^ 

1 just read the article on page 62 of 
the January issue and must say that It 
is the biggest mess of error-prone 
nonsense 1 have ever seen- The author 
obviously knows nothing about 
furnace control systems, and you are 



42 



nuts to publish the article without 
having his ideas venfied by a corn- 
petent furnace installer or technician. 

To do what he wants you need two 
Items; a second thermostat identical 
to the first and a twenty-four hour 
clock switch that can be isolated from 
the 120 V ac power I me. Most of 
these clock switches can be dissassem- 
bled, and the contact wires discon- 
oected from the line cord and recon- 
nected to bridge the outlet ^cket. 
Now you have a clock drii/eri switch 
through which any reasonable voltage 
car> be passed. 

Now mount your new thermostat 
next to the existing one and wir« it in 
pafaMei, witti one exception. Splice 
the clock operated switch In one (eg 
of the new instsltaiion. The ntw 
thermostat becom® the day (or high) 
ccKTtroller and the e^cisting thermostat 
is now the night (or !owl controller. 
Set the "on'* trippef for days and the 
"off"' tripper for nights. The fum«e 
will afways try to satisfy the highest 
setting it sees. 

Ho^ about Not water lone systems. 
You T^ed a thermostat and clock for 
each and every zone. Also watch out 
wiEh hot water systems. Many use line 
voltage thermostats. It saves the cost 
of a motor relay- ^ word now about 
what happens in a hot water system. 

The waU thermostat controls only 
the circulator puttip, and not the 
burner. When the thermostat calls for 
heat, the pump is started. This brings 
colder water into the boiler bottom as 
the hot water is pushed out the top. 
Thps cooling of the t>oiler controtter 
causes it to close its contacts and ftre 
the burner. This cycling continues 
until the waif thermostat is happy and 
the boiler control ier is satisfied. 

There are three basic hot water 
zone types. Two are manifold types 
and the third is a ring loop. (1) Here 
the water inlets and outlets are mani- 
folded and each zone has its own 
thermostat and circulator pump. 
Quite often these are line voltage 
thermostats- i2} Here we have the 
manifolds again, but we use soJenoid 
or motor valves for each zone. This 
requires a three wire thermostat. The 
extra wire is used to control the 
pump. There is only one pump on this 
system, and it must run as long as 
there is any demand in the system. (3) 
This system uses a single pump, a 
single loop of pipe, and a thermostat 
and valve for every room. The same 
three wire requirements apply as in 
(2) above. 

Any three wire system should use 
DPOT switches to remove the unused 
ttwrnnostat from the circuit This com- 
plicates things, as the clock assenv 
blies for this type of system would 
h9^ to be handmade. But it couJd tie 
done, and is probably worth the 
efforts 

John P. McDermott 
Stratford CT 

Mr. McOermort*s commenTs are in 
Grror^ mth the exception of his 
description of **thfse basic hot wafer 
zone typei. " 

As 3 reputabte author, t laiie pride 
in the acctiracy of the anicfes tftat f 
submit for pubiication. Atf of the 
BTticies that I have submitted for 



publication over the past ten ye^rs 
have been chedi^d in concept ty 
other authorities prior to submission 
for publication. This articfe ^/tms no 
exception. In this case, f checked with 
a iocai professioftai engineer who is 
knowiedgeabie in heating systems, and 
a manufacturer of furnace control 
systems. Furthermore^, prior to in- 
staf/ation of the unit on my own 
furnace, I checked with the contractor 
who instated my furnace during the 
construction of my home^ These three 
authoriti^ indicated that my ide^s 
were sound ^nd femibie^ They did 
caution me not to attempt to describe 
every possible heatirrg system and 
their resultant variations- They 
advised me to discuss the two com- 
moftf simpfe systems discussed in the 
article in rnder to keep the articie 
clear and concise, t therefore must 
take exception to Mr McOermott's 
statement that tfre articfe is "error- 
prone nonsense/' instead, the article 
w&s verified by competent authorities. 
Mr McDermott states that "To do 
what he wants you need two items: a 
second thermostat identical to the 
first 3r}d a twenty-four hour dock 
sv^tch. f suggest that Mr, McDermou 
reread the article one more time, 
especiatly the section eniitied "Princi- 
ples of Operation/' Mr. McDermott 
should also take notice of the sche- 
matic in Fig. J and the parts fist at the 
end of lire article. Upon reviewing the 
article one more time, Mr^ McDermott 
wift surely notice that t/*e clock 
switch is present (Tork ft Of or Sears 
models} and is isolated from the 
power line by the ff7 Vac refay. The 
second thermostBt is bI$0 present and 
is referred to as the ^^ntght thermo- 
stat. " Mr, McDermott is in error v\rhen 
he states that the second thermostat 
must be the same as the first thermo- 
stdt. The second thermostat must be 
of good quality^ such as the thermo- 
stat recommended in the article, in 
some cases the ^'on-off lag" of the 
tfmrmostat may have to be ad/us ted 
The instructions that come with the 
thermostat will desert i^ any such 
ad/usiments if they are required. 

Mr. McDermott supplies a sketch 
and description of an alternate con- 
nection for the dock switch. Mr. 
McDermott*s connection will only 
handle a single thermostat, ft wiif not 
perform the function as described in 
the articfe, Mr. McDermott h^ 
supplied this sketch since he has 
stated that ". . . you need a thermo- 
stat and clock for each and every 
lone/^ This statement is incorrect 
For home heating purposes^ only a 
single, centrally located, "nighttime" 
thermostat is required. As mentioned 
in the articfe. temperature uniformity 
is not maintained throughout the 
house when the system is in '"night- 
time" mode^ How&ir&. as stated^ this 
is of fittle consei^uence. 

/ regret that the articfe was neces- 
sarify limited to "automatic conrrof" 
of only two simpfe, gen&^alized. heat- 
ing systems. However, time does not 
permit a discussion of all heating 
systerrts and their variations. If the 
experim&yter has a heating system 
that does not conform to tfw 
examples in the article arid is unable 
to adapt tfte automatic thermc^tat to 



his system^ he can drop me a note and 
I wilt attempt to help via letter. 

ft should be noted thai as of this 
time There are currently four of these 
systems operational in my neighbor- 
hood. (The first systems have ^ust 
turned three years ofd.^ Alf four 
systems have performed wefl without 
problems and have given tfwir owners 
significant savings. 

GaorgeR. Allen W1HCI 
80 Farmstead Lane 
Windsor CT 06tB5 



EXTRA CLASS 



Vm taking your advice tn the pre- 
face of the 73 Arrmteur Extra Oass 
Study Guide — drop you a letter when 
the license arrives! Since insist up- 
grading is in effect, I don't have lo 
wait. 

I'd like to thank you and your 
technical editors for a truly outstand- 
ing study guide. I'm a nuclear sub- 
marine officer and have been away 
from amateur radio for about six 
years. I picked up a copy of your 
study guide, studied it over a two 
week period, and that w^ that. I 
especially appreciated your practical 
eKamptes and informative approach, I 
truly enjoyed reading the guide — as 
surprising as that may seem to most^ 

Also, I just took out a subscription 
to your magazine. I was impressed by 
the variety of articles in your January 
issue. I hope the future issues are as 
good. Keep up the good work, 

Ed Giambastianr WB2CTK 
Canasota NV 



AMP BAN 



The FCC released a Notice of Pro- 
posed RuIp Mailing, Docket 21116, 
on 18 February, 1977. This ominous 
docket would prohibit the manufac- 
ture of any amplifier capable of opera- 
tion between 24 35 MHz, If adopted 
as a Report and Order, you will no 
longer be able to purchase an ampli- 
fier with 10 meter coverage. Sunspot 
activity during the next tew years will 
peak, and the lo^ of this prlvile^ 
should be of concern to you, no 
matter what your license class. Com- 
ments must be filed on this docket by 
25 May. 

In an even more disgusting NPRM 
released on 18 February, docket 
21117, the FCC proposes type 
acceptance for all amateur trans- 
mitting «iuipment. Type acceptance 
is an expensive, oofnplicated and slow 
bureaucratic process. It will irKrease 
costs of amateur gear* Costs will 
double, possibly triple, or maybe even 
quadruple. Small manufacturers will 
be forced to close their ctoors, or 
abandon tfie ham market. Comments 
must be fited by 25 May. 

Explaining the need for these new 
rules, which they acknowledge will 
punish licer^sed law-abiding amateurs, 
the Commission cites increasing abuse 
of amateur transminir^g equiprnent 
(currenily exempted from type 
acceptance) by CBers and unlicensed 



GOLDEN ROAD KIT 

ALL YOU NEED 

TO BECOME 

A HAM 



2Z0 




Operators who hawe taken over the 
frBquerK:ie5 just below 10 meters . . ► 
or in some cases frequencies In the 10 
meter band. 

tn anticipation of these dockets, 
the San Antonio Repeater Organ (ra- 
tion filed e petition for rule making 
with the FCC before their release. 
Briefly, this petition, assigned Rule 
Making No. RM-2839. requests that 
FCC license equipment dealers of 
non-type accepted equipnvent and 
require proof of a valid amateur oper- 
ator's license for purchase, with 
appropriate mandatory fines for viola- 
tions. Nothing in dockets 21116 and 
21T17 would stop acquisition of ama^ 
teur transmitting equipment by non- 
amateurs. It coutd then be easily 
modified to cover 1 1 meters, or u^d 
on our amateur bands by unlicensed 
operators as it now is. FCC is going to 
do something about the problem. 
SARO doesn't want to cause serious 
loss of privilege or inconvenience to 
any licensed amateur. Certainly we 
want new rules to effectively end this 
problem. 

The FCC, in the above dockets, 
asks amateurs to suggest reasonable 
alternatives. SARO has^ yet pressure is 
obviously needed so that the Petition 
RM-2B39 will receive the considera- 
tion it merits. 

BobWheatonWBPKK 
San Antonio TX 

PETITION FOR 
RULES AMENDMENTS 
The San Antonio Repeater Organ- 
ization, a nonprofit society of ama- 
teur radio operators, dedicated to the 
advancement of Amateur Radio 
Communications and the preservation 
of this radio service in the public 
interest, respectfully requests the 
Commission to amend Part 97 of its 
rules to provide for adequate restric- 
tions on the sles of transmitting 
apparatus and rf power amplifying 
devices currently exempt from regula- 
tion under the equipment type ac- 
ceptance or type approval progrmns. 
We further request that the Com mis* 
sion establish a deal^ licensing pro^ 
gram for dealers er>gaged in the sale;, 
lea^p trade, shipment and distribution 
of norv-type accepted or no n- type 
approved transmitting apparatus at 
the retail level, and provide for 
mandatory penalties for any party, 
who during or after the original retail 
sale, delivers or causes to be delivered, 
any such transmitting apparatus to 
any individual or group of irulividuals 
not in possession of a valid license 



43 



authorizing its use. 

in support whereof, the following ts 
respectfully submitted: 

1. The absence of such regulations 
has been responsible for the prolifera- 
tion of variable frequencv osciMators, 
linear amplifiers and other trans- 
mitting equipment manufactured and 
sold as intended for the amateur radio 
market, and thereby protected by the 
technicality which exempts such 
equipment from the type acceptance 
or type approval programs. Much of 
this equipment is obviously, by its 
very design, manufactured and sold 
primarily for unlawful use outside the 
amateur radio service bands by citi- 
zens band or unlicensed operators. 
The manufacturers' claims that such 
equipmer^t is intended for the amateur 
radio market are a subterfuge to 
permit circumvention of the Commis- 
sion's Rules, since it is of little or no 
value for use by the serious radio 
amateur. 

2. Transmitting equipment manu- 
factured and sold by this devious 
method of rules circumvention is 
known, by the Commission and 
others, to be a primary cause of 
interference to radio and television 
receivers operated by the general 
public, and is known to be responsible 
for significant interference to lawfu! 
users of the citizens band radio 
service, the amateur radio service and 
other users of the radio spectrum, 
notably in the public service, marine, 
aircraft and commercial services. The 
vast number of persons using the 
citizens rad^o service makes it manda- 
tory that they observe closely the 4 
Watt transmitter output, as well as 
other restrictions in Part 95 of the 
Commission's rules. Harmful interfer- 
ence to other spectrum users caused 
by lawful operation of citizens band 
equipment is almost negligible com- 
pared to the disruption to legitimate 
com municat tons caused by illegal 
citizens band operators, and the new 
breed of lawless and unlicensed 
pseudohams, variously described as 
HFers, whiskey groups, etc., which 
utilize both unauthorized frequencies 
in the 26-28 IVIH2 spectrum and trans- 
mitter output levels often in excess of 
one kilowatt. 

3. The Commission's ban on CB 
linears, effective January 23, 1976, Is 
proof that the Commission is both 
aware and concerned about the harm- 
ful effects caused by equipment 
intended for illegal use by citizens 
band operators (Part 95} but manu- 
factured and distributed in circumven- 
tion of those rules through the false 
assertion that they are intended for 
the amateur radio market, and there- 
fore faM under the protective exemp- 
tion of the type acceptance and type 
approval programs. While this ban was 
intended primarily to end future 
availability of linear amplifiers for use 
by citizens band operators, it has been 
effective only in eliminating the VHF 
(iow band) class "C" amplifiers, 
marketed by reputable manufacturers, 
which, due to their non-linear amplifi- 
cation characteristics, were of no 
value in illegal citizens band use. The 
manufacturers' circumvention of the 
rules was made possible through tech- 
nical advances in amplifier design, 



permitting them to be successfully 
broad banded and therefore outside 
the jurisdiction of the ban, 

4. Cieariy, the exemption from the 
type acceptance and type approval 
protrams of transmitting apparatus 
designed and manufactured solely for 
use by radio amateurs has made the 
job of rules enforcement more diffi- 
cult. However, In spite of recent state- 
ments by Commission personnel, that 
the Commission intends to investigate 
the possibility of requiring type 
acceptance tor all commercially 
manufactured transmitting equipr 
ment, we submit that the inclusion of 
amateur equipment Into the type 
acceptance program would fall to get 
to the heart of the problem. Con- 
versely, a total ban on all forms of 
linear or rf power amplifiers, an 
alternative known to be under con- 
sideration by the Commission, would 
be shortsighted and prejudicial to 
many lawful and conscientious users, 
and would also fail to stop the avail- 
ability of high powered transmitters 
to unlicensed operators. The amateur 
transceiver offering a power input of 
two kilowatts PEP, with 11 meter 
"receive only" provisions, would 
simply replace the lower powered 
versions currently available. Clearly, 
none of the alternatives mentioned so 
far would effectively control the prob- 
lemsL 

5. Simply stated, the problems are 
primarily the availability and abuse of 
amateur radio transmitting equi|> 
ment, by non-amateurs, for unlawful 
purposes, and the tremendous inter- 
ference they cause to other radio 
services' owners of radio and television 
receiving devices. IVluch of this inter- 
ference must be presumed to originate 
from transmitters operated by the 
unlicensed pseudoham operators 
mentioned earlier. 

6. A high level of technical com- 
petence is necessary for the proper 
construction and operation of high 
powered transmitting equipment. 
Exemption of amateur radio equip- 
ment from the type acceptance and 
type approval program is evidence 
that the Commission presumes that 
amateur radio operators will possess 
the required level of competence, 
having so demonstrated by success- 
fully completing technical and opera- 
tional examinations administered by 
the Commission. Amateurs have done 
nothing to warrant a change in the 
Commission's views on this matter. To 
the contrary, while few of the citizens 
band or outlaw pseudohams possess 
more than a rudimentary knowledge 
of transmitter operation, and have no 
reserve of knowledge to draw upon in 
the event of irtterferenca to other 
services, amateurs have demonstrated 
the highest level of competence and 
concern in matters of interference and 
have formed many interference 
committees to assist when necessary. 

7. To eliminate such abuse by 
persons not licensed to use amateur 
radio equipment, to stop unlawful 
encroachment into the amateur bands, 
and to secure the amateur's future 
freedom to experiment and develop 
new communications techniques while 
provi^ding valuable public service, we 
recommend that the Commission 



abandon all other alternatives, in favor 
of rules changes which would require 
a valid operator's license for the 
purchase of any non-type accepted or 
non-type approved transmitting 
apparatus. The licensing of dealers 
engaged in retail trade, in a manner 
styled after the federal firearms li- 
cense, as it applies to retail firearms 
dealers, is certainly indicated. A point 
of sale registration should be imple- 
mented, with appropriate provisions 
to make it Impossible to circumvent 
the rules through mail order or export 
sales. The rules change should 
empower the Commission with 
jurisdiction in both the original sale, 
at retail, and subsequent resale by 
individuals as used equipment. Manda- 
tory penalties for willful violations are 
recommended. To preclude continued 
circumvention, such as the inclusion 
of a disabled transmitter, sold as a 
receiver only, and type accepted 
under Part t5 of the rules, any piece 
of receiving equipment containing 
additional circuitry not necessary Lo 
perform its stated purpose, or kits of 
parts for home construction of ama- 
teur transmitting apparatus, must be 
presumed to be operational at the 
time of safe. 

3, We respectfully petition for 
these rules changes, not because the 
majority of licensed amateur radio 
operators are guilty of violating their 
code of ethics, but as the only effec- 
tive means to control the commercial 
greed which has promoted such 
abuses. It is offered as the only 
reasonable alternative to the Commis- 
sion's current consideration of more 
restrictive rules changes in Its effort to 
resolve these dilemmas. We are con- 
vinced that such rules changes would 
cause a minimum of inconvenience to 
the lawful pursuits of the amateur 
radio service, and simplify the Com- 
mission's enforcement problems to 
the extent that new personnel would 
not be necessary to administer a 
dealer licensing program. We are hope- 
ful that strong regulation of sales will 
stop the rash ot new state end local 
laws attempting to deal with the radio 
and television interference problem^. 
most of which are intended as 
nuisances only, and usurp the 
Commission's authority to regulate 
transmission of radio signals. 

Wherefore, the premises considered, 
the Commission is respectfully 
requested to issue a timely notice of 
proposed rule making to amend Part 
97 of the rules in the manner peti- 
tioned- 

San Antonio Repeater Organization 



MORE BAN 



To the FCC: 

This Society of 750 licensed 
amateur radio operators endorses 
petition for rule making RM-2S39, 
submined by the San Antonio Re- 
peater Organization. During board 
action on 19 March 1377, after 
hearing reports on Dockets 21 1 1 6, 
21117 and petition for rule making 
RM-2839, directors voted to endorse 
petition RM-2839. 



In support whereof, the following is 
respectfully submitted: 

1. In consideration of rapid ad- 
vances in the state of the art, and the 
amateurs' need to adopt and further 
develop new communications tech- 
niques, it is in the Commission's best 
interests not to Impose type accep- 
tance regulations on amateur trans- 
mitting equipment to attempt to 
control unlawful use by n on -amateurs, 
if more effective means are available. 

2. RM-2839 proposes more effec- 
tive means for the Commission to 
achieve its goat, without imposing 
unreasonable restrictions on the 
licensed radio amateur. The simplicity 
of enforcing regulations proposed In 
RM-2839 should appeal to the Com- 
mission. Substantial savings in budget 
and manpower would result, per- 
mitting more vigorous enforcement in 
problem areas- 

3. Failure to implement restric- 
tions proposed in RIVl-2839, or adop- 
tion of 21116 and 21117 as reports 
and orders will perpetuate circumven- 
tion by failing to interrupt the supply 
of equipment easily modified for un- 
lawful use by non-amateurs. 

Wherefore, the premises considered. 
the Commission is respectfully re- 
quested to consider RM 2339 as a 
more effective and desirable alterna- 
tive for the Commission and licensed 
amateurs. 

Texas VHF FM Society, Inc. 
Lawrences, Hl^ins W5Q(VIU 

President 
San Antonio TX 



BROADCASTING 



Federal Communications Commission 
Washington DC 

Comments on RM-2830, Rebroad- 
cast of CB and Amateur Trans- 
missions . 

As a radio amateur, f am not 
opposed to the intent of this petition 
by the National Association of Broad- 
casters to provide a more direct chan- 
nel by which radio amateurs and other 
services may communicate emergency 
and safety information to the public 
at large, l am concerned, however, by 
what I feel is inadequate assurance 
that such rebroadcastlng privilege 
would not be abused by competitive, 
commercial broadcasters and their 
news departments, nor do I see where 
adequate provision is made to ensure 
that such re broadcasts would be made 
only with the permission of all partici- 
pants. 

I do not feel that it would be in the 
best interest of the amateur radio 
service to have broadcast news people 
monitoring, and recording, our fre- 
quencies in hopes of hearing some 
Interesting, "newsworthy" item which 
they could Interpret as pertaining to 
''public safety and convenience/' to 
be Incorporated into a commercially 
sponsored news broadcast- Neither 
would it be appropriate, in my 
opinion, to air a regular "traffic 
report" or other such regular program 
originating through amateur radio. 
Such uses of amateur radio could be 
construed as commercial, or 



44 



pecuniary, in the competitive broad- 
casting market 

On my second point, I feel that it 
should be required that a broadcaster 
obtain cortsent of all persons whosa 
radio transmissions \were recorded or 
monitored before such transmissions 
are rebroadcast, keeping In mind that 
amateur communication usually 
involves tiwo or more (often many 
more) stations. In: the siiuatbn of 
broadcast personnel monitoring the 
amateur radio service for news, is ii 
proposed that the broadcaster have an 
amateur license so that he can operate 
an amateur station, break in on the 
conversation, and ask al) Che partici- 
pants for their consent to re broad- 
cast? Or would such rebroadcast 
privilege be limited only to such com- 
mynication as emergency traffic net- 
works, where prior consent of the 
participants could be obtained? 

I fed that the NAB petition fails to 
set forth adequate guidelines for the 
broadcast industry that v«>uld protect 
the amateur radio service from urn 
authorized or comfnerciat use, and 
that act ton to relax the curfem pro- 
tection afforded by the regulations 
^K>utd be deferred until such time 
that the amateur operators have had 
an opportunity to review and com- 
ment on this important matter, 

Jerold R. Johnson WA5R0N 

Austin TX 



dant possibility of error. 

My position is to support the 
approval of RM'2771. 

Me I von G. Hart W0RV 
St, Louis IVIO 



ASCII 



Federal Communications Commission 
Washington DC 

I have been a licensed radio ama- 
teur for over 25 years and have 
advanced through the ranks from 
Movice to Extra class. My activities in 
amateur radio have been of tremen- 
dous importance to my vocation, I am 
Technical Director of a 5 kilowatt 
directional AM station and a 100 
kilowatt FM station with stereo and 
SCA, and have been recognized a$ a 
Senior Broadcast Engineer by the 
Society of Broadcast Engineers. 

I owe much of my success in 
broadcasting to the opportunities for 
experimentation and hands-on ex- 
perience afforded only by amateur 
radio. One can do very tittle ''experi- 
menting" in the broadcast business; it 
must be right the first time. 

The present state of the art in 
amateur radio has outmoded the rule 
allowing only the use of the Baudot 
code for the transfer of information 
between amateur stations. Most of the 
teJeprinter machines that use this oode 
are obsolete and repair parts are no 
lofi^r available from the fnanufac- 
turer. 

The current trend toward the use of 
microprocessors in amateur radio 
oriented applications is growing 
rapidly and appears to be a maior step 
forward. These system* generally use 
tf« ASCII S level code for informa- 
tion interchan^ and the use of ASCII 
on the amateur frequencies would 
allow greaief interchange of experi- 
mental information without the neces- 
sity for convefskan to and from the 
obsolete Baudot code with the atten- 



A MICRO OS 



f read with great Interest the article 
published in the March, 1977, issue of 
73 Magazine entitled, "Save Time 
With A Micro OS/' The article was 
submitted by Mickey and Foxy Fer- 
guson of PO Bo^ 1 1 104, Chattanooga 
TN, 

I have put this OS into my system 
just as it was pubttshed. I have 
checked and double checked to make 
certain that I have made no mistakes. 
) find ttvt the block move, the zero 
memory, ttie tape wrtie, and the tape 
read functioris all work fine. I have 
not been able to list a program. I 
belteve that this is due to my not 
using a PR-40 (1 use a teletype located 
in the control position). The progfam 
was written to print otit at SOOc. I did 
change this address to 8004 to no 
avail. I suspect that the PR-40 being a 
parallel device is the difference. The 
dump also stops the program. I 
suspect for the same reason. 

Of more concern to me is that I 
beUeve that I have found two places 
that the program jumps to addresses 
outside of the program. I do not know 
where they should jump to, and this is 
the reason for my letter. I betieve that 
as printed the address at location 
035F is incorrect, as ft jumps to 
address 0456. Again at address 03B3, 
the ]ump is to address 0467. 

Could you please advise me of 
where these addresses should jump to? 
[ would tike to use this program, as I 
think that there is much to be gained 
from itp I have already used the block 
move function to advantage in writing 
some programs. It Es very handy when 
1 forget something - I can move the 
program down and insert what I have 
left out 

I would a] so like to encourage the 
author to write up another article to 
tell what he did for the PROM that he 
is using in his system. 

Jack A, In man 
Covins CA 

May t begm w'th an apology to Mr 
ffiman (^nd ait ottiers fortunate 
enough to ha\e a hard copy device for 
their controi terminaf). t ^ouid have 
included the necessary information in 
the article on moi^ng The dump and 
tist fanctions to the control lerminaL 
This k quite emy to do^ as onty a 
single change to the OS is /vquired^ 
Change the three bytes beginning at 
$ar£A to $7^ EtDJ. Also, if the 
device that you have at the control 
terminal can print sixty -four (or 
morel characters per line, you may 
wish to change the byte at address 
sot AD from SDS" fo SW, as this will 
print sixteen bytes per line instead of 
the eight bytes per line requited by 
the short (40 character) line length of 
the PR-40. I might add that semraf 
impfoi^ments have been made to the 
operating system since the article was 



submitted to 73 fis any piece of 
software ever rea/fy completed?}, ff 
anyone cares to have them, send htc 
an SASE and / witt send you a copy of 
these improi^ments, 

f would also like to add that the 
dump that was published with the 
article is correct as published. If you 
have difficulty in getting any function 
to run, I would suggest that you 
fecheck the contents of your com- 
puter's memory against the memory 
dump in the article. To answer Mr. 
tnman*s question about the program 
bmnching outside itself, it does not. 
In Mr. foments first example ladr, 
$035€, instruction $26 F6}. the $26 
is a branch not equal instruction and 
the SF6 is the offset, in the M6800, 
this offset byte is a signed number^ 
which can perhaps be summarized as 
follows: If the most significant bit of 
the offset byte is a iero^ then the 
branch is ftyward; if the most signifi- 
cant bit of the offset byte is a one. 
then the branch is backward. So, 
instead of branching forward by SfS 
bytes to add/ess $04 56s ft actually 
branches backward by ^A bytes to 
address $0356. This (branching back- 
vvartt^ also applies to his other 
example, which is a $26 63 and 
btancfms backwan^ to address $0!^7. 

In response to Mr. Inman's question 
about my PROM board, I must admit 
that t have been too busy to do it as 
yet — Tm still using the OS in RAM 
memory. But several good PROM 
boards for the SWTPC M6800 com- 
puter are available from MSI (Midwest 
Scientific^ and Smoke Signal Broad- 
casting. I would encoumge all those 
)A^o have written and called me about 
this to check these two sources^ — 
M.F. 



10M CB 



\ have been giving some thought to 
the idea of using modified CB rigs on 
10 meters and I feet that if an 
acrosS' the- board shift of +2.440 MHz 
were made, it would provide the 
perfect "band plan.' 



r* 



Some of the benefits I can see for 
the amateur ^rvice through this type 
of conversion are — (A) make amateur 
radio more attractive to prospective 
hams, now CBers, by pmviding them 
with a low cost means of getting on 
the air after they have passed the 
amateur exam: tBt encourage more 
prospective hams and Novices to go 
for the General ciass as soon as 
possible and not stagnate (as I did) as 
a Technician for years; (C) provide 
relief for the congestion or\ 2m FM in 
major metro areas; (D) provide an 
alternative to 2m FM for "rag chews": 
(E) provide effective inner city mobiJe 
communications without high rental 
repeaters; and (F) pi^otect. by use, the 
upper reaches of 10 meters. 

Raiph E. Deltigatti 
K3CMY/WB3AUM 

17651 Amity Dr. 

Gaithersburg MO 

The response to €8- 10m conversions 
has been encouraging. We presently 
have several articles in production 
describing the process with several 
different types of CB radios. If any- 
one has completed a conversion, write 
ft up and submit your work to 73, 
Don't keep all that originality to 
yourself I I wonder if anyone has 
modified one of the CB base or 
mobile antennas for JO yet. - Ed, 



Ten Meter Band Ptan For Converted Citizens Band Transceivefs 



Notes 



CB Freq. 


Channel # 


Amateur Freq.* 


N 


26.965 MHi 


1 or 


A 


29.405 MHz 




26,976 


2 or 


B 


29.415 




26.985 


3 or 


C 


29.425 




27,005 


4 or 


D 


29.445 




27.015 


5 or 


E 


29.455 




27.025 


6 or 


F 


29,465 




27.035 


7 




29,475 




27.0&& 


8 




29.495 




27.065 


9 




29.505 


2 


27.075 


10 




29.515 




27,085 


11 




29.525 




27.105 


12 




29.545 




27.1 IB 


13 




29.555 




27.125 


14 




29,565 




27.135 


IS 




29.575 




27 J 55 


16 




19.595 


3 


27.165 


17 




29.605 


3 


27.175 


18 




29.615 


3 


27.18S 


19 




29.625 


3 


27,205 


20 




29.645 


3 


27.215 


21 




29.655 


3 


27 225 


22 




29.665 


3 


2/255 


23 




29.695 


3 



Motes: 

f — Shown alphanumeric since many transceivers of six chmrnels are shown 

either way, 

2 — Since many CB sets c^me with channel 9 or have had it installed, this 
would be a good choice for a National Catling Frequency. 

* — OSCAR enthusiasts should not ix hampered nor should any other more 
exotic modes be annoyed if these converted r/gs were to be used mthout any 
amplifiers. 

3 - These could be used, )ria a gentleman's agreement, strictly as local yag 
chew'' frequencies. 



45 



Cai i A. KoUar KZJML 
1202 Gemini Street 
Nanticoke PA 186Z4 



Two Meter Scanner 



'- for the IC-230 



After fighting a continu- 
ous battle with crystal 
manufacturers to get delivery 
of crystals for the local re- 
peaters^ I decided to take the 
big step and go synthesized. 
A review of the synthesized 
rigs available at that time 
resulted in the purchase of an 
Icom IC-230 which was on 
display at a ham radio outlet 
near a hamfest I was attend- 
ing. 

The rig seemed to have all 
the features necessary for 
efficient 2 meter operation: 
coverage of all standard 
repeater and simplex fre- 
quenciesj 10 Watts output, 
plus or minus 600 kHz trans- 



mit capability from receive 
frequency (the receive fre- 
quency is set up on the front 
panel), and helical resonators 
For increased receiver selec- 
tivity. The latter feature 
proved invaluable when a new 
repeater came on in the area 
and the locals began having 
interniod problems when it 
and the other strong local 
repeater were on at the same 
time. I found that the IC-230 
completely solved my inter- 
mod problems. The only 
problem I had now was that 
with my previous base setup, 
I had incorporated a scanner 
built into the rig to monitor 
four of the local repeaters 



plus 52 simplex. When 1 sold 
it, I lost my scanning capa- 
bility , which I sorely missed. 
At first the thought of a 
system that would enable me 
to scan a synthesized rig 
seemed like a formidable elec- 
tronic feat. However, upon 
closer inspection of this little 
beauty, it seems that Icom 
has done most the work 
needed. 

Brief Operation of the IC-230 

The received frequency is 
converted to the 10.7 first i-f 
by being heterodyned against 
the sum of the frequencies 
generated by the LO and CO 
oscillators in the phase locked 



XO Frtq 



00 Fr»q 



MHz 



1 3.783 



T3.B!6 
(124,345] 



13.849 
24M5) 




74.^45^ 






i3,n4y 

I12&.!i45} 




Ffg. h LO and CO frequencies for receive frequencies desired 



loop section of the rig. For 
example, when receiving 
147.21 J the LO frequency is 
13.916 MHz, multiplied by 9 
internally, or 125.245 MHz, 
and the CO frequency is 
11 .265, for a total of 
135.51 MHz, The difference 
between the 147.21 MHz 
receive frequency and the 
136*51 phase locked loop 
frequency is the iT frequency 
of 10,7 MHz- Refer to Fig. 1 
for determination of LO and 
CO frequencies for the 
receive frequencies desired. 
The black areas are fre- 
quencies available. Fig. 2 is a 
basic block diagram of the 
receiver and should give you 
better insight into the opera- 
tion of the receiver; 

Fortunately, in the phase 
locked loop section, Icom has 
thoughtful iy provided a 
switch position ("V" on the 
10 kHz switch) which dis- 
ables the internal CO oscil- 
lator and uses ii as a buffer 
for an external VFO. The 
input to this position is avail- 
able on a nine pin accessory 
socket on the right side of the 
unit. This is meant to be used 
with a VFO between 11.255 
and 12.255 MHz and v^ill 
cover 146 to 147, or 147 to 
148 MHz, depending upon 
which switch position the 
MHz sw^itch in the upper left 
hand corner is in. As a matter 
of fact, of the connections 
needed for a successful 
scanner attachment, Le., rf 
iniection, ground, plus 12 
volts, ptt line access, and 
squelch access, only the 
squelch access Is not already 
available at the accessory 
socket. This, however^ is 
quickly remedied by a 10 
minute modification to the 
transceiver which requires no 
defacing of the unit and is 
completely reversible in even 
less time. This will be de- 
scribed shortly. 

Armed with the knowl- 
edge of how the unit works and 
what points are available, it 
seemed the easiest approach 
was to build an external oscil- 
lator which injected the 
proper frequency into the CO 
buffer to enable monitoring 
of the frequencies of my 



46 



choice. With the MHz switch 
in the "146" position and the 
100 kHz switch in the "9" 
position or, alternately, the 
MHz in the "147" position 
and the 100 kHz switch in 
the n'' position, the LO 
frequency selected is 13,849 
X 9 or 124,945 MHz, To 
determine the CO injection 
frequency needed: F = fre- 
quency to be monitored 
minus 124.945 minus 10.7. 
For example^ crystal needed 
to monitor 146.94 would be 
146.94 minus 124.945 minus 
1 0,7, 0/ 1 1 ,295. Using one of 
these switch positions enables 
you to monitor 146,5 to 
147.5 MHz covering simplex 
and repeater outputs. Using 
the above formula, the crystal 
frequency for 146*52 works 
out to be 10,875 MHz, which 
is below the 1 1 .255 range for 
external CO input specified 
by Icom. However, both 
10230s I own operate very 
well at 52 anyway. 

An added advantage is the 
capability to scan transmit 
and receive with a single 
crystal. There is one thing to 
watch: When the scanner 
stops on a particular position, 
you must notice whether it is 
a 146 MHz repeater, a 147 
MHz repeater, or a simplex 
frequency, and move the off- 
set switch (located on top of 
the unit} accordingly or the 
toggle switch to "direct" for 
simplex. Transmit and receive 
scan capability is possible 
with a single crystal because 
the CO and LO oscillators are 
common to the transmitter 
and receiver. 

IC-230 Modification Steps 

1 . Remove bottom cover 
of IC-230. 

2. Locate two Small 
coaxial cable center conduc- 
tors connected to pin 9 of the 
accessory socket^ unsolder 
from pin 9^ solder together, 
and tape. This removes a "CO 
output" point from the acces- 
sory socket 

3. Run a wire from pin 9 
of the accessory socket to pin 
14 of U4E, the AF board. 
The AF board is the third 
compartment from the rear. 
With the rear of the set facing 



w 



AF 4MP 



BAND PASS 
FILTERS 



MIX£R 



PHASE LOCKED 
LOOP FREOUENCV 

CONTROL 
<L0 50) *C0 



I'F 



MH: 



1ST IF 
AMP 



2ND 

MIXER 



CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR 
10.245 MHjt 



455 KHj 
FILTER 



A STAGES 
END l-F 
AMP 




L»MfTER j 




eNo 

I'F AMP 




LIMITER 




2ftD 

IF AMP 




DETECTOR 




A'F AMP 















you, pin 13 can be located 
just to the left of center and 
is the only pin on the board 
without a wire connected to 
it. It is the squelch test point 
and will be used to obtain the 
signal which stops the 
scanner. 

The scanner can be built 
on a piece of vectorboard and 
parts layout Is not critical, 
but keep in mind good build- 
ing practices^ including keep- 
ing all leads as short as pos- 
sible. Fig, 3 shows the 
scanner schematic. 

Circuit Description 

ICl, a 7414 TTL IC, is a 
hex Schmitt trigger. Since the 
squelch voltage of the 10230 
rises and falls relatively 
slowly^ a Schmitt trigger is 
needed to process that signal 
to provide an output with a 
sharp rise and fall time for 
positive starting and stopping 



Fig. 2. Receiver block diagram, 

of the scanner. Qll, in con- 
junction with R1 and CI, 
provides a time delay to hold 
the scanner on frequency for 
a short while after the carrier 
drops. With the values shown, 
the delay is approximately 5 
seconds. The time delay can 
be increased by increasing the 
value of CI or decreased by 
decreasing CI. 

IC2 is connected as a clock 
which provides the pulses 
that tell the scanner how fast 
to scan. Scan rate can be 
increased by decreasing the 
vaiue of C2 or decreased by 
increasing its value. A word 
of caution: Increasing clock 
speed too fast will result in 
the IC-230 not being able to 
**lock on" to the externally 
generated frequency and only 
sporadic scanning of some 
channels will be realized. 

IC3 is a decade counter 
which counts the input pulses 



PIN 
^ > 



PIT 



a2K 



9 y 



5C 



ICI 

7414 



INSI4'S ^^^ 

# -Lcj 




+ 5V 
4 



\<\ 



<o 



t3 



'TlOOftF 



i£ /h 



IK 



+ 5V 



IC2 
7400 



J 



IZi 



l^ 



4 

13 



-±-C2 



100^ F ,4 



fff 



IC3 
7490 



i\ ♦- 1 



7 :^ 



3 > fi^*- 




'HIM 



+ J2V 



FCb 



LMOa 



m 



T 



*5V 

J 



UF 



VI 4DjjF 






Y2 



+ J2V I IK 



Iv^r' 



-^^Ih-^i — T— 

• l£V I IK 

^"^ ,,40pF 
*I£V I IK 



t 
Y5 THRU no 

\ 



and presents them in binary 
form at pins 8, 9, 1 1 , and 1 2. 

IC4 is a BCD to decimal 
decoder which takes the BCD 
output of IC3 and converts it 
to decimal forrrii bringing the 
lines connected to pins 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 to 
ground one at a time, lighting 
each LED in sequence and, at 
the same timej turning on Ql 
through QIC, 

When Ql through Q10 
turn on, they activate one at 
a time Yl through Y10, 
which generate, in conjunc* 
tion with Q12, the fre- 
quencies needed by the 
IC-230. 

IC5 is a simple regu- 
lator which supplies the IC 
circuitry with 5 volts from a 
12 volt source. 

If 10 channel operation is 
not desired, 2, 4, or 8 channel 
operation can be had by 
ungrounding pins 2 and 3 of 



I 




430 



OS THRU OlO 
\ 



Fig. 3. Schematic. QI-QJO - 2N3638 or equiv.; Qll - 2N2102 or equiv, (any NPN silicon); 
Q12 - 2N2102 or equiv.; Q13 - 2N3055 or equiv. 



47 



IC3 and tying them to pins 9, 
8, or 11, respectively. Five 
channel operation can be 
accomplished by tying 
together pins 1 and 6, 2 and 
7, 3 and 9, 4 and 10, and 5 
and 1 1 of IC4, Of course, you 
would only use the amount 
of transistors and associated 
circuitry needed to scan the 
desired number of channels. 
For example, if only 5 chan- 
nels are required, omit Q6 
through QIO and components 
connected to their base and 
emitters. 



Operation 

Set ''MHz" switch to 
"146", the 100 kHz switch to 
the "9" position, the 10 kHz 
switch in the **V*' position or, 
alternately, the MHz switch 
in "147", 100 kHz switch in 
''}*\ and 10 kHz switch in 
*^V", You will note that the 
meter light is out, indicating 
that the IC-230 is not getting 
a CO oscillator frequency* 

Turn on SI ; the scanner 
should now scan and the 
meter light will be on. If a 



channel is active, the scanner 
will stop on that channeL It 
will begin scanning again after 
a five second delay when the 
repeater goes off. If you wish 
to transmit on a frequency on 
which the scanner has 
stopped, simply check to be 
sure the A*B switch is in the 
proper position for the re- 
peater you are listening to, or 
the onoff switch is in **dir" 
for simplex operation. Simply 
key the mike button to 
communicate on that fre- 
quency. As stated before, 



transmit and receive fre- 
quencies are scanned simulta- 
neously using one crystal. 

Crystal Ordering Information 

This circuit will work well 
with International Crystal 
Manufacturing Co. catalog 
=031300 crystal or equiva- 
lent. Price is $425. The only 
possible disadvantage might 
be the physical size. These 
crystals are the HC6/U type 
and not the type you nor- 
mally find in 2 meter equip- 
ment. ■ 



The necessity for a timer 
on repeaters to limit the 
length of individual transmis- 
sions has generated several 
circuits that the individual 
ham can use to avoid timing 
out. None of those that ! 
have seen, however, were 
appropriate for my purpose, 
which was to limit my mono- 
logues from the car with my 
Midland hand*held. I vvanted 
a "time out" circuit that 
would fit entirely in the HT, 
draw litite current, give a 
loud warning, and not other- 
wise affect the operation of 
the rig. The circuit In Fig- 1 
fits all these criteria and in 
addition is cheap and easy to 
build. 

Circuit Description 

Id is an NE'555 con- 
nected as a timer. CI and R1 
determine the timing length. 
With the components pic- 
tured, the timing cycle is 
about 90 seconds. A small 
trim pot would give consider- 
able variation above and 
below this. With pins 2 and 4 
connected together and at 
ground potential through the 
10,000 Ohm resistor, the 
timer is inhibited. Point A is 
connected to any part of the 
T-R switch that goes from 
neutral or ground potential 
on receive to 12 volts on 
transmit. When this happens, 
the timing cycle begins and, 
unEess reset, will eventually 
go on to time out, causing pin 
3 to go to ground. This in 
turn activates lC2p which is 
connecied as an astable oscil- 
lator at about 1000 Hz* Its 
output drives the transceiver's 



Steve Kraman, M.D. WAZUMY 
629 Cortelyou Rosd 
Brooklyn NY I121B 



Try the Mini-Timer 



-- prevents HT timeouts 



internal speaker directly 
through a capacitor. The 
output is Soud enough to be 
easily heard within a room or 
car. The tone will sound until 
the mike button is released 
and then it resets. 

The circuit draws 7 mils 
on standby and 50 mils when 
sounding off. 1 found that I 
could eliminate all current 



draw on receive by connect- 
ing the points C and A 
together, therefore only 
supplying voltage to the unit 
on transceive. However, when 
this was done, the oscillator 
would occasionally go off 
when the mike button was 
pressed. Some ftddling with 
the circuit would probably 
correct this if the 7 mil draw 



rzv 




40Qi( 



:i300tt 



Fig, L The MlnhTimen 



is unacceptable. 

Two additional points: 
The unit will sound for about 
Vi second when the set is 
turned on, confirming the 
operation of the timer* I have 
also noticed that when my 
batteries begin to run down, 
the timer begins to emit 
chirping sounds on receive, t 
find this a convenient signal 
to recharge. 

Any construction method 
will do and none of the 

component values are critical 
except the voltage tolerance 
of the caps. An NE-556 
(double 555) cannot be used 
since both ICs share a com- 
mon ground and this ob- 
viously won't work in this 
circuit. ■ 



48 



Circuits 



Wsnr s free copy of Mfty 73 pubficatton? Sure you do. Just ssnd in your 
favQfi^ drcuit^ or even one rhat yuu don't especmfty ltk&. ff we print k, you 
take tome the book of your choice. Just be sure to specify which book you 
want OK? 




*ftv 



my 



^ — I * , t ''^ 



Try 



\A 



m 



SN749e 



<D 



13 



SN74«0 



m 



10 



47 K 



*7*< 



47« 






►5V 



4 



iO 



5*17453 



^ 




> oirr-i 



oyT'A 



7ft/s circuit perrriits an input squBre w3ve to be divided by one, two. five, or 
ten, depending on which switch is in the open position. The signaf ai '*0UT-1^ 
will be inverted and the stgnsf at "0117-2" wiff be non-in\^n&d with respect to 
the inpuL Thanks w Eric Grabowski WA8HEB. 



-*iAA — 




CII3 



iffr 



RI2£ 



C)14 

.047 



TO MICROPHOWE 



RIS4 



■<£> 



■*AUOtO OUT 



I— <E^- 

^ '^C BO 



-IjND Shield 
pc bo 4 fid points 



Mere% M way io /natch the Heath HD~f982 Miasier to low trnpedanoe 
tf^mcm'vers. To ^t around the Hi-Z cond&isef mike supplied with the Micoder, 
substitute a fSk ^ Watt resistor for Cf74 {.047 ufl capacitor in the audio 
output circuit. This mod has worked with the Midland T 3-505 and Wifson 1402 
SM HT. You may haye to experiment with different vafues to find the right 
match for your T/ansceiimr, Thanks to W8FX. 



VWH(P 
ANTENNft 



?Bso 



X 



12V 



.^n 



TAPPED ; 
tOOPSTlOt 



{QR^AOCAST 
BAND TYPE) 



/rt 



2D0 



(HEP 2 501 
OSCL 



-Wft — 



— ' >e-ieii 




rsv 



5€K 



HEf4:€O0S 
ZaOffiW AUDIO 

daiveh t c 



rsv &> F 



/ 



INC 



HEPTiS 

AUDIO 

PACAJ^ 



lOK 



^* 



'-VW- 






OTMAiilC 
MtC 



\ 



33K 



SO- S3 9 




CI 




SO -233 



#■ 



CERAMIC 
0^ MICA 



m 



DtpC^a 



GE'Sn (OVER I0#J 



/w 



Rl- 50 OHMS. OF NON-INDUCTIVE RESISTANCE t5}?50 0HM ZW S% TOLERANCE 

CARBON flES<£TOBS 00 W TOTAL] 

^/7 attenuator useful on all of the amateur bands, but designed with 2m in 
mind. Capacitor Ct couples the appropriate amount of rf to switching diodes 
D f and D2. D f and 02 conduct only on transmit and pass the rf on w resistor 
R7. The attenuator Is constructed in a minibox sized 3-7/4 by 2*1/8 by f-f/B. 
Note that Cl can tie mounted using a stiff piece of wire or a terminal strip. All 
leads should he kept at minimum length, Rf is present on both sid^ of Cf and 
must be insulated from the chassis. A small hole can be drilled in the box so Cf 
can be adjusted using an insulated shaft alignment tool. Thanks to Dormtd 
Bohm WB&FLG, 




OUTPUT 



An audio oscillator from a 7400 TTL chip. The output waveform is a sawtooth 
and will drive other TTL devices. With the values shown ^ the frequency will be 
about 800 to JQOO Hz. Thanks to K7HKL. 



N-CHAMHEL 



""& 



m 



lOME^ 




% 



-*3V 



fti 



r 



-***sv 



VPD 



-»-*5V 



P -CHANNEL 



lOOH 



I50K 



lOK 



:;lll 




-ISV 



A very simple circuit for measuring JFET pinch-off voltage. It's particularly 
handy when trying to match field effect transistors of the same generic type. 
The circuit also makes it easy to measure the bias range of an f£ T. The op 
amf& sense the source current of the FET via the firm 'IO meg resistor. Ttte first 
74 f is a buffer; the second 741 is preset to 1 volt and its output drives the 
device under test IDUTJ until the source current equals TOO uA. This voltage 
then can be easily measured with a VOM or VTVM, All resistors are 5%, % W. 
The polarity for Vp will be opposite with respect to VDD, which is correct 
since Vp is the reverse bias cutoff voltage. The cutoff current is set for 
approximately 100 u A, Thanks to Gerry Gannon ^ Phoenix AZ. 



w 



ANtEl^W 



_KeTAL_62X^ 



V 



4^ 



TO 
"^CVfl 



ANTENNA 



r 



^CTAL_eq£^ 



^h 



TO 
'XCVR 



^Z-144 CHOKC 
tl«ltH) 



I 



z~£0 CHOKE 



\ -L 



2 METERS 



5efF 



6 WETCRS 



TO 4K 
flADiO 



TO AM 
RA[}i O 



Here's a 12 MHz broad castar transmitter. Tl is a low impedance output 
transformer, 50QQ-8 Ohms, Thanks to WA5R0N. 



If you're thinking about a disguised antenna system to ward off the 
Hamburglar, this pair of circuits may be for you. Thanks to K0HZi. 



49 



Ray Meqirian K4DHC 
606 BE 6ih Avenue 
Deerfield Beach FL 5:5441 



High Frequency 



Utility Converter 



- - handy test rig for any shack 




The completed converter mounted In its cabinet 



The simple little HF con- 
verier to be described 
here was constructed out of 
desperation as well as compo- 
nents normally associated 
with such things. The utter 
frustration of not having a 
converter available to check a 
new i-f system or the wrong 
crystal for the right band 
finally drove me to the brink 
of a bottomless pit over 
which, but for the solution 
shown here, I should have 
perished. 

I did a lot of searching 
through my collection of 
magazines to as far back as 
1964 to come up with a 
combination of circuits I 
thought would solve my 
problem. The result is a cir- 
cuit requiring but one crystal 
and no complicated band 
switching. It will tune to any 
frequency from 3.0 to 30,0 
MHz and convert it to almost 
any i-f frequency while 
employing iust three transis- 
tors and one IC. You can't 
beat that with a stick. 

Basically, the converter is 
nothing more than a dual gate 
MOSFET mixer with a tuned 
input circuit on gate 1 and a 
stable conversion oscillator 
signal on gate 2. The tuned 
circuit is a multiband tuner 
which covers the 3,0 lo 30.0 
MHz range without switch- 
ing.*'^ The oscillator portion 
employs a VCO which is 
tuned over the range of 8,0 to 
30.0 MHz and can be phase 
locked to a 1 MHz crystal for 
stability and accuracy. Sev- 
eral articles on phase locked 
local oscillators have been 
published and all I had to do 
was take my pick.^^^ Of the 
two I studied, the latter by 
Kenneth Robbins Wl KNI was 



50 



more up-to-date and required 
fewer parts. I simplified it 
even more by eliminating 
some sections not absotutely 
necessary for a piece of gear 
that was to be used primarily 
for testing purposes. 

Converter Circuitfy 

Rg. 1 is the schematic for 
the converter. Two of the 
gates contained in an 
SN7400N TTL IC are used as 
a crystal oscillator. The 
remaining 2 gates are used as 
buffers and are fed in cascade 
by the crystal oscillator out- 
put. Pulses from these last 2 
stages are coupled into a pair 
of detector diodes, D1 and 
D2, which at the same time 
are modulated by output 
from the VCO. The signal 
from the detector is amplified 
and filtered by Ql and asso- 
ciated circuitry to produce a 
control voltage for tuning 
diode D3. 

In the original article, an 
age circuit was included in 
the VCO section to maintain 
constant output. I found the 
oscillator was quite flat over 
the range I was operating, so 
the extra leveling circuits 
were eliminated. An IC buffer 
between the VCO and the 
detector and another between 
the VCO and external circuits 
were likewise omitted. 

M In the original circuity 
an adjustable bias is applied 
to Ql to keep the collector at 
the desired operating point of 
6 volts* This occurs when .5 
mA flows in the collector 
load resistor. A 1 mA meter 
was used in the original arti- 
cle as an indicator for setting 
the bias. I substituted a bat- 
tery status indicator with a 
200 uA movement and 
shunted it to read 1 mA full 
scale, A place is provided on 
the PC board for mounting a 
shunt if you follow a similar 
plan. An audio output moni- 
toring point is also available 
on the PC board if audio 
monitoring of phase lock is to 
be used, as was done in the 
original article* I found it 
adequate to use the meter for 
indicating lock. 

The mixer is mounted on 
the same board with the PLL 



circuits and makes use of a 
type 40673 transistor. The 
muUiband tuner assembly is 
mounted separately, as fs the 
tuning capacitor for the VCO. 
Output from the mixer is 
untuned with an rfc forming 
the drain load element. 

Construction 

The majority of compo- 
nents are mounted on a PC 

board 2 inches wide and 3.8 
inches long. The 2 variable 
capacitors, the bias pot, the 
meter, the antenna transfer 
switch, and the loop interrupt 
switch are all panel-mounted. 
The PC layout and artwork 
for the board I used are 
shown in Fig, 2. 

The variable capacitors for 
the VCO and the tuner were 
identical. They had been 
liberated from transistor 
radios and were of the solid 
dielectric type. Each had 4 
pn^ with 2 sections of 130 
pF and 2 sections of 20 pF 
each* I used the 2 large gangs 
for the multiband tuner and 
tied all four sections in paral- 
lel for the VCO, Most of the 
variables of this type do not 
have gangs of equal capaci- 
tance, so you may have to do 
a little experimenting with 
whatever you come up with 
in order to cover the range 
you want The VCO is 
dependent solely on total 



560 ' iBO 

I vwi fj[ »' v w- 







f PlUT 



HI!- 



iQ 



SNr400M 

12 



iV 



LI 15 turns i^26 on T37-6 toroid. Tap 3 turns from eoid end. 

L2 36 turns ^S on T37-6 loroid. 2 turn link over center of main 
winding* 

L3 35 turns #30 on T44-2 toroid. 2 turn Hnk over center of main 
winding. 

Table L 



capacity to determine its 
operating range, so look for 
units with plenty of capacity 
if you wish to cover a wide 
range. If you are forced to 
use a capacitor with unequal 
sections or values different 
than those used here for the 
tuner, some pruning of induc- 
tors will be necessary to cover 
the desired range. The low 
band inductor can be in- 
stalled first across the larger 
of the 2 gangs and the re- 
sponse checked to see if it 
will resonate at the lowest 
frequency you require. If not, 
either add or subtract turns 
until it hits on frequency and 
then do the same for the high 
band coiL If either of the 
tuning capacitors you are 
using has integral trimmers, 
set them alt to minimum and 
leave them there. 

Total operating range of 
the VCO wi!! naturally 
depend on the value of vari- 
able capacitor used for tun- 
ing. Mine had a total capacity 
of about 300 pF at full mesh 
and less than 10 pF at mini- 



mum. The operating range 
was approximately 8,0 to 
30,0 MHz, This can be altered 

as desired by varying the 
value of Li J the size of the 
tuning capacitor, or both. 
Since I used this converter for 
bands above 80 meters and 
fed it into a tunable r-f of 3,5 
to 4.0 MH/, the above- 
mentioned range was quite 
suitable. 

It should be pointed out 
that standard air variables 
could be used for tuning if 
space is not a problem. In any 
case, some sort of vernier 
drive will be needed, espe- 
cially for the VCO- In order 
to connect a drive to the 
capacitors, some sort of shaft 
extension is needed. I accom- 
plished this with a 4-40 head- 
less set screw 3/8" long and a 
1/4" round fiber spacer with 
a center hole threaded for a 
4-40 screw. A 4-40 tap was 
run into the existing hole in 
the capacitor rotor shaft far 
enough to take about a third 
of the set screw* The spacer 
was then threaded onto the 



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TUMER 




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51 



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O 





F/(?. 2 Anwork for the PC board and component placement 
drawing. 



remaining portion of the set 
screw to form a perfect 1/4*' 
shaft. These extensions can 
be seen in the photo. 

LI, the VCO inductor, is 
mounted on the PC board. L2 
and L3 are wired directly to 
the terminals on the asso- 
ciated tuning capacitor with 
L3 cemented on top and L2 
cemenied to the back. Con* 
nections between the variable 
capacitors and pads on the 
circuit board can be made 
with bus wire for rigidity. 
Other connections can be 
made with ordinary hookup 
wire. 

A copy of the front panel 
iayout I used is shown in Fig, 
3, The 2 vernier drives were 
mintaturelO:1 planetary types 
by Jackson Bros, and were 
built into a standard 3/8" 
bushing* The pot, toggle 



switch, and rotary switch 
were all of the miniature 
variety so as to fit into the 
limited panel space. The bat- 
tery status indicator used as 
phase lock meter was 1/2*' in 
diameter. The cabinet was a 
Radio Shack 270-252. 

As for choice of compo- 
nents where not specified, I 
used a pair of germanium 
diodes of unknown caliber 
for D1 and 02. The popular 
silicon 1N914 should work 
well here too. For the tuning 
diode^ D3, an epoxy ''bullet" 
rectifier diode worked best. 
Here again, there is room for 
experimenting and you might 
even want to try a real varac- 
tor diode if one is available. 

The PNP VCO transistor I 
used was house numbered so 
1 don*t know the type, but 
just about any high frequency 



unit should be satisfactory. 

All resistors are 1/4 Watt 
except the 300 Ohm 
dropping resistor which sup- 
plies power to the SN7400N 
IC* This is a 1 /2 Watt unit. 

The coil data provided in 
Table 1 is that used here. As 
mentioned earlier^ these 
specifications will vary with 
the type of tuning capacitor 
used. The inductors are all 
wound on toroids and I used 
what 1 had available. Some 
substitutions as to mix and 
size can be made to har- 
monize with the inventory in 
your junk box. 

Operation and Adjustment 

Calibration of the VCO 
dial and the tuner dial are the 
first thin^ to be done. I used 
a signal generator to feed into 
the tuner and observed 



resonance on a high fre- 
quency scope connected to 
the outpoi. Not everyone has 
such a scope, so a high imped- 
ance detector and a meter 
could be substituted. Another 
method suggested in the origi- 
nal article was to place the 
tuner in series with the anten- 
na input of a calibrated 
receiver, and the null in 
receiver response would 
indicate resonance of the 
tuner at the frequency indi- 
cated on the receiver. By 
whatever means you choose, 
mark off the frequencies of 
interest to you for both the 
high and (ow bands on the 
tuner. 

Pad 6 on the PC board is a 
VCO monitor point. Here 
again, 1 used my scope to 
check frequency p but when 
this is not possible, a counter 
might be used or a well- 
calibrated receiver. The turns 
on the inductor may be 
spread or bunched together in 
order to shift the operating 
range of the VCO a fair 
amount if needed. When you 
finish calibrating, it would be 
best to cement the coil to 
insure stability. 

A regulated power supply 
should be used to provide the 
operating potential of 12 
volts. It might also be a good 
idea to check the voltage level 



S2 



at pin 14 of the SN7400N to 
make sure it ts between 5.0 
and 5.5 volts. Some ICs may 
draw more or less current 
than others and require a 
different dropping resistor. 

One consequence of oper- 
ating a VCO over a broad 
frequency range is the drastic 
change in the ratio of varac- 
tor capacitance to tuning 
capacitance which occurs as 
the circuit is tuned over its 
operating range. At low fre- 
quencies, the diode capaci- 
tance is swamped by the 
variable capacitor, and hence 
the diode has very limited 
control over the frequency. 
At the high end, the diode 
dominates the tank circuit 
capacitance and exerts far 
more influence over reso- 
nance than the tuning capaci- 
tor. All this means is that at 
the lower frequencies, lockup 
is far more subtle and re- 
quires careful adjustment, 
while at the high end, just the 
reverse is true* The VCO 
snaps in with a vengeance on 
the higher frequencies. Lock- 
up can also occur at frac- 
tional intervals and such 
points become more pro- 
nounced as frequency is 
increased* 

During actual operation of 
the converter, the technique 
employed for setting the 
VCO is quite simple. First set 
the VCO to the desired fre- 
quency with the loop open. 
Adjust the bias for mid-scale 
reading on the meter and 
close the loop. Carefully 
search for lockup around the 
desired frequency. As you get 
close, the loop will capture 
the VCO and the meter will 
make a rapid excursion either 
up or down. Once lockup 
occurs^ the meter will follow 
any slight tuning shift of the 
variable capacitor. You can 
also tel! by listening to the 
receiver whether or not the 
VCO is locked. If you are 
operating on a whole number 
frequency^ a birdie will be 
heard at any whole number 
dial setting of the receiver. If 
phase lock has not occurred, 
you'll hear all kinds of birdies 
up and down the band. Don't 
forget to check the bias 




Fig. 3. Full size front panel artwork for the author's modeL 



whenever changing VCO fre- 
quency. 

With my 3.5 to 4.0 MHz 
tunable i-fj I set the VCO to 
11.0 MHz for reception of 
the 40 meter band. For 20 
meters, I have a choice of 
either 10.5 or 18.0 MHz, For 
15 meterSj either 1 7.5 or 25.0 
MHz can be used. For 10 
meters, I set the VCO to the 
low side since my unit stops 

at about 30.0 MHz. Since 
operation of both the VCO 

and the tuner is continuous 

between the abovementioned 

ham bands, you can set things 

up to listen to any portion of 

the spectrum In between. 

Just for kicks^ I found I 

could lock the VCO at 

23,250 MHz and tune the CB 



band from 26.75 to 27,25 
MHz using my 3.5 to 4.0 
MHz i-f. 

Conclusion 

As I've tried to point out, 
I consider this converter more 
of a tool or test instrument 
than any kind of permanent 
receiver accessory. As such, it 
has no rfstage^ the selectivity 
is limited, and no measures 
were taken to reduce spurious 
signals. You will find fairly 
strong birdies every MHz on 
the receiver and, if the VCO 
is set at a fractional fre- 
quency, it will cause a cor- 
responding birdie in the 
receiver. For real serious 
listening, a more practical 
approach would be called for> 



including shielding, filtering, 
and an rf stage with band- 
switching. Just the way it 
stands, however, Fve gotten 
more use out of this gadget 
than any other tool on nriy 
bench. Have fun! ■ 

References 

* Joe Williams W6SFM, "The 
Miniature Multiband Tuner/' 73 
Magazine, December, 1964. page 

18. 

^ Joe Williams W6SFM, "A 
Toroidal Multiband Tuner/' 73 
Magazine, August, 1966, page 30- 
^ E. J. Kirchner VE3CTP, ^'A 
Phase-Locked Osciilator lor Ad- 
vanced Receiver Design/' CQ 
Magazine, September, 1966, page 

^ Kenneth W. Robbins W1 KNI, 
"Transfstors and ICs in a Phase- 
Locked Local Oscillator/' QST^ 
January, 1972, page 43, 




A top !//evu of the assembled PC board. The 2 variable capacitors have extension shafts In place. 



53 



H. P. Fisch&r VESGSP 
1S79 Forest Glade R± 
OakViJJe, Ontario 



RTTY 
Scratchpad Memory 



-- after this, try a UART 



This article describes an 
erasable RAM memory 
for RTTY application. The 
memory is meant to be 
capable of storing 2 teletype 
lines (128 characters) of 
Baudot characters and 
reading them out at machine 
speed. 

Thus amateurs who do not 
have a tape reader may type 
and store a message and play 
it an infinite number of 



times. The memory content 
may be era.sed and changed as 
desired as it is 'Volatile'' —it 
disappears as the power is 
switched off and may be 
overwritten. If a fixed 
message is also desired^ a 
ROM may be programmed 
and added or substituted for 
the RAM, 

The RAM memory is 
substantially cheaper, but less 
flexible then the FIFO type 



memories such as used in the 
UT-4. 

The circuitry is designed 
for use in combination v^ith a 
UART (e.g., UT'2), but may 
be easily converted to run 
without it. 

Principle of Operation 

The heart of the memory 
system is a 1024 bit static 
RAM and its appropriate 
addressing logic. 

To write into the RAM, a 



proper baud rate clock (e.g., 
45-45 Hz) is enabled to 
advance a chain of SN7493 
binary addressing counters by 
8 per Baudot character. 
Synchronously, the start bit 
(1), character bits (5), and 
stop bits (1-1/2=2) are read 
serially into the RAM data 
input. Thus, a 1024 bit RAM 
can sjtpre (1024/8) 128 
Baudot characters. To read 
the memory content, the 
binary addressing counters 
are clocked at baud rate, and 
the RAM content is displayed 
serially at the data-out pin of 
the IC. Means are provided 
for multiple or single read 
cycles^ resetting, and dis- 
playing the half and full cycle 
memory address with an LED 
indicator. 

Circuit Description 

ICl , a 555 timer, is used as 
a master clock. If used for 
both, the RAM plus a UART, 
it should run at 16x the baud 
rate. If used for the RAM 
memory alone, it should run 
at the baud rale (e,g,, 60 



+5V 



: I £.£ x 



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3.3K- 



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ADJUST FOR eHifrTOmSJ 
X- PULSE WJOTH AT Q 
lOKyJ^ 
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iOR 74 [£ 

TRIGGEfll 




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2.7K |?.7K;f2K 



VCC 




?£.7K 




t4 



RESET LINE 



VCC 



;4,7K 



ice 



VCC 



IK 



FROM TU^ 
OUTPUT 
(SENSE CHARiUCTER 
STAFrl PULSE J 

y--FROM LOOP SENSE PJCKUP 



TO LOOP 
SENSE AMPJ_ 



Si 




SiNQLE 
CYCLE 



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Fig. L Master dock, RAM memory boards for Baudot type RTTY character storage, "^ Values shown are for 728 Hz (16 x 45 A 5 
baud). **Note: low = write; high = reads 



54 



wpm = 45.45 baud). ]C2, an 
SN7493 4 bit binary counter, 
may be deleted since it only 
attenuates the ctock speed 
from 16x to Ix. It is only 
needed if the clock is used for 
a UART circuit at the same 
time. IC3, an SN7403 NAjND 
gate, enables and disables the 
clocking of the binary 
SN7493 addressing counters 
(IC4,5,6) for the RAM. These 
gates enable the clocking of 
1C4,5,6 for the duration of \ 
Baudot character, that is, 
they advance ihe addressing 



counters by 8, and therefore 
enable the sequential writing 
or reading of 7-1/2 (8) bit 

Baudot characters. There are 
2 unused counter outputs, 
which may be used for the 
addressing of 2 further 
RAMs. IC7, an SN7473 flip- 
flop, decodes a stop pulse 
when the RAM has cycled 
through all addresses. One 
half of tC8, a 7403 NAND 
gate, provides the switching 
for *Veset'^ and "multiple" or 
"single" RA^4 cycles. The 
other half of IC8 serves as 



data input and output buffer. 
Transistor Tl switches an 
LED indicator '*on" at ihe 
half cycle mark and "off" 
again at cycle completion, 
thus providing some indica- 
tion of the cycle status. 

If the circuit is not used in 
combination with a UART 
(e.g., UT-2), the IC3 gates 
must be switched from an 
alternate trigger circuit* An 
SN74121 monostable flip- 
flop, with an accurately 
calibrated time constant of 
(1/7.5 xbaud rate)^ may be 



used to decode the start bit 
of a character and activate 
the clocking gates (IC3) for 
7-1/2 (8) counts. 

The RAM scratchpad has 
been used at my station for 
several weeks, I use it to loop 
CQ messages or for copying 
and replaying a couple of 
lines of my partner's RTTY 
transmission. 

The circuitry fits easily on 
a 3-1/2" X 5" board, and the 
components were purchased 
for about $8 from James 
Electronics, California. ■ 



Neil Sipkes VESEKA 
2740 Marie St., #28 
Ottawa, Ontario 
Canada K2B 7E6 



TO eliminate the frus- 
trations of QRM and 

avoid the high cost of crystal 
filters, many hams employ 
audio filters. Usually, these 
take the form of passive net- 
works which are often lossy 
and may require hard-to-gei 
inductors. They are also vir- 
tually impossible to tune at 
these frequencies. 

Such problems can be 
solved through the use of 
active filters. The filter shown 
in this article is a single- 
section , parallel-tuned 
configuration which uses a 
negative impedance con- 
verter, or "gyrator," to 
replace the inductor. Basi- 
cally, the gyrator's input 
impedance is the inverse of a 
reac Lance placed in its circuit. 
In this case, a capacitor C|_ is 
gyrated from 0,0332 uF to an 
effective inductance of T87 
henries. Values up to TOO 
henries and Qs over 200 are 
possible with this circuit. 
Unlike passive filters, this has 
a 6 dB gain at resonance and 
virtually a zero Ohm output 
impedance. The circuit shown 
has a bandpass of 85 Hz 
centered at about 865 Hz, 
With the transformer shown, 
the op amp can provide 
plenty of volume to drive 
headphones. It operates from 
a single supply of 1 2 volts but 

Originally published In Ottawa 
Amateur Radio Club BuUetin, 
The GfQundwave, April, 1975. 




This CW Filter 



- - darned good 



can be used with a dual 
supply (e.g., two 9 volt 
batteries). Circuit Q is con- 
trolled entirely by R^, which 



may be made switchable to 
provide various band widths. 
Provision can also be made to 
tune the filter with a single 



-IZV 



IMPUT 

50K JcT 



3rOOCT:i 




potentiometer, Cl and Cj 
should be fairly high quality 
mylar or polystyrene, and the 
four resistors^ R^ should be 
matched to about 2%. 
Nominal values for R5 lie 
between 50k and 300 k. 
Approximated design equa- 
tions are shown in Table 1. ■ 



-izv* 



QLITPUT SHOWN 
FULL PfllMARY 

Fon ea 



iW 



m 



Fig, L Schematic. 850 Hz filter. R-7,5k, 



Q=FR/BW=2Rs/(2piFR'LEQ) 

FR=1/(2piV LeQ'CtJ 
Tab/e h Design eguatiom. 



55 



73 Magazine Staff 



The 



London Bus Tuner 



- - effective for short antennas 



Abetter, but less inter- 
esting, title for this 
article might be *'a program- 
mable, compact, medium 
power antenna matching de- 
vice." The London bus comes 
into the affair because in 
searching for a way to inex- 
pensively house an antenna 
matching network, we re- 
called the ticket dispensing 
machines used by attendants 
on the London buses — a 
machine which they carry 
with a large knob on one end. 
One of the problems in 
housing any medium to high 



power antenna matching 
circuit, especially one using a 
rotary inductor, is that the 
construction cost starts to 
soar qufte rapidly if one is 
forced to use a conventional 
large enclosure and a front 
panel turns indicator for the 
inductor. On the other hand, 
the use of a continuously 
variable inductor is superior 
to a fixed, tapped inductor if 
one wants to have a matching 
circuit which will accom- 
modate a wide range of 
impedances on any HF band. 
This article mainly presents a 



IN M 

(A) 



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CAPACITORS 



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Fig. i. These are some of the matching networks that can be 
formed by the interconnection of four ''floating'' components 
— a variable Inductor and three single section variable 
capacitors. Component values are discussed in the text. 



few construction ideas and 
suggestions for housing a 
wide range antenna matching 
circuit at reasonable cost. 
Dimensions are given for 
one specific circuit, but they 
can be scaled up or down 
depending on the specific 
components used. 

The circuit described in 
this article consists of just 
four floating components — 
three variable capacitors and 
a variable inductor. By 
keeping these components 
above ground and providing 
for th^ir internal inter- 
connection (programming), a 
variety of matching circuits 
can be formed as shown in 
Fig, 1 . Each form can have its 
particular advantage^ de- 
pending upon which band 
from 160-10 meters is being 
used and what form of an- 
tenna one is trying to match. 
The circuit possibilities range 
fronr^' simple L networks to a 
*^ trans match "type circuit. 
Besides matching networks, 
the components can be inter- 
connected to form simple one 
section low pasSj, high pass, or 
trap-type filters for experi- 
mental purposes. This flexi- 
bility is often,^ useful when 
one wants to quickly set up a 
trap or other type LC circuit 
for experimental work in a 



transmitter or receiver. 

The inductor used is a 
standard Johnston 28 uH 
unit* Various surplus types of 
the 18-33 uH size, such as 
from the Command Set 
series, are also usable. In fact^ 
it often pays to buy one of 
the old transmitters just for 
the rotary inductors! With 
300 pF capacitors rated at 
150Q volts, just about any 
antenna form can be handled 
up to the 500 Watt level from 
160-10 meters. With 100 pF, 
2000 volt units, a kW can 
usually be handled from 
80-10 meters. Towards the 
other end of the scale, if one 
is using a barefoot rig of the 
1 50 Watt category, the use of 
the reasonably priced and 
more readily available 
Ham marl und MC3251V1 vari- 
ables (325 pF, 1000 volt) is a 
good choice for 160-10 meter 
capability. 

The whole subject of 
finding variable inductors and 
capacitors at "amateur" 
prices for anything above the 
QRP level could develop into 
an article by itself. About the 
best that can be said is that 
bargain hunting still pays ofi 
For instance, all the electrical 
items for a 500 Watt level 
matching circuit could be 
found for $18 at Fair Radio, 
PO Box 1105, Lima OH 
45802, The items a surplus 
house has in stock are in a 
constant state of flux, but 
usually something suitable 
can be found. Don't overlook 
the old BC-191 /BC-375 
tuning units and the previous- 
I y mentioned A RC -5 
(Command Set series) trans- 
mitters. They often are avail- 
able at reasonable prices, 
although the variable capa- 
citors/inductors have odd 
shaft sizes and call for a slight 
bit of mechanical ingenuity 
to use. 

A matching circuit using a 
28 uH rotary inductor and 
three 100 pF, 2000 volt 
capacitors was housed in an 
inexpensive 9x6x5 inch 
enclosure {Bud CUT 099). The 
inductor was placed parallel 
to the long side of the en- 
closure. The turns counter 
assembly is simple but effec- 



i6 



tive (see Fig. 2). A 5 digit 
left-hand drive veeder root 
count (Burstein-Applebee 
#18 AT 507-3 at $1.49) has its 
/i" belt drive wheel driven by 
a 2" belt drive wheel placed 
on the rear shaft extension of 
the inductor. The T' drive 
wheel and rubber belt used 
were junk box tape recorder 
parts. The counter reads from 
to about 600, and this is 
enough accuracy to ensure 
rescttability to a fraction of a 
turn. Many other similar 
mechanical turn counters can 
be used. 

The three capacitors were 
directly mounted on an 
approximately 8 x 2 inch 
piece of plexiglas. This plexi- 
glas plate was mounted to the 
panel of the enclosure with 
regular metal hardware with 
about a \Vz^' standoff from 
the paneL Insulated shaft 
couplings were used on each 
variable to complete its in- 
sulation from the enclosure. 
Leads from each component 
(# 16 or # 14 hookup wire) 
were routed to a long barrier 
terminal strip (similar to 



Radio-Shack 274-670) 
mounted on the rear inside 
panel via an insulating piece 
of plexiglas. Short pieces of 
wire with spade lugs at each 
end are then used to inter- 
connect components as de- 
sired. Only two SO-239 coax 
receptacles show on the rear 
outside of the enclosure. One 
could, as an alternative to the 
above^ bring out each com- 
ponent to binding posts on 
the rear panel. But, since high 
rf voltages may be encoun- 
teredj this would require that 
the posts be mounted on a 
piece of plexiglas which in 
turn is mounted over a cutout 
in the rear panel. 

If one has some pre-knowl- 
edge of the impedances to be 
matched^ a specific matching 
circuit configuration can be 
used immediately. Otherwise, 
the pi-network of Fig. 1 (a) or 
the circuit of Fig. 1(c) are 
always good ones to start 
with. Note that the "trans- 
match" circuit of Fig, 1(c) 
normally uses a dual variable, 
so the two single variable 
capacitors used Instead have 



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(A} 




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18) 



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TT 



\ 



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/ 



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METAl 
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Fig. 2. Compact construction of a medium power tuner in a 9 
X 6 X 5 inch enclosure, (a) Top view witliout capacitors, (b) 
Capacitors mounted on a plexiglas strip^ which in turn is 
mounted above the variable inductor by standoffs to the front 
panel. Details are in the text. 



to be simultaneously rotated 
to simulate a dual variable* 
One can then try other 
matching configurations to 
achieve the best transfer of 
power. Generally a good rule 
of thumb is that the matching 
circuit which uses the 
minimum amount of in- 
ductance to match into the 



load and which provides a 
clear swr minimum on the 
coax line between the trans- 
mitter and the matching 
circuit will be the most 
efficient circuit to use. To se^ 
which circuit does this is 
easily facilitated by logging 
the turns counter readings for 
the variable inductor. ■ 



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57 



Rich Force WBIASL 
Publications Editor 



The WIBB Story 



- - a visit with the king of 160 



What started out as a 
simple journey to 
Winthrop, MassachusetiSp for 

Stan WA1UMV and me, to 
take a picture for the cover of 



73's new publication about 
the 160 meter band, The 
Challenge of J 60 Meters! , 

quickly turned into one of 
the most interesting days I 




WIBB and the author atop one of Stew's towers. The tower 
was buHt in the 1930s and is tocated atop the house on 

Pleasant Street ^ Winthrop MA . Stew is indicating the way to 
Europe, 

58 



have spent since becoming 
involved with amateur radio. 

What, you may ask, were 
we doing in Winihrop MA to 
take a picture for a book 
about 160 meters? Winthrop 
is the home of 160 meters* 
most distinguished and recog- 
nized enthusiast, Stewart 
Perry WIBB. 

I spoke to Stew by phone 
a few days before, and he 
invited us down to take a 
picture of some of his prize 
QSL cards. The cards were 
those he had used to obtain 
the first DXCC certificate 
issued exclusively for 160 
meter operation. 

As we drove up in front of 
Stew's house, it was not hard 
to recognize it as the home of 
an avid ham. Besides the 
numerous antennas on the 
roof of the large Victorian 
two story home, there was a 
convertible parked in the 
driveway which carried a 
whip antenna with the largest 
loading coil IVe ever seen. In 
fact, the cover for the coil 
was made from an inverted 
plastic trash pail. On the pail 
was written W IBB/1 60. 

We were greeted at the 
door by Stew Wl BB, a very 
distinguished looking gentle- 
man, who escorted us to his 
ham shack on the second 

floor. 

As we walked into the 



room, it was like taking a step 

back in time. There in front 
of us was the shack of yester* 
year — the type of place you 
would visualize when reading 
about the early days of radio. 
Yet intermingled among the 
vintage equipment was a 
modern up-to-date amateur 
station. 

Stew explained that this 
station was iust one of three 
he operates. It, however, was 
the oldest, and mpst of the 
visible equipment was built 
around 1935. He had at that 
time built transmitters for 
every band from i 60 through 
2 meters and could, through a 
series of patch cords, QSY 
from one band to another in 
a matter of seconds. 

He demonstrated his first 
transmitter for us. It was a 
spark unit, and the noise was 
deafening. In the corner was a 
giant knife switch- Stew ex- 
plained tliat such a switch 
used to be required for 
lightning protection, and this 
particular switch was used to 
ground his 160 meter doublet 
(which was fed with 600 
Ohm open wire line}- Next 
to it was an all band tuner 
which employed three vari- 
aHe capacitors, plug*in coils 
and an rf ammeter in each 
feedline leg. 

Stew's two other stations 
consisted of a smaller station 



in his bedroom for those late 
nighl openings and a larger 
station at the site of the 
Winihrop water lower, wherCj 
in addition to operation for 
the Winthrop Emergency 
Radio Net, for which he is 
radio officer, Stew has per- 
mission to conduct some of 
his 160 meter tests. The 
lower braces Slew's 160 
meter inverted vee beam 265 
feet above the ocean's sur* 
face. 

While Stan took pictures 
of the shack and OSLs, Stew 
and I went into the kitchen, 
where, over a cup of coffee, 1 
found out how Stew Perry 
WIBB had, over a period of 
65 years, come to be one of 
the best known and respected 
gentlemen of the **gentle' 
men's band.*' 

The Perry family has lived 

in the same house on Pleasant 
Street since Slew's birth in 
1 904. When Stew was 8 years 
old, his interest in radio was 
kindled by a neighbor. As he 
tells it, one day he was play- 
ing in his backyard when his 
next-door neighbor Eddy 
O Toole, who was always 
interested in scientific ihingSp 
called him over to show off 
his new crystal radio* Stew 
listened and heard dots and 
dashes* Eddy explained they 
were coming from the Boston 
Navy Yard (NAD) and ware 
talking about a large ship 
which had recently sunk. 
Well, the ship turned out to 
be the Titanic, and the 
incident was the start of 
Stew*s interest in radio. Of 
course he wanted to make a 
radio, and Eddy told him 
how to do it. All he needed 
was a Oiiaker Oats box, some 
wire^ a slider, and a g^ena 
crystaK So he went to Bin's 
Radio in Boston and pur* 
chased the materials, and it 
wasn't long before he was 
listening to NAD. 

It was rig^t after this that 
Stew managed to obtain an 
old Ford spark coil and get 
on the air himself. In iho^ 
days, no one had a license, he 
explained, and he signed the 
call SS, which are his frrst 
two inilials. Stew thinks they 
were operating somewhere 



around 500 meters^ but no 
one really knew the exact 
frequency. The estimate was 
based on NAD, which used to 
call Stew once in awhile to 
ask that he ORT because he 
was interfering with them. 
They were operating near 500 
meters. The first contact 
Stew had was with Eddy 
OToole, his next-door neigh- 
bor, which was followed by 
others with people in the 
neighborhood. 

After a while, licenses 
started to be issued for radio 
operation. And as Stew puts 
it, **Those with licenses 
would squeal on those with- 
out them." So he decided to 
get one. He went to the 
Customs House in downtown 
Boston and took the test, ll 
consisted of a 5 word per 
minute code test, which you 
had to pass before taking the 
written exam. The written 
part was all essay -type ques- 
tions and covered theory, 
rules, and regulations. One 
part of the exam was to draw 
a complete diagram of a 
staiion, including a receiver, 
transmitter, and antenna 
system. Another question was 
to explain how radio fre- 




Whip antenna mounted on WlBB's auto. The loading coff is 
covered with a plastic trash can. Stew worked mo bite on J 60 
meters for owr 25 years ^ using both A!\4 phone and CW. 

quency waves were generated, and ending with the antenna, 
starting at the power lines Other questions dealt with 




Several of WJBB's transmitters built circa 1935. These transmitters could be switched from one 
to another in a matter of seconds. 



59 




The targe knife switch in the corner of WJBB's station on 
Pleasant Street. The switch was used to ground his 160 meter 
antenna for lightning protection. Next to the switch is an 
a/lfjond antenna tunen 



such thin|[^ as Ley den jars 
and mud cnpacilors. Stew 
said il was an easy exam if 
you kriQw about radio^ As 
luck would have il, lie passed 
ihe exam on I lie same day 
war was declared - the begin- 
ning of Wn\\il War L He was 
issued his operaior's license, 
but not a slalion license. 

After the war, word came 
down that slalion licenses 
were to be issued. Slew 
ihought that it would be nice 
to get lAA (at that lime W 
prefixes were not used), so he 
got up al 4 o'clock in the 
morning and went to the 
Customs House only to find 
that olhers had the same idea 
and were atrcady in line. As it 
turned out, he was issued 
IBB, which he has held ever 
since. 

At ihat time hams were 
given the frequencies of 
1750-2000 kHz, the fore- 
runner of today *s 160 meter 
band. According to Stew, 
they used to try lo operate as 
close to the bottom of the 



band as they could but the 
spark transmitters were so 
wide thai a signal on 160 
nieters could be heard from 
TOO meters to 250 meters. 
Hams tried to sharpen their 
signals by using a helix auto 
transformer, which consisted 
of a tank coil of about 15 
turns and a variable link of 
about 7 or 8 turns, but it did 
not help very much. Signals 
were never sharp until the 
advent of the vacuum tube. 

While it was illegal to 
operate during World War f, 
Stew studied and managed to 
obtain his commercial radio 
license. As a result of this 
license, in 1920 he went to 
sea as a commercial operator, 
operating In the 500 meter 
band. His life at sea was to 
last, on and off, for thi* next 
six years. 

In 1932, the 160 meter 
trans- Atlantic tests beg^n. 
These tests were sponsored 
by a group of British hams, 
including G2II and G2PLp 
and were conducted every 




Some of WJBB 'S switchable transmitters built around t935, as 
well as his spare tube coitection. In ihe forefront on the 
bottom shelf is one of his original spark transmitters from 
J 91 2. A demonstration proved the noise from this unit to be 
deafening. 



Saturday morning at 
European sunrise. American 
hams would call for the first 
five minutes past the hour, 
and then listen while the 
European hams would call for 
the next five minutes. When a 
contact was made, the calling 
schedule would stop. At this 
time no one thought of 
counting countries — just 
getting a trans-Atlantic con- 
tact was excitement enough. 

After the tests had been 
conducted for a few years^ 
hams did start CDun ting coun- 
tries. In 1935, WIBB listed 
Belgium as country number 
1, after receiving a QSL from 
0N4NU. Others also started 
counting, including W1LYV, 
W2tV and W2EQS. 

By 1968, 33 years later, 
Slew had confirmed his 
100th country with a card 
from CE3CZ in Chile- He 
now has 139 confirmed on 
1 60 meters alone. 

Stfiw says it*s now easier 
to work DX on 160, due to 



the fact that more is known 
about the band. We have 
better antennas and belter 
receivers, and propagation is 
better understood. For 
example, in the beginning no 
one considered opening 
during American sunsets. All 
DX was worked during 
European sunrise. But now it 
is known that the band also 
opens for a couple of hours 
after the western sunset. 
Antennas have also changed. 
Early hams used Zepps and 
horizontal doublets. Now we 
find that verticals, inverted 
vees and inverted L*s work 
belter as transmitting anten- 
nas. Also, it is now known 
what countries can be worked 
on 160 and schedules can be 
made. 

As to the type of antenna 
Stew would suggest for 160 
meter work, he says an in* 
verted L type with a good 
ground system is the simplest. 
And he stresses a good 
ground system. The inverted 



60 



L, he explains, is nothing 
more than a top-loaded verti- 
cal, tn stressing the point 
about the ground system, he 
uses the example of ZE7JXi 
who needed to work 
Australia. He started with a 
few ground radiais and kept 
adding more and more. 
Before he achieved his goal, 
he had buried more than 
16,000 feet of wire but had 
kept the antenna the same. 
Stew has a ground system 
which he installed in 1940. It 
consists of 7 ' X 4* zinc plates, 
connected together like the 
spokes of a wheel, with the 
antenna in the center. 

As for receiving in a quiet 
area, a resonant antenna such 
as a sloping dipole or a verti- 
cal is suggested by Stew. 
However, in a noisy area the 
beverage antenna is best. A 
beverage antenna is a long 
long wire terminated with a 
resistance for directivity. It is 
run close to the ground and 
does remarkably well. Experi- 
ments have also been con- 
ducted while running the 
beverage antenna under- 
ground and underwater. Stew 
has used an underwater 
beverage with a length of 
150\ 6-7' below the surface. 
He says the results were 
spotty. KV4FZ has achieved 
great success with an under- 
water beverage 300' in length, 
4-6" below the surface. 

Stew sees a bright future 
for 160 meters^ marked by 
increased activity. As long as 
the newcomers abide by the 
unwritten rules and observe 
the ''DX window" (an area 
historically reserved for 
foreign stations from 
1825-1830 kHz), the band 
should offer many hours of 
enjoyment to hams. 

Aside from his accomplish- 
ments on 160 meters, Stew 
also works other bands and 
has the capability of going on 
any band from 160 to 2 
meters. He seems to work 20 
meters the most, often checks 
into 80 meter nets^ and gets 
on 40 occasionally. 

Stew*s reaction to the 
recent FCC proposals to be 
offered to WARC is that they 
look very well thought out. 




Stewart Perry WIBB, whose station has been in use since 1912. Stew holds the first DXCC 
issued for exdus/i/e 160 meter operation. 



He was surprised to see that 
they proposed the 160 meter 
band go back to its original 



starting point of 1750 kHz, 
He had hoped that the band 
would be left as it stands (but 



with the elimination of 
Lorah). 

To express how a shift in 






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WJBB's secondary station locatlorj, showing the position of his inverted vee beam strung from a 
water tower 265 feet above the Atlantic Ocean. 



6T 



frequency makes a dramatic 
change in the propaption of 
sigpais on the 160 meter 
band» Slew relates ihe story 
of HB9CM- It seems that 
HB9CM was working a state- 
side station on 1827 kHz and 
received a signal report of 
RST 449. He decided, for 
experiment's sake, to go up 
to 1995 kHz to see if his 
signal strength would change. 
He came up to an RST 579. 
And that, Stew says, is some- 
limes the difference between 
the top and bottom of the 



band when the MUF is just 
righL "And," he adds, "we 
used lo all try to stay as close 
to the bottom of the band as 
possible. In those days^ it was 
thought the lower frequencies 
were the best for DX." 

As to the proposed 1875 
meter band which the FCC 
will include in its recommen- 
dations to WARC, Stew does 
not see it being anything like 
160 meters. He thinks the 
band, if it is ever approved, 
will be more akin to two 
meters in its range and appli- 



cation. 

After concluding my 
discussion with Stew, we all 
departed to the site of his 
station at the Winthrop water 
tower- Standing on top of the 
cliff next to his two elennent 
inverted vee beam antenna 
265 Feet above the Atlantic 
Ocean J Stew stretched out his 
arm and said, '*That way^s 
Europe." He moved his arm 
and said, "That's North 
Africa/' He moved ft a little 
more: **And that's South 
Africa." It was a site to make 



any DXer's heart green with 
envy. Here was a man who 
did what many had thought 
was impossible. He managed 
to be the first to work 100 
countries on 160 meters, 
after 33 years of operation. 
For Stew, though, Tm sure it 
was not hard, because he 
enjoyed every minute of it. It 
is only right that a person 
who feels so much good for 
something should excel at it. 
He is a real gentleman from 
among Uiose on the "gentle- 
men's band,'* 160 meters," 




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Rick Ferranti WA6NCX/2 
1 4 Divinity Av^. #1 7 
Harvard University 
Cambridge MA 021 Z8 



Ten Watts On 




-- it's possible with this rock crusher! 



An easy to carry 
portable pack for your 
two meter FM rig is a great 
ass^t for any ham: lo keep in 
touch at work, on hikes, 
during walk*a-thons or other 
public service events, and ju^i 
to have more fun with ama- 
teur radio. Fortunately, 
making a decent and reliable 
poriabie carrying case, with 
self-contained batteries 
(rechargeable, of course) and 
antenna^ only takes a bit of 
scrounging and care. 

Ydu'II notice that my 
efforts culminate in a rig that 
runs ten Walls output, not 
the usual 2 or 3 Watts of 
other portables. However, it 
isn't exactly hand-held, nor 
does it weigh a couple of 
pounds (the porta-pak tips 
the scales at lYi lbs.}. But the 
advantages far outstrip the 
drawbacks: much greater 
power output to hit the more 
distant repeaters reliably, no 
great outlay of cash for 
another transceiver (you use 
your present mobile rig), and 
the fact that most other hams 
I've seen carry their HTs on 



r belts anyway — so a 
shoulder strap rig is just as 
hand-held" as theirs is! 



If 



The Rig 

The first thing you need is 
an FM transceiver* of course. 
My Icom I022A is shown in 
the photos; any of the 
standard power 10 Watt rigs 
(Midland, Heath, Standard, 
Genave, etc) could work as 
well Even if your power- 
house runs 25 Watts out, it 
may have a low power mode 
which can be modified to run 
5 or 10 Watts. Alternately, a 
home brew or module-type 
kit built rig, like the VHP 
Engineering units, could be 
made portable this way. 

The Case 

The case for the rig is a 
slightly altered cassette tape 
recorder affair (you used 
your recorder for slow scan 
anyway, now here's where 
the case can come in). It 
originally measured 28 by 19 
by 7.5 cm, obtained at a local 
flea market for less than 



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LMTEWmL 
JACK 




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9KLEX PUJS9 
VtLE. on FElUil 

rqR£ 4S 



Ffg. h Schematic of power switching for the portable rig, C — 
charger goes to /ack for charging nicads; E — 12 V power to 
Jack for externa! supply; B — battery connected to FM 
transceiver. 



$2.00. These things are 
usually vinyl covered card- 
board, stitched up as in the 
photos, and are surprisingly 
rugged. If you really want to 
be creative, have your local 
sweet young thing, wife, or 
even yourself throw together 
a custom job out of leather. 
Be sure to put a strap on it so 
you can sling it over your 
shoulder - and don't forget 
to leave room for the bat- 
teries! 

The FM transceiver, in my 
instance, was a bit too large 
for the cassette carrying case, 
so I extended the cover flaps 
and used velcro as a securing 
device. Velcro is that material 
with millions of little hooks 
on nnc surface and an equal 
number of loops on the other 
so that when you press the 
two together, they stick. A 
couple of small pieces (20^ at 
the local fabric shop) hold 
very tenaciously and can be 
sewn, glued, or stapled to the 
case, Velcro is much easier to 
use and is just as strong and 
reusable as snap fasteners or 
buckles and straps. Besides, it 
makes that satisfying "rip" 
when you go to open the 
case* 



Batteries 

The rig sits on top of the 
battery pack, as you can see 
in the photos. This nicad 
pack has ten "D" size cells all 
strapped together and puts 
out 3.5 Amperes for a solid 
hour. With 150 mA receive 
current (all dial lamps on) 
and 2.2 A transmit draw for 
10 Watts output, the pack 
runs ail day and night In 
regular service without a 
recharge. If you don't want 
the rig to sit on top of the 
batteries, you can lay them 
end*to-end alongside the 
transceiver inside the case- 
Hopefully, you'll find a case 
thick enough for this — but 
mine worked great with the 
batteries at the bottom. 

**C" size nicads will last 
nearly as long on a charge, 
but youMI be working them 
harder and they may poop 
out just when you need them 
most. Alternate energy 
sources are the newer gei-cell 
batteries, which have no 
nicad **memory" effect, and 
are somewhat less expensive. 
Lead acid wet cells are usable, 
and are sometimes available 
at Olson Electronics, flea 
markets, and surplus houses. 
Some battery manufacturers 
are listed at the end of this 
article. 1 imagine that if you 
could find a small motorcycle 
battery, it would work fine. 
A two Ampere-hour rate at 

one hour is about minimum 
for useful, long single-charge 
life from the battery power 
source. 

Connecting the battery to 
the transceiver is not that 
much trouble, obviously, but 
taking a little more time to 
add a switch and connector 
makes the porta-pak more 
versatile. I used a small 3 



4JITCHMA 






CDU*lT£ltf»OI9e 




CASt £CtJTA»AY) 






Fig. 2. Diagram of the right angle coax connector and the case 
with its 19 inch antenna counterpoise. 



64 





Left-front view showing antenna^ power jack, and switch. 



Right- front view showing microphone clip. 



pole, 3 position rotary switch 
to either connect tiie rig to 
the battery^ hook the rig to 
the external power jack^ or 
connect the battery to a 
charger via the external jack. 
Fig. 1 shows the switching 
setupj and the mounting 
arrangement is visible in the 
photos. The external power/ 
charge jack can be epoxied to 
a carefully cut hole in the 



side of the case^ while the 
rotary switch is mounted con- 
ventionally, I suppose that if 
there were more room in the 
carrying case, a charger could 

be built in. However^ I found 
that the 12 volts available at 
the easels power jack when 
switched to the "charge*' 
position is useful for running 
lampSj HF QRP gear, or other 
equipment from the nicads, 



without having to remove them from the case. 





Qose-up with top cover flap lifted. 



Power switch and antenna wiring. Notice counterpoise wire 
running from 50-239 down far inside corner of case. 



65 





Sc^L^;. -'--'i-i^ ^::;;";?^- 



Coax connector with battery sitting in tfie bottom of tfie case. 



Cfose-up of transceiver rear panel with coax connector. 



Antenna 

The antenna connection is 
about the most difficult thing 
to accomplish J since the rig 
sits upended on the batteries 
and the antenna jack sticks 
out of the transceiver's rear 
paneL Adding a coax elbow 
and associated connectors 
made the 1022A jut too far 
out of the carrying case, so I 
made connections to a 
sa wed-off banana jack and an 
old fuse-cNp holder, resulting 
in a very shallow right angle 
coax connector. See Fig. 2 
and the photos for more 
information, I found that 
solid #14 or #16 insulated 
wire worked best for 1 V2 
inches between the home 
brew connector and the 
RG-58/IJ coax^ preventing 
the flimsy coax braid and 
center conductor from 
breaking off at the connector 
while the rig shifts around 



slightly in its case. Use heat 
shrink tubing around the 
solder joints. At two meters^ 
the connector is a bit lossy 
(10-15%), but it's the best 
solution to the problem of 
keeping the porta-pak as 
compact as possible- 

I mounted an SO-239 
antenna jack at the side of 
the case, and used a coax 
eibow here so that a rubber 
ducky, 19 mch whip, or 
external antenna can be 
screwed on. When I first used 
the portable rig, I was 
disappointed in the results 
because of the poor radiation 
efficiency* However, when I 
ran a 19 inch counterpoise 
wire from the SO-239 
grounded mounting ears 
down around the bottom of 
the case, results improved as 
much as 20 dB! So the whip 
or helical antenna now acts as 
the radiating end of a vertical 
dipole, much more effective 



than the antenna alone stuck 
on the end of a short length 
of coax. Handie-talkie owners 
might try this trick too^ since 
It really improves signal 
strengths. The wire doesn't 
seem to bother anything 
when the porta-pak is hooked 
up to an external antenna^ 
since it is connected to the 
shield of the SO-239. 

Results 

I've been using my port- 
able ten on two for nearly six 
months now, and have con- 
sistently out-talked and out- 
performed belt-mounted HTs* 
1 didn't have to lay out $30 
for an external mikci eitherl 
Once I worked several San 
Francisco Bay Area repeaters 
from Yosemite National Park 
— and was full quieting with 
the 10 Watt power level (I 
also had about 5,000 feet of 
height). I n^y^T have to 
remove the rig out of its case 



when used in the car or 
honrie, thanks to its provisions 
for external power and anten- 
na. And, there is no problem 
with car theft — 1 take the 
porta-pak with me! 

I\e been to plenty of club 
meetings, amateur flea 
markets, and ham get^ 
togethers with this little 
system, and if the interest 
generated in it is indicative of 
a universal appeal, many 
more will be built, I hope this 
article helps with some 
general guidelines and ideas^ 
so you can more easily build 
your own 2 meter FM super 
porta-pak. ■ 

Two Rechargeable Battery Manu* 
facturers: 

Elpower Corporation, Stibsidiary 
of Eldon Industries, Inc., 2117 
South Anne Street, Santa Ana, 
California 92704, (714) 
540-61 55. 

Gates Energy Products, Inc., 1050 
S. Broadway, Denver, Colorado 
a0217, Attn: George SahL 



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RADiO AMATEUR 

ca 



M 



llbookiNi 



Dept, B 925 Shefwood Drive 
lake Bluff^ Hi. 60044 



Addr€ss„ 



CllV^ 



Sute 



Zip. 



Totil 
Enclosed. 



Mas I a Cfeurgc i^o. 
Bjnk — ., 



InCQrb^itnk t^ 



Explriiitin Ddie, 



R1 



UHF SWR 




icator 



- - 1296, anyone? 



W. E. Parker W8DMR 
2738 Fioribunda Dr. 
Columbus OH 45209 




There are many inexpen- 
sive standing wave ratio 
indicators that are listed as 
good up to two meters and 
do function welL At fre- 
quencies above approxi- 
mately 150 megahertz the 
results leave something lo be 
desired. 

There are several valid 
reasons why the swr indica- 
tors are inadequate. In order 
to have good sensitivity at the 
lower frequencies {80 me* 
ters), the coupling loops used 
for forward and reflected 
wave sampling are usually six 
inches long, and are ciose- 
coupled to the center conduc- 
tor of the transmission line. If 
the sampling loops are short- 
ened and loosely coupled, 
then the sensitivity for the 
lower frequencies is greatly 
reduced. 

Another re^on for poor 
operation is that the coupling 
loops required for low fre- 
quency operation represent 
almost a quarter wave at the 



% meter band (^500 MHz), 
Distributed capacity between 
the long coupling loops and 
the inner coaxial conductor is 
excessive. 

The diode rectifier char- 
acteristics become more 
important at the higher fre- 
quencies. The position of the 
pickup loops with regard to 
spacing, direction and 
concentricity must be very 
carefully aligned if their elec- 
trical characteristics are to be 
as similar as possible. Once 
aligned or positioned^ the 
loops must remain rigidly 
affrxed if a level of cunfi- 
dence in the indicator is to 
remain. 

If the coupling loop is to 
be a small percentage of a 
wavelength (1 /20 or about 5 
percent), a length of one inch 
is about the maximum to be 
considered. If the indicator is 
to be used with low power 
transmitters (VS to 2 Watts), 
the loop should approach the 
one inch length* For high 
power transmitters, the loop 
may be as short as I /8 of an 
inch. This is that portion of 
the loop that is parallel to the 
coaxial center cgnductor. 

The coupling loops form a 
circuit with a resistor such 
that the mutual coupling Is 
positive (+) in one case^ and 
negative (-) in the other. The 
same effect could be obtained 
if a single loop was used for 
sampling^ then rotated 180 
degrees, and then sampled. 
Inspection of the equations 
that follow will show this is 
taken into account. 

That portion of the loop 
parallel to the center conduc- 
tor and the resistor form a 
third component, the dis- 
tributive capacity element C, 
See Fig> 1 . 

The output rf voltage e© is 
made up of e^ and 6^^- A 
voltage divider is formed by 
distributive element C and R* 



m 



£ 



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-«T- 



OUTEfl 



i 



0*(OUCTWT 



^CQHIPLJa^ UXM> 



CEHTEH COKDtfCrOR 



The fine may be left connected fn the transmission line^ and 
the meter box conveniently placed on top of the transmitter* 



Fig. 1 



68 




x-.-ri*; -*«"W-s->x-! — ->K+«-v-;-w-:*:-: — t.v..-:. 



The yi inch copper water pipe trai^sfnission line mounted in a 
mfnibox with componertts attached. 



Then 



er = 






and if R is much less than Xc, 



er 



RE 



and since jwC equals 1/Wcj 



6r= REjwC 



^m=l 



n 



jw (±M) 



by induction. 

The sum of Ci- and em is 
(factoring out jw) 

eo = jw(CRE±IVII 1 

The directivity of the indica- 
tor, its ability to discriminate 
between the forward and 
reflected wave components, 
depends upon the relation- 
ship CR = M/Zq, where Zq is 
line impedance. 

Substituting for CR, 
iw( EM ±Ml 1 = 



jwM ( E_ ± I ) 

Another relationship must be 
established before again sub- 
stituting in the rf output volt- 
age equation fiDf cq. It is 
important to note capital 
letter E is used to designate 
the line voltage. 

The voltage ERiany point 
on a transmission line is the 
sum of the forward and re- 
flected voltages, or 



E = ef + er 

It should be remembered 
that Cf during the next few 
equations represents the 
reflected voltage; it should 
not be confused with ep, the 
voltage across resistor R, 



Then, 



1 = 



2o 






The minus sign Is because the 
reflected wave travels in the 
opposite direction. 



I = lf+lr 



where 






There are two cases to 
consider: (a) when the resis- 
tor is toward the load; and 
(b) when the resistor is 
toward the source. So, sub- 
stituting for E and I in the eg 
equation for each case, 



eo 



ef + Gf ef - er 
jwM f + ' ) 



Zo 



jwM 



(2ef) 



o 



Qn — 



jwM { 



ef + ef 



ef ' er 



) = 



jwM 



(2er) 




The edges of the button bypass capacitors have been soldered 
directly to the line. The 39 Ohm resistor is in the middle. A 
beat sink should be used when soldering directly on the 
diodes. 



The equations show that the 
rf voltage from the loop 
before rectification is direc- 
tional and proportional to the 
voltage in the transmission 



line (due to the forward and 
reflected wave respectively). 
Fig. 2 shows that even though 
E^ is zero, E^ and Ef are sti 
present. 



SHOTTED 



t> 

I I I 1 I I 

5/e 1/2 3/3 J/4 1/e 



^WAVELEMGTHS ( X ) 



A\ 






e^-MA>f: 






U>" 1 1 WJii. 



ErEF" EfrOft 



I^S* 




ABSOLUTE 



Fig. 2. Diagram of voltage standing waves on transmission fine. 



RF IN 



TO ANT 




<P 



CALIBRATE 



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LI,L^*SEE TEi<T 
Z-LENGTH TO FiT MIN^BO^( 
C^C2=5O0pF BUTTON 



4 HEAD SWR 



roK 




.002 I l-^^i 



/77 



'D 



Fig. 3. UHF swr indicator. 



69 



100 

lO iO 
40 

20 
10 







A 








i 


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1 -^ 


©J' 




/ 




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^^ 








>-' 








^" 








1 iS 2 


3 * 


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rt 



F/lg, 4. R^f/o of diameters to fine impedance. 



The frequency limits of 
the indicator are exceeded 
when resistor R is not very 
much lower than distributive 
element C, and when mutual 
inductance M is not nearly 
purely reactive. 

Construction Details 

A length of capper water 
pipe is used for the wave 
sampling section of the trans- 
mission line. The use of 
tubing helps to maintain a 
constant line impedance, 
keep the inner field distortion 
to a minimum, and radiation 
leakage down. For the center 
conductor, a #7 or a #3 AWG 
copper wire will provide a 
line impedance of 75 or 50 
Ohms, respectively. Thin wall 
model builder's brass tubing 
of equivalent o-d. was used in 
constructing the indicator in 
the article. See Figs. 3 and 4, 

To accommodate the 
sampling loop, drill three 1/8 
inch diameter holes % of an 
inch apart in the copper 
tubing/ Form the insulated 
sampling loop, and insert the 
leads through the three holes. 
Single conductor, tinned, #22 



AWG, with thin wall insu- 
lated sleeving added, main- 
tains its shape better than 
stranded wire for the sam- 
pling loop. With 3/8 of an 
inch lead protruding out of 
each hole, temporarily bend 
each load so as to make the 
loop captive. This will help 
prevent the loop from slip- 
ping out of position during 
the fastening of the end 
fitting^. 

Solder the end of the 
conductor selected for the 
center lead to a mica-filled 
SO-239 coaxial fitting. Other 
types of fittings such as the N 
or the BNC may be used, but 
different mechanical arrange- 
ments will be required. 

The other SO-239 fitting 
requires modification if no 
other holes are to be driSled 
in the outer copper tubing. 
The modification consists of 
removing the center pin of 
the connector. Depending 
upon the brand and vintage 
of the connector, some pins 
are removable by a simple 
*'C" ring clip. Others have a 
rolled-in ridge for fastening, 
etc* After the pin has been 
removed intact, use a drill to 



establish clearance so that the 
pin can be freely inserted 
from the rear side of the 
connector. 

Temporarily slide the 
copper tubing and loop sub- 
assembly over ihe center 
conductor with the fitting 
previously connected to one 
end. Determine through 
inspection the proper length 
the center conductor should 
be to permit the recently 
removed center pin to slide 
into the fitting with the 
slightly enlarged hole without 
protruding. The fitting must 
also butt against the end of 
the outer copper line. After 
the proper length has been 
determined, solder the pin to 
the center conductor. 

Make two rings about 3/8 
of an inch long by cutting the 
ends off a standard copper 
elbow or coupler section. 
With all burrs removed, the 
rings, line, and end fittings 
are ready for soldering. A 250 
Watt gun or iron will speed 
the assembly. 

If the assembly is to fit 
inside a ready-made minibox^ 
the box selected and the 
length of the line should be 
compatible- The box will help 
keep the sampling loop from 
being disturbed once posi- 
tioned. A % inch hole in each 
end of the box Is required, 
with one hole slightly elon- 
gated, so that when the box 
ends are sprung back slightly, 
the tine assembly may be 
inserted. The assembly of the 
rest of the components is 
straightforward. 

To adjust the loops, the 
line should be inserted into a 




Fig. 5. Typical yswr meter 
scale. 

iransmission line, first in one 
direction and then the other, 
until the two sets of reading 
are almost identical (except 
reversed). Once obtained, 
place a drop of quick-drying 
model cement at each of the 
sampling loop exit leads, 
without disturbing their 
placement. Fig- 5 is a typical 
meter scale. 

If the VN21Bs and resis- 
tors have been matched even 
with the humble ohmmeter^ 
and the parts layout is reason- 
ably symmetrical, little effort 
should be required to posi- 
tion the pickup loops. 

The line and meter may be 
mounted together in a larger 
single box if desired. It may 
also be desirable to use a set 
of connectors in the intercon- 
necting cable to insert an 
extension cable when needed 
to provide remote readings 
during backyard antenna 
matching sessions. 

The directivity of this indi- 
cator, and its ability to dis- 
criminate between forward 
and reflected wave compo- 
nents from 50 MH/ to 500 
MHz (and maybe even high- 
er), is excellent. The use of 
type N fittings is recom- 
mended for frequencies above 
500 megahertz. ■ 




75 THRU 10 METIfl DIPflliS 



NOTES 

7.. AJl mo^t ibon m* lytniihied wihi criinpVsoi^der Iu^l 

3l AJl moddf on be lurni¥h«<l wit^ m %Q-23S ImnA 

ctSKiil eofifttctor at tddrtionil coil. The SO'239 mites 

T^ 9def ifiit ffcicvv oHtillsd opimn. add the letter "A' 
aftef the mcKSrI nymbff Exvnpk: 40-30 HO/A. 
4 ?S rtWTBr mcxMi «• ftctory tumd Ui rtsofUfE at 3^50 
kHt. ISPI mocMi mm fictorv tyned to moratt A 38O0 
kHz. ItO mttir modftt ve facityty mnmH la t^aanam at 
3660 kHi. Set VSWR curves fw other revomrve t^ia. 



MODEL 

♦0^20 MO 
"40^T0HO 
atMOHD 
7&4I]'HD 
7&40 HD iSP) 

75-SHOISP) 
75-IOflD 
75-ldHD ISP3 
'"aO-IOHD 

Wrrte or prinone for 



BAiiOS 

10/40 ^ IS 

75/40 
75 40/20 

7V4af2&'15^t(l 

Ba'40/20^lS-10 
full intorrrtation 



pmcE 

S4&50 

57 50 
S&OO 

him 

6&90 

M50 
7*50 
76 JO 



3fib'tOI 
411 I& 
4QL<f 11 
4a I 13 
44/121 
44 1 ? J 
48.1 34 

4e-'i 34 

50/»40 



or cqnuct vour 



LiifCTH 

36^-10 9 
36/10-^ 

61^/20 1 

60/30.1 
69*^1 
lovonte dealer. 



NO TRAPS-M COILS- 
NO STUBS- NO CAPACITORS 



UOR GAIH ND DtPOLE£ . . . • On« h««f the ivi^ o4 
canHHcnUianAl haJF^misve d^xile^ * Uuitf*b»nd. Multi- 
IrequefVf, * Metimum efficienev - nc» tra|U, lOidinQeeifi, 
Of itutn. ■ Fulty assembled and pfe-tunedl -^ no rneatuf tt^ 
no cMttung. * Alt >M^thm 'ated - 1 K.m AM, 2,S KW CW Of 
PEP SS&- • Prowen perfontianee - tnofe thaa f 5.000 h*wi 
bttfi ddtvArtsL * Pennri use of the full capAbitities, of 
todey^f. 5-berid itcvrs. • One feetflim fa opfTBiton on iil 
lurtds. • tirtwHt cQs^bQiwfit *inefina on the fnaf^^et !ocU¥ 
• Fts Q6V - no feedf ine timtchi riQ. « Hiighstt pert oiTn.Bf>ce 
for the Howioe k wrdi m the Ei^tra-Oni Op. 

Mil 



70 



Here is a plan to use CB 
rigs on 10 for a worth- 
while purpose. If a large num- 
ber of amateurs go for the 
idea and equip themselves 
with a converted CB rig, the 
result could be a real feather 
in the ham's cap. 

My plan calls for the con* 
version of the so-called 
^^synthesized'' 23 channel rigs 
to operate with 23 channels 
on 10, These channels would 
have uses designated for them 
as depicted in the accom- 
panying chart. Rag chewing, 
DX^ and routine net opera- 
tion would be possible with 
this system, but the real value 
of it would be seen in a 
communications emergency. 

Where the Citizens Band 
could be expected to be al- 
most useless in a real emer- 
gency due to the immense 
numbers of undisciplined op- 
erators that inhabit its chan- 
nels^ the training and disci- 
pline of hams could be ex- 
pected to yield a very ef- 
fective local communications 
system. Because of the fairly 
low expense involved (com- 
paredj say, to 23 channels of 
coverage on the six or two 
meter bands), there should be 
quite a few hams who would 
provide themselves with the 
capability to participate in 
the system. 

The rigs themselves are al- 
most ideal for this use; they 
are small, light, all solid state, 
and made to operate on 1 2 to 
14 V dc. Most have noise 
li miter circuits and are very 
adequate receivers. Con- 
version for the plan presented 
here can be accomplished in 
one evening for around thirty 
dollars (the cost of six new 
crystals). To make the con- 
version, one needs a sche* 
matic (usually supplied with 
the rig), a soldering iron for 
small work, and the ability to 
identify and work with baste 
electronic components. Most 
hams ar^e so equfpped. 

The conversion involves 
changing 6 crystals in the rig. 
These crystals are in the 37 
MHz range; each is to be 
replaced by a crystal whose 
frequency is exactly 2 MHz 
higher. The exact frequencies 



Raymond Barnum WA4MFT 
Homer GA 5054 7 



At Last ! 




lOm Band Plan 



- - requires a CB radio 



can be found by consulting 
the schematic or by looking 
at the original crystals in the 
rig- The replacements can be 
ordered from a manufacturer 
like International Crystal. 
Once the changes are made. 



the receiver and transmitting 
circuits must be peaked for 
best sensitivity and power 
out; my Radio Shack Mini 23 
required no other changes. 
My other CB rig (Royal 
Sound Model 336) has a simi- 



Channel 


Frequency 


proposed Use 


1 


28.965 


Calling St Distress 


2 


28.975 


Emergency Traffic 


3 


28.985 


Emergency Traffic 


4 


29.005 


Net 




5 


29.015 


Net 




6 


29,025 


Net 




7 


29.035 


Loca 


1 Rag Chew 


8 


29.055 


Local 


Rag Chew 


9 


29.065 


Local 


[ Rag Chew 


10 


29.075 


Local 


Rag Chew 


11 


29.085 


Loca 


1 or DX Rag Chew 


12 


29.105 


Local 


or DX Rag Chew 


13 


29.115 


Local 


or DX Rag Chew 


14 


29.125 


Local 


or DX Rag Chew 


15 


29.135 


Local 


or DX Rag Chew 


16 


29.155 


Local 


or DX Rag Chew 


17 


29.165 


Local 


or DX Rag Chew 


18 


29, 1 75 


Local 


or DX Rag Chew 


1 9 


29,185 


Local 


or DX Rag Chew 


20 


29,205 


DX C 


)nlyp Short Contact 


21 


29.215 


DX C 


Jnly, Short Contact 


22 


29.225 


DX C 


)nly. Short Contact 


23 


29.255 


DX C 


)nly. Short Contact 



Table h Channels 7 through 19 could be pre-empted for 
emergency net traffic^ should the need arise. 



lar schematic and should give 
the same result^ though I have 
not tried it. If you have dif- 
ficulty, contact another ham 
who has had some successful 
experience modifying com- 
mercial gear. The detailed 
conversion of a variety of 
these rigs is beyond the scope 
of this article. 

The purpose of this article 
is to propose a way in which 
converted CB rigs can be used 
on one of the ham bands that 
is apparently under-used and 
in danger of being lost to 
amateurs. The idea has po- 
tential, but is obviously not 
completely worked out If 
you have objections to this 
proposal or suggestions on 
how a better system can be 
set upj by all means put them 
on paper and send them to 
either the editor or myself. 
Certainly the establishment 
of such a public service ori- 
ented communications sys- 
tem would attract favorable 
press coverage and the ama- 
teur's use of the rf spectrum 
would be given added justifi- 
cation. ■ 

71 



Event Timer 
With Memory 



- - double check 
gravitational laws 



Marshal! Jose WAZVPZ 
5455 Crowflock Court 
CQlumbia MD 21045 



After observing the 
dubious method used 
with a crummy timer by my 
high schoors physics teacher 




The metatworking for the front panel was done with a drill and with flat and triangle files. 



to demonstrate the theoreti- 
cal relationships between dis- 
tance, speed, acceleration, 
mass, and time^ I decided 
there must be a better way. 

In the true spirit of 
engineering, I went home and 
(with time off from home- 
work) worked feverishly on a 
solution to the above-men- 
tioned farce, 'This can be 
done with digital logic," I 
grunted, since 1 am a hope- 
lessly confirmed logic freak. 
So *,, I whipped out my 
battered TTL data book and 
started scrawling those funny 
looking symbols. The next 
day I discussed it with the 
physics teacher - and was 
commissioned with $45 to 
build it for the school. 

Enough about why — 
what's it supposed to do? 
Briefly speaking, the device 
will time several events with 2 
digit resolution using either 1 
or 1/10 second accuracy. The 
time elapsed for an event 
since initial triggering (t " 0) 
is both instantly displayed 
and written into the memory. 

At present, an operator 
must trigger the circuit manu- 
ally when an event occurs; an 
automatic triggering option is 
planned to be added soon. 
After all the events have 
occurred (up to 1 6 times may 

be stored), the times of the 
events may be read out at the 
operator's convenience. 
(Sound like a stopwatch? It is 
— in a remote sense,) Also^ 
for those who like blinking 
lights, a free run mode is 
available which simply counts 
off seconds or tenths of 
seconds on the display; 

How Does It Work? 

By referring to Fig- 1 and 
Fig. 2, one sees that simply 
by pressing RESET, the 
address counter is preset^ the 
counter chain is cleared, and 
the clock is disabled. Now, if 
a storage of "event times" is 
desired, RUN/READ must be 
at RUN, FREE RUN/MEM 
must be at MEM - and don't 
forget to select the range with 
the S-S/10 switch. After the 
device is reset, watch what 



72 



happens when the MAN 
TRIG switch is hit: The S*R 
FF is set, enabling the clock, 
and the address counter is 
incremented to 0000 binary. 
Meanwhile, that delayed one 
shot, triggered, just sits back 
for around a microsecond, 
waiting for the address 
counter to ripple through. 
When the address is stable . . . 
bam\ goes a 1 microsecond 
negative going pulse on the 
write line, the data shoots in 
the memory and appears on 
the readouts a little while 
laterl 

Subsequent triggering ini- 
tiates the above nonsense 
again, with the exception that 
the clock is not enabled^ 
simply because it already was 
in the initial triggering, and 
since then has been toggling 
away at the decade counter 
chain. 

To read, the reset switch is 
pressed, and the READ/RUN 
switch is set to RUN, opening 
the write line. The times are 
then read out sequentially 
from the memory on the 
display. 

in the FREE RUN mode, 
the write line is disabled 
again, but this time the 
memory WR pins see the 
gated clock. In this fashion, 
the memory is used as an 
exotic 'latch/' updating the 
output of the last two decade 
counters to the displays one 
thousand times a second. The 
address on the memory in 
this mode is irrelevant* 

Construction 

The acquisition of compo- 
nents for this project was 
quite an exercise in penny 
pinching. Exactly $45 was 
spent after the parts shopping 
spree. Note that the parts 
Include the case, transformer, 
breadboard, ICs, etc, - in 
other words, everything 
needed. The spacers used to 
mount the boards were made 
from copper tubing — cut, 

constricted, and tapped for 
440 screws. The interconnec- 
tion wire was pulled from an 
unused multi -conductor 
cable. Talk about being 
cheap f 

The electronics were con- 



fl%llNl/R£AD 



DCBOUWIE 



* ♦ 






«filt£ L 






FI^EE RUM/MEH 
MEM 



m/H 






BEStT 



fFRiE 
RUN 



WST 






1 5 ET 



ADDRESS 

COUMtER 
(4-aiTJ 



pnesrr 



ADDRESS 



TO 

BINARY LED5 



5-H 
fF 



nr? 



D 



CK 




D 



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MEWORV 



ADDRfftfl 

IPI 




g > DATA 




I>ECODER. 

DRIVER 

d READOUT 



DECODER, 

DP(\/ER 

5 READOUT 



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► » ► f ■■>— * -^i 

T ntSEI ftESET ncSETT / '* 




RESET 



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LSD 



MSO 



structed on two breadboards^ 

a nice master-sfave arrange- 
ment that minimizes space 
requirements and (usually) 
interconnections. The proto- 
type boards were wired liter- 
ally point to point; that is, 
wiring was done by soldering 
the wire directly to the two 
points concerned — using 
insulated wire, of course. 
Upon completion, the under- 
sides of the boards would 
confuse a rat looking for its 



Fig. h 

nest, but the technique 
worked anyhow. 

Two points that must be 
stressed are that power and 
ground buses must be heavy 
gauge wire, and that a ,01 -J 
microfarad capacitor must be 
connected with short leads 
between -i-5 V and ground 
every few centimeters along 
the power bus. The reason is 
that TTL ICs generally create 
garbage on their supply lines, 
and this garbage can confuse 



ICs further on down the 
power bus unless effectively 
bypassed, (A good rule to 
follow is to assemble the 
boards and then solder the 
capacitors on^ every two ICs 
or SO-) Just another ounce of 
prevention, folks. 

Because the readouts have 
no limiting resistors and 
because of other shortcuts, 
the current demand hovers 
around 900 mA. The 
LM309K 5 V regulator runs 




Top view. Quite a mess, but Judicious use of co far-coded wires simplified debugging 

enormously. 



73 



TMlOlKa 



fn 




^h 



OOl^F 



UI4 

hual rMEn 






© 



X 






^4 I ij ] J3 

1= Wkr^ — * * 

Km 1 



FHEEfltM/ 




W QLJ^'GAT ' 






1^ 



1(1 



7474 



^ 



5^ 



fi 



CLOCK 



7474 

rAo 



1 1 



■UI7 
7474 



CL 
— P 



15 



7*74 
9 

— TT 



1 



* BLU HHN----5 

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maderately hotj not scorch- 
ing, but still stays in spec. In 
fact, the regulator is rather 



hard to destroy, in that it will 
shut itself down if too hot. 
The debugging equipment 



consisted of a Dumont 304- H 
oscilloscope, a cheapie VOM, 
and a homemade logic probe 




Side view showing stacking of boards and cable ties made of cotton string. 



— truly not an expensive 
troubleshooting lab. 

A final remark about con- 
struction: The finished ap- 
pearance witl only be as good 
as how carefully one builds it; 
the number of tools in the 
tool box does not necessarily 
determine the final appear- 
ance, 

What*s It to Me? 

It could not be said what 

one could possibly use the 
timer for* However, it ob- 
viously has applications other 
than as a peculiar conversa- 
tion piece. Nat only did it 
win honorable mention and 
an SR-11 calculator in the 
Baltimore Science Fair, but 
also building it and learning 
from my mistakes while de- 
bugging it was half the fun. 

If you build it, I encourage 
you to add embellishments 
and change it if you like. 
Since the circuit itself reflects 
many features of TTL tech- 
nology, you'll learn from it* 
Make it a creative project. ■ 



74 



MEW 
TEMPO 

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Accessory AC power supplies dnd 
lif^ear ampliiiers also avai fable. 



The Tempo VHF /One Plus is a VHF/FM transceiver for dependable 
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time, ..and Tempo is the way. 

Full 2 meter coverage, 144 to 1 48 MHz for both transmit and receive • 
Full phase locl»^ synthesized (PLL) so no crystals are required • 
Automatic repeater split -selectable up or down for normal or 
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Sold at Tempo dealers througtiout the U.S. and abroad- Please call or write 
for further information. 



Prices satiecl ts chanfE vfthMit tuoba 



mm Bsiiiii 



11240 W. Olympic Blvd., Los AngeJes, 

Calif. 9CX)e4 
931 H, Euctid. Anaheim. Calif. 92B01 
Butler. Missouri 64730 



213/477-6701 
714/772^9200 
816/679-3127 

H3 



Sheet Metal Brake 



-- build 
microwave components 



How^d A. Bowman W6QIR 
5872 West 7?th PUae 
Los Angeles CA 90045 



The ham who builds his 
own equipment often 

winds up with one final prol> 
lem: Whai kind of a box do ! 
put it in? Small cabinets are 
not always easy to find, 
especially when one considers 
problems of size and appro- 
priate configuration^ and the 
difficulties of *'shoe- 
horningp" 

The answer is to make 
one's own cabinets, each 
custom designed to fit the 
project il will house. The 
device to be described in this 
article won't do everything 
that the brake in a sheet 



metat shop will do, but it will 

suffice for most tasks. 

Ours cost less than 510.00 
to build, will handle a lOH" 

bend, and works quite well 
on the stock normally used 
for electronics enclosures. It 
bends aluminum, whether 
"soft" or *'hard/' g^vanized 
iron stock, copper, and so 
forth. It was built with ordi- 
nary tools — nothing more 
exotic than an electric hand 
drill and 8-32 and 14-20 taps. 
We advise the use of a drill 
press, if you have one, but il 
is not imperative; further, 
you can do without the taps 
if you don 't have them. 

We buitt our brake out of 
5 Feet oF 114" angle iron, 
obtained from a local hard^ 
ware store, a pair of 3'* butt 



hingeSp two dozen 8*32 x 

3/8'* machine screws (half 
flat head and half round 
head), a 3/8" x 6" machine 
bolt, with two nuts and a 
lock washer to fit| and two 
14-20 X 2/2" eye bolts, with 
nuts. If you do not choose to 
tap the 8-32 holes, you'll also 
need lock washers and nuts 
for the 8-32 machine screws. 

Now, before you run 
down to the hardware store 
and buy all this stuff, read 
through the rest of the 
article. Further along, well 
suggest a couple of possible 
modifications which, if you 
can arrange them, may sim- 
pliFy things considerably. 
Also, they'll mean your pur- 
chases wilt be a bit different. 

Let*s take a moment now 




to identify the major parts of 
our sheet metal brake. We're 
frank to say that we could 
find no reference which 
would tell us the real tech- 
nical names of these parts, so 
we made some up and believe 
they will suffice. 

First, there is the bed, on 
which one places the piece of 
sheet metal to be bent- The 
work piece is firmly clamped 
to the bed by means of the 
shoe, which holds the work 
accurately in place, and pro- 
vides a radius against which 
the bend is made. The actual 
bending is accomplished by 
means of the bar^ which is 
hinged to the bed. To the bar 
must be attached a device of 
some kind to provide the 
leverage necessary to make 
the bend. That's where our 
6*' bolt comes in. And, by the 
way, when you do get to the 
hardware store, pick up a 
couple of extra hacksaw 
blades. You'll need them! 

Let's go on the assumption 
that you are building the 
brake out of r/4" angle iron, 
as we did, and to the same 
dimensions. And, by the way, 
it doesn't have to be IW" 
angle; it could be some other 
size, but probably shouldn't 
be less than 1 ". Use what you 
can conveniently get. In any 
case, you'll need a piece five 
feet long. Select it carefully, 
looking especially at the ends, 
which often get deformed 
when a longer piece is cut up. 
You II want a piece that is 
entirely straight and true. 
When you get it home, cut it 
into four pieces. Two pieces 
should be exactly 18'* long, 
one exactly 12" long, and the 
fourth what's left over — a bit 
less than 12", because of the 
saw cuts. 

Put the two 18*' pieces on 
a flat surface, back to back, 
so that they form an inverted 
*'T". Temporarily clamp 
them together with a couple 
of small "C" clamps, then 
turn over the whole assembly 
and put it in a vise, clamping 
it securely at the center. 
Viewed from one end, the 
two pieces will now form a 
**T', and the upper surface of 
the "T" should be absolutely 



76 



flat across both pieces of 
angle- 
Now^ take a good look at 
one of the hinges you have 
bought. Probably each leaf of 
the hinge will have three 
countersunk holes in it. How- 
evefp you're not going to use 
the hinges as the manufac- 
turer intended. If you did, 
the hinge pin would not be 
axial with the juncture 
between the bed and the bar. 
To attain this axial condition, 
simply flop the hinge over, 
and thereafter ignore the 
holes made in it by the manu- 
facturer. 

One hinge is going to be 
mounted at each end of the 
two 18" pieces of angle you 
are working with. Further, 
the axis of each hinge pin 
must be in exact line with the 
juncture between the two 
pieces of angle. Line up each 
hinge carefully, and mark the 
pieces of angle for cuts which 
wilf clear the hinge pin and 
surrounding metal on each 
hinge. These cuts, made with 
a hacksaw, don\ have to be 
super accurate, but they must 
remove enough metal from 
the vertex of each piece of 
angle to allow the center 
portion of the hinge to drop 
in, leaving each leaf of the 
hinge flat against its respec- 
tive piece of angle (see Fig* 
1). In our case, we had to 
remove about !4" from the 
vertex of each piece of angle 
to a depth of about 3*1/8" 
from each end. 

Once this hacksawing is 
finished, so is most of the 
hard labor. Realign the two 
pieces of angle as before, and 
put them back in the vise. Put 
each hinge in its position and, 
as before, carefully align its 
pin with the juncture line 
between bed and bar. 
Remember also that each 
hinge goes on upside down, 




Fig. h Enough metal is cut out (shaded areas) to allow mom for the hinge pins and surrounding 

metal. 



with its countersunk holes 
toward the pieces of angle. 
Moreover, each hinge should 
now lie flat, with the hinge 
pin and surrounding metal in 
the slot you have just hack- 
sawed out. 

Securely clamp each hinge 
in place and center punch on 
each leaf of each hinge three 
locations for your 8-32 round 
head mounting screws. These 
locations should be relatively 
close to the hinge pins, yet 
far enough away to clear the 
screw heads, and the nuts, if 
you intend to use them. 
While the hin^s are still 
clamped, drill out the three 
holes with a No. 29 drill, 
which will accept an 8 32 tap. 
When all holes are drilled, 
remove the hinges and redrill 
the holes in the hinges only 
with a No. 18 drill, which will 
clear the 8-32 machine 
screws. If youVe going to use 
lock washers and nutSj you 
can drill with the No. 18 to 
begin with. If you are using 
the drtll-and'tap method, 
with the hinges off, you can 
now tap the holes in the bed 
and in the bar, and then 
remount the hinges. Fig, 3 
shows how the hinges mount* 

Next iob is to mount the 
shoe. It is positioned atop the 
bed, as shown in Figs. 2 and 
3, and is a 1 2" piece of angle. 
Carefully align one edge of 
the shoe with the juncture of 
the bed and bar, and cEamp it 
in place. Then, about W in 



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SHOE 

HING£ LEAF 
BED 



HSMCC PM 4XtS 



from each end, drill through 
both the shoe and the bed 
with a No. 7 drill, which will 
accept a %-20 tap. Remove 
the shoe and redrill the two 
holes in it to clear the W" x 
214" eyebolts which will be 
used here as clamps. Use your 
54-20 tap on the two holes in 
the bed. Run a nut about W 
on each eyebolt before in- 
stalling it, and you will find 
that the combination will 
clamp the shoe firmly to the 
bed. 

Again, if you are not going 
to lap the holes in the bed, 
you will find ft necessary to 
devise an aliCfnaLc method of 
clamping. Later on you will 
see that we attached the 
brake to a piece of 2" x 2" 
lumber to afford a means of 
holding the brake in a vise or 
clamping jL to the work- 
bench. From this, one 
method of providing a clamp 
for the shoe that suggests 
itself would be to run long 
quarter*inch bolts through 
the wood mount, with nuts 
between the mount and the 
brake bed, but with the bolls 



extending through both bed 

and shoe. Then wing nuts 
might be used for clamping. 

The final task is to provide 
some leverage for making the 
actual bend in a piece of 
sheet metal. We accomplished 
this by mounting the last 
piece of an^e — the one 
slightly less than 12*' long — 
to the bar. It was clamped to 
the bar and seven No. 29 
holes were drilled in a stag- 
gered fashion across the 
length of the angle. The 
clamps were removed and the 
holes in this last piece were 
tapped with an 8-32 tap. 
Holes in the bar were then 
redrilled to pass the 8032 
machine screws, and counter- 
sunk so that the flat head 
screws would be flush with 
the surface of the bar. 

IF any screw heads are 
slightly cocked, they should 
be filed flush. If problems 
still remain, all is not lost. 
When a piece of metal is to be 
bent, a thin sheet of paper or 
plastic slipped between the 
work piece and the surface of 
the bar will protect it. 





L£VE« A5S€H V_LOC«MSWEft 



Fig, 2. End view of principal assembly. 



Photo shows how ends of pieces of angle iron are hacksawed 

out to provide mounting for hinges. 



11 



SHOE 




•CP 



B^NDCn tiAR 



Ftg, 3. Hinge positioning and location of bending !e \^r. 



Here again, if the builder 
does not wish to tap the holes 
for the 8-32 mounting screws^ 
he may drill the holes to clear 
them and use lock washers 
and nuls on the under side. If 
this is done, precaution 
should be taken lo drill the 
holes in positions so that 
there is room for the nuts on 
the underside of the angle. 

The final step is to add the 
3/8" X 6" machine bolt to 
the outer face of the piece of 
angle we have just attached to 
iho bar- Simply find the 
center of the outer face of 
that piece of angle, and drill a 
3/8*' hole through it. Run a 
nul on the machine bolt 



about /s", put the end of the 
bolt through the 3/8*' hole, 
and secure it on the inside 
with a lock washer and nut. 
It is at this point that a 
couple of attractive alterna- 
tives suggest themselves. Note 
thai when this last piece of 
angle has been attached to 
the bar, these two pieces 
form an inverted "U'^ as 
shown in Fig. 2. Since the 
means of attachment is un- 
important, so long at it is 
sturdy, the two might be 
welded together, if you have 
access to welding equipment. 
Note, however, that if any 
portion of the welding bead 
extends above the face of the 



Pme Walton VE3FEZ 
421 Lodor Street 
Ancasier, Ontario L9G 2Z9 



Have you ever wanted to 
measure the current 
flow of a particular transis- 
torized device that is sitting 
on your workbench? 

If yoo are like most of us, 

you are basically lazy and 
somelimes bypass this im- 
portant step, due to the 
inconvenience of breaking the 
power lead and then having 
to resolder it again. 

Here*s a realty easy way to 



measure current flow. Since 
most transistorized gear is 
powered from a battery pack 
of some sort, all you have to 
do is stick a piece of double- 
sided printed circuit board 
between any two batteries, as 
shown in the diagram. 

Touch the two meter leads 
to each side of the PC board 
and there you have it — 
instant current reading with- 
out cutting and soldering any 
wires. ■ 




Photo shows half of a cabinet produced with the brake 
described. 

bar, it wilt have to be ground 
or filed off, to prevent 
marring the work. 

Even more attractive is the 
idea of substituting a piece of 
channel for the bar, and 
perhaps even for the bed. 
This would obviate the use of 
screws, welding, or any other 
means of attachment. 

As indicated earlier, some 
means must be devised to 



hold the brake securely while 

it is in use. We simply used 
wood screws to attach the 
bed to a piece of 2" x 2" 
lumber about two feet long, 
When not in use, the brake 
may be stored in an obscure 
corner. To use it, we simply 
clamp the 2'* x 2" to the 
bench with a pair of large 
"C" clamps, or hold it in a 
vise, ■ 



The Easy 

Ammeter 



HWETfR 




- - current 
news 



OOUtLE SKlCS ^fC aOAPO 



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l9! 

196 23 JAMAICA AVE. 

HOLUS. N. Y. 11423 



VT 



How You 
Can Convert 
Your Rohn 

25G Tower to a 
FOLD -OVER 



CHANGE, ADJUST OR JUST 
PLAIN WORK ON YOUR 
ANTENNA AND NEVER LEAVE 
THE GROUND. 



If you have a Rohn 25G 
Tower, you can convert it to 
a Fold-over by simply using 
a conversion kit. Or, buy an 
inexpensive standard Rohn 
25G tower now and convert 
to a Fold-over later, 

Rohn Fold-overs allow you to 
work completely on the 
ground when installing or 
servicing antennas or rotors. 
This eliminates the fear of 
climbing and working at 
heights. Use the tower that 
reduces the need to climb. 
When you need to "get at" 
your antenna . . . just turn 
the handle and there it is. 
Rohn Fold-overs offer un- 
beatable utility. 

Yes! You can convert to a 

Fold-over. Check with your 
distributor for a kit now and 
keep your feet on the ground. 

AT ROHN YOU GET THE BEST 



Do not attempt to raise antenna or 
antenna support near power JInes— 
You can foe KILLED. 



Unarco-Rohn 

Division oi Unarco Industries, inc. 
P.O. Box 5000, Peoria, Illinois 6-f6D1 





R4 




79 



miMam L. Reeve WB9DVV 
335 North Elm wood L^nw 
Paiatirie IL 60067 



Try a Conduit Vertical 



- - low angles are great for DX 



Ever since my Novice 
days, not all that many 
years ago, Tve been spending 
mosi of my time on l he air in 
search of that increasingty 
elusive critter known as 
"DX'\ However, with ihe 
serious decline in the sunspot 
cycle and sometimes total 
lack of DX on the air during 
this past year J I found I was 
spending more time in good 
old-fashioned rag chews. As a 
result of working some states 
on bands Td never worked 
them on before, I became 
interested In trying to achieve 
5 Band Worked All States, 

The first problem I had 
was in getting back on the 80 
meter band. After upgrading 
from Novice, I had sold oFf 
my 18 AVQ allband vertical 
in favor of a beam with which 
I set out to chase DX. Having 
nothing really suitable 
enough from which to string 



a good dipole antenna, I 
decided on a ground mounted 
vertical. Now, the handbooks 
are replete with vertical an- 
tenna designs, but few ever 
suggest means for building an 
un guyed, free-standing con- 
figuration by using easily 
obtainable materials* 1 re- 
called that when I had first 
gotten on the air as a Novice, 
I built myself a home brew 
rotatable dipole for 15 
meters. You may recall this 
old ARRL Handbook design, 
which utilizes two ten foot 
lengths of 1 /2 inch thin wall 
electrical conduit mounted 
on a short length of 2" x 2'' 
redwood with standoff in- 
sulators, I felt this same type 
of construction should work 
in home brewing a vertical. 

I found that thin wall 
electrical conduit of 1 *\ 3/4", 
and 1/2** would telescope 
into one another, but not with 



a sliding fit. By cutting a 
couple of two inch lengths 
off the ends of the 3/4'* 
section and slitting them 

lengthwise, I was able to 
expand these small sections 
to fit around the end of the 
remaining length of 3/4" 
conduit as shims, spaced 
about 8" from one another 
(sec Fig. 1). This shimmed 
end, with the help of a tittle 
electrically conductive lubri- 
cant, was easily forced into 
one end of the 1 '* conduit. 

To insure electrical con- 
tinuity and to prevent slip- 
ping of the iwo sections, I 
drilled radial holes through 
the two joined sections at the 
shim tocations and inserted 
heavy pan head sheet metal 
screws. 

The same procedure was 
followed in telescoping the 
1/2" conduit into the other 
end of the 3/4" conduit. To 



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SEAi Oft Til>E OvOf 
Tms JOnfT 



prevent corrosion at the 
joints, it is suggested that 
they be sealed at their ends 
with a bead of automotive 
grommet sealant or vinyl 
electrical tape* 

When the three lengths of 
conduit were fastened to- 
gether, I prepared a vertical 
support using a 4 foot length 
of 2*' X 4" redwood. Four 2*' 
standoff insulators were 
mounted on the redwood 
support, and equally spaced 
from one another, beginning 
at approximately one fool 
from one end. A fifth stand- 
off insulator, which may be 
of smaller size, is attached at 
the free end. The one inch 
conduit section is then fas- 
tened to the ends of the four 
insulators using loops of 3/4" 
perforated metal stripping 
which is available in most 
hardware stores (see Fig, 2), 
To prevent the conduit from 
sliding down through the 
loops when the finished an- 
tenna is elevated, pan head 
screws are inserted through 
holes in the loops and fas- 
tened to the bottom conduit 
section* 

Since the finished length 
of the three telescoped sec- 
tions of conduit is approx- 
imately 27 feet 4 inches, it 
will be necessary to add an 
adjustable base loading coit to 
enable the finished antenna 
to resonate properly at var- 
ious frequencies. One end of 
this coil should be fastened to 
the bottom end of the one 
inch conduit section, and the 
other end is fastened to the 
unused standoff insulator (see 
Fig. 3). An SO-239 coax 
fitting should be mounted on 
the lower end of the redwood 
support, near the end of the 
loading coil fastened to the 
standoff insulator, by means 



Z in. X 4 bt ISlMOCn 
SlFPORT- 4ft U»M 




Fig, L 



Fig. 2. 



of a right angle metal bracket* 
A short length of wire, to 
serve as a coil tap, is run fronn 
the center conductor of the 
SO-239 coax fitting to the 
desired resonance spot on the 
loading coil, and soldered at 
each end. The tap location on 
the loading coil is a fit-and- 
try operation after the an- 
tenna is erected and placed 
on the air, the object being to 
find the tap location which 
gives the lowest swr at the 
desired operating frequency. 

If you intend to use the 
antenna for more than one 
operating frequency, you will 
need to have a small clamp 
connection on the tap wire 
which will allow you to move 
its locatron on the loading 
coil. If your station includes a 
transmatch or similar 
matching device, you may 
eliminate the loading coil and 
simply run your tap wire 
directty from the coax fitting 
to the lower end of the one 
inch conduit. Loading of the 
antenna is accomplished by 
simply tuning the transmatch 



for lowest swr. 

Having completed assem- 
bly of the antenna and its 
support, it is a simple matter 
to fasten the redwood sup- 
port with U-bolts to a pipe of 
at least 1-1/2" diameter 
driven into the ground a 
minimum of 4 feet. Get some 
help in elevating the antenna 
and mounting it on the pipe, 
however, because it is not a 
I i^t weight antenna, and you 
will very likely break the 
ceramic standoff insulators if 
it falls to the ^ound. 

As with any vertical an- 
tenna, a network of radials 
should be securely connected 
to the ground side of the 
SO-239 coax fitting at the 
base of the antenna. A few 
eight foot ground rods, also 
connected to this ground side 
of the coax fitting^ should be 
driven into the ground 
equally spaced from one 
another on a 12" radius from 
the support pipe. 

This antenna has been in 
operation at our home QTH 
for nearly a year and has 




BASE UUDHa tOL TAP 

cm comGCT DmExn^ur 

FIIOII: TIUHSitfTCH 



t^fK^MU RQCE - 4 CM IZ iL AAOMS 



Fig. 3, 



stood up well to windstorms 
with no damagp. We have 
managed to obtain many of 

the QSls needed for 5 BWAS 
on 40 and 80 meters using 

this antenna J and it has also 

operated well on 40 and 80 

meter DX in the most recent 

CQ WWDX contest, it has 

also performed admirably in 

acquiring those states needed 



for the Bicentennial Worked 
All States Award. 

If you want a good an- 
tenna for 80 and 40 (and 
other bands for that matter), 
the electrical conduit vertical 
is a cheap and effective way 
to go^ especially if you don't 
have the room, or inciination, 
to string up one or more 
di poles, ■ 



Craig Corse t!o WA60AA 
2S3 Florence Dr. 
Aptas CA 9S003 



The IC'PC Connection 



- - convenient and cheap 



Having become en- 
veloped in the digital 
mania^ and breadboard ing 
many circuits, I came across a 
problem that Tm sure many 
have stumbled across. As the 
projects became more com- 
plex, I found the wires 
coming off the perfboard it 
was constructed on more 
numerous. This becomes a big 
headache when modifying the 
circuit and having to un- 
solder, then resolder p all those 



darn wires. A cheap, but easy, 

connector was the only way. 
Not wanting to spend all my 
time hunting around for the 
right type of connectors, 1 
decided to gamble and sent 
off for some ordinary 
**Soldertaii Standard" IC 
sockets hoping they would be 
easy to modify. Luckily they 
worked out quite well, and 
I'm surprised no one has 
thought of it before. Since 
from 8 to 24 pin (and 



greater) IC sockets are easy to 
latch on to, the quantity of 
wires coming off the board 
presents no problem. Here's 
how it's done. 

First, that socket pops 
apart by snapping off the cap 
or top section, leaving you 
the base or bottom section. 
Those things youVe picking 
off the floor are the pins. The 
pin holes in the cap need to 
be drilled out wide enough to 



accommodate the width of 
the wire, and the pins have to 
have the formed spring con- 
tacts bent apart so the wire 
can slip down between them. 
The pins are a little difficult 
to work with, so be patient| 
and whatever you do don't 
do this over a shag rug 
because the only way to find 
a lost pin is the hard way, 
barefoot and unexpected, 

To put it together, just 
thread the wire(s) through 
the cap, strip off 1/16" of 
insulation and solder to the 
pin. Once all the other pins 
aje completed, slide the pins 
back into the base and slide 
the cap down until it snaps in 
place, Fini! When using 
ribbon cable, the end product 
looks good enough to use 
these connectors on the 
finished project when laid out 
on etched circuit board. Since 
"Soldertail Standard" sockets 
when used as the male con- 
nector won't plug into a 
"Low Profile" socket, you 
will have to use the **Solder- 
tail Standard" for both male 
and female, ■ 



81 



R. M. Stevenson WB2CZL 
IB Compass Court 
Humington NY 11743 



An 82S23 



PROM Programmer! 



-- now build those projects using one ! 



Tiu 82S23 is merely the 
Schottky version of the 
8223 programmable read 
only memory which has 
become popular in home- 
bull I amateur radio equip- 
ment, A year ago the 8223 
was plentiful on the surplus 
market. Now, however^ the 
supply is drying up because it 
is no longer manufactured (at 
least not by Signetics Corpor- 
ation). Being an experi- 
menter, I bought the 
Schottky type PROMs when 
they were offered at the same 
price as the S223, t was in 
trouble immediately. My 
programmer was the usual 
simple type the circuit of 
which has been published in 
several hobby magazines. 
Even by using a fusing 
potential of IS voits and no 
current limiting, I could not 
blow the links. 

A Solution 

A chance acquisition of 
the publication^ Slgnet/cs 
Bipolar Memories (cu r re n I 
issue, no date), led to a 
solution to my problem, 
Among other thinp, the 
manual shows a circuit for 
programming the 82S23 ^nd 



the 82S123 (S-state output). 
Evidently a short rise time 
and a controlled amount of 
fusing current are required to 
completely and permanently 
fuse the links in a SchoUky 
PROM. Five 1-shotsare used 
to automatically pulse three 
parameters of the PROM. A 
hurry-up version of the 
circuit was put together and 
it works just fine. No con- 
struction details are included 
in the manual, so a potential 



builder might benefit from 
my labors. 

The Schottky programmer 
is complicated and costly 
when compared with the 
simpler programmer usually 
used for home programming 
of the 8223 (e.g., RTTY 
journal, February, 1976, 
page 9). Also, the program- 
mer will not be used often, so 
the average ham will look to 
avoid buying parts. Be sure to 
check all switches to be used 



START 

CR? 
01 

4 
5 



cam ESC E NT STATE 



PftOC?^ 



\H^ 



CMOUiie PlH»l UiY BfT 5«ncN 



J 
1 



S I ? ( 4 I 5 




C«T)tODC HI FOR 3 mS 

CATHO^ to FOR ( nS 

AFTEt I m& CiTPfODE &C!ES LO FOU i 

Af TEH 4his FuurmER goes LO FDR ImS 

AFTER 4«S COLLi:CTOR 60ES LO FOff I fi4 

^FTEK 1 ffliS GOLLECTOfl GOES HV FOR %m% 

Pm 3 f3F VH3 UNGROUNDEO FOR 3(?iS 

BASE LO FDR &m& 

AFTEfl 2m5 BASE GOES Ht FOR iS mS 



QUIESCENT STATE 



Wjyy//// ^^ 1!J5 V TO UUT ADPRESSCD OUTPtJt 

^J7A ^J^^ t?^>^ OUT CNASLE 



Table h Programmer timing diagram. 



in the address and bit post- 
tions. Old toggle switches 
sometimes hangup and toggle 
later This could ruin a 
PROM, I tost one that way 
even though I had checked 
and doubled-checked ihe 
switch. 

Remember that there are 
two configurations for 

double- throw toggle switches 
(something that even the 
catalogs don't atways men- 
tion). Some switches have the 
"ON" position coincident 
with the toggle handle, and in 
others the handle is opposite 
the ''ON" position. Wiring 
will be made more difficult, 
but be sure to install the 
switches so the positions of 
the toggle handles mean the 
same thing, A quad NAND 
gate and two 2N697 tran- 
sistors may be used instead of 
the dual peripheral driver. A 
resistor of about 470 Ohms 
should be placed between the 
outputs of the gates and the 
transistor bases. Be careful in 
using a lower value of drop- 
ping resistor to get more 
brilliance if you substitute 
LEDs; the DUT (device under 
test) may have to sink too 

much current. An SE 9300 
family transistor may be sub- 
stituted for the MJE 1103 (it 
must be a Darlington type). 
Be sure to provide heat sink- 
ing for all three voltage regu- 
lators. The zener diode clamp 
at VR3 will overheat and fail 
if pin 3 of the regulator is left 
ungrounded for an extended 
period. An additional 1-shot 
and LED may t>e used to see 
if the 1 -shots in the circuit 
are functioning. See page 84 
of Radio Eke tram cs Maga- 
zine for J une, 1 976, 

Referring to page 26 of 
the Si^etics manual, the 
timing diagram below the 
circuit diagram indicates the 
action initiated by the five 
1 -shots. However, more infor- 
mation is needed to fully 
explain the operation. See 
Table 1, CR1-CR3 are the 
diodes in the base circuit of 
Q2 (2N2222). Ql controls 
the 15 volt input power to 
VR2. Q3 and Q4 are the 
substituted 2N697 tran- 
sistors, 03 controls output of 



82 



Fig. I, Pulse catcher, Radio Electronics Magazine, June, 1976, 



toaiPF 



^\ 






►* e 



♦5v 



r*i2a 



*&v 



I 






t3r 



vcc 



m 

TL 



VR2, 5 volts for DUT verifi- 
cation and 10 volts during 
most of the programming 
cycle. VR2 output is forced 
to zero, however, near the 
end of the cycle, by action of 
Ql- Q4 switches output of 
VR3 from zero to 1 5,5 volts 
for fusing the links. 05 and 
06 are in the NOR gate 
which enables the DUT. \M is 
the substituted quad NAND 
gate. 

With the simpler program- 
mer, an address is selected 
and about 12.5 volts Is 
applied for (hopefully) Vi 
second. In the Schottky 
version of the programmer^ 
fusing operation is as follows: 

1. OUT disabled; 

2. Vcc raised to 10 
volts for 4 ms; 

3. After 1 ms (after 
start of programmjng)^ 
addressed output is 
raised to 15.5 volts for 
3 ms; 

4. After 2 ms DUT is 
enabled for 1.5 ms; 

5. Both Vcc and fusing 
voltages go to zero for 
1 ms. 

At the end of the 5 ms 
programming period, condi- 
tions revert to their quiescent 
state (5 volts at Vcc and DUT 
enabled)* 



Inasmuch as these 

memories are irreversibly pro- 
grammed, the unit should be 
checked each time it is used 

(DUT not installed). 

U4 (7400) Not In Socket 

1. All LEDs lighted. 

2. Check 10 volts at 
DUT socket pin 16. 

3. Check logic LO at 
DUT socket pin 15* 

4. Check 15.5 volts at 
DUT socket pins 1-9 
when BIT switches are 
in the N.O. position 
and 2 volts when in the 
N.C. position. 

U4 In Socket 

L All LEDs lighted. 

2. Check 5 volts at 
DUT socket pin 16. 

3. Check volts at 
DUT socket pins 1-9 
when BIT switches are 
in the N.O. position 
and 5 volts in the N.C. 
position. 

4. Logic LO at DUT 
socket pin 15. 

5- Check 5 volts at 
DUT pins 10-13 when 
ADDRESS switches are 
in the "1 '' position and 
volts when they are in 
the "0'' position. 

It is well to check that the 
DUT has not already been 
programmed or has missing 
bits for some other reason. 
After checkout of the unit as 
above, use the following pro- 
cedure to verify the status of 
the DUT. 

1. Set ADDRESS 

switches to the **0** 

position. 







Fig. 2. "Simpler'' programmer a'rcufi. 



2. Set BIT switches to 
the N,C. positron. 

3. Insert DUT. 

4. Any LEDs that are 
tinted indicate blown 
links at address 00000. 

5. Check other ad- 
dresses as appropriate 
by setting the AD- 
DRESS switches. (Do 
Not Touch The Bit 
Switches.) 

Operation 

Programming the DUT is 
pure simplicity, but attention 
to detail is enforced just as in 
any programming. 

1. Set ADDRESS 
switches. 

2. Actuate required 
BIT switch to blow the 
link. 

3. The LED will light. 

4. Actuate any remain- 
ing switch for logic **1 *' 
at that address, 

5. Set next address and 
COTitinue. 

Condtistoii 

This programmer for 
Schottky PROMs works fine 



for the non-Schottky 8223. 
Industrial users of PROMs are 
not always so lucky with 
their exotic, automatic pro- 
grammers. One S8,000 ma- 
chine will program the82S23 
but not the 8223. There are 
substitutes for the 8223 and 
S2S23 but caution is advised; 
there are subtle differences. 
For instance, in some units, 
the outputs are programmed 
from "1" to **0" instead of 
from "0'* to '*1" as in the 
8223 and 82S23. 

A review of other pro- 
grammer circuits in the Sig- 
nelics manual makes it 
apparent that a "universal" 
programmer could be built to 
program at least all of the 
Signetics PROMs of this type. 
A universal programmer 
would make an excellent club 
project. In addition to auto- 
matic identifiers for repeaters 
and RTTY^ the impact of 
inicroprocessors is beginning 
to be felt by almost everyone. 
As more * 'software" becomes 
available, operators will want 
some of their short routines 
stored in "firmware/* ■ 



i 





ARRL ROANOKE DIVISION CONVENTION 9-10 JULY 1977 



— FAMILY VACATION AREA 

— BANQUET 

— YL-XYL PROGRAMS 

Advance Tickets $2.50 
Tidewater Radio Conventions, Inc 
Box 9371, Norfolk, VA 23505 



— INDOOR, AIR COND. FLEA MARKET 
-^ ARRL. FCC, MARS, VFIF AND OTHER 
PROGRAMS 



Call or write for reservations. 



Admirality Motor Hotel 

Norfolk, VA 23502 

804-461-5555 



83 



^m 



C, Warren Andreasen WA6JMM 

PO Box B306 

Van Nuys CA 91 409 



Practical P,S* 




- - do it right this time 



One of the most common 
types of articles pub- 
lished is that on the building 
of a power supply. Usually 
the power supply will be a 
12-14 volt unit which is 
capable of providing 3 Amps 
or so, which will power most 
solid state VHF transceivers. 
What is apparent from read- 
ing these articles is that most 
hams do not really under- 
stand power supply design^ 
and, because of this mis- 
understanding, will waste 
parts and end up with a de- 
sign which is not doing what 
the builder wants. This article 
will try to reveal some of the 
more common pitfalls, and 
present a simple design which 
will provide good, safe, gen- 
eral service- 

The first part of any 
power supply to look at is the 
power transformer, diode 
rectifier, and filter combina- 
tion. We want to get a trans- 
former with a rating of 
greater then 12 volts, since 
we want a regulated output 
of 12-14 volts. It would be 
best to get a transformer of 

about 1 5 volts rms rating, but 
this is not a very common 

transformer. A transformer of 

a higher voltage rating (20 



90V 



T| t2£V 



> 



ilO VAC 



volts or so) is OK, but this 
would mean the regulator 
would have to dissipate a lot 
of heat, which wastes power. 
About the best we can do 
is get a transformer which 
will deliver a solid 12.6 volts 
at 3 Amps. Some of the less 
expensive transformers wilt 
drop several volts at full cur- 
rent — try to avoid these. 
You may wonder how to gel 
a regulated 12.6 volts from a 
12-6 volt transformer. The 
trick is in the rating of the 
transformer in rms voltage. 
Since ac voltage is constantly 
changing in value, at any 
given instant its absolute volt- 
age may be anything from 
zero to the peak value. 
Because of this^ ac voltage is 
given based on how much 
work it will do, 12.5 volts ac 

rms will do the same work 
(heating a resistor) as 12.5 

volts dc; however, the peak ac 
voltage is 1.414 times the rms 
voltage. A simple rule of 
thumb is, "split rms in two, 
and add this figure to the 
rrrs.'* This would say, 12 
volts divided by 2 equals 6 — 
add this to 12 for 18 volts 
peak. 

This method gives a ball- 
park figure which is close 



s^sN^sN fippLE 




/w 



TO I^TEGULATOR 



Jl CI 



70.000 ^F 



RECTIFIER 



Hg. r. 



enough to work with* Using 
this figure of 1 8 volts, I know 
I want rectifier diodes which 
have a reverse breakdown 
rating of greater then 18 
volts, and can handle current 
in excess of 3 Amps* This 
part is easy, since most power 
rectifier diodes handle at least 
25 volts- In selecting the 
diodes, it is best to allow a 
margin of safety to allow for 
current surges and voltage 
spikes. The turn-on current 
surge could damage the 
diodes when the power sup- 
ply is first turned on, but the 
resistance of the trans- 
former's winding is usually 
enough to protect the diodes 
(which are able to handle 
currents on the order of 5Q 
times the diode rating) for a 
very short period of time. In 
this case^ a 5 Amp, 60 volt 
bridge would be good. 

Now comes the fitter- 
There are several types of 
filters, but we will only go 
into the most common, 
which is the capacitive input 
type. This filter is simply a 
capacitor across the output of 
the rectifier. This capacitor 
will, unds' no toad condi- 
tions, charge to the peak 
value of the voltage from the 
transformer^ or, in this exam- 
ple, to about 18 volts. The 
capacitor must have a voltage 
rating of at least 18 volts 
(preferably 20 volts). One of 
the major pitfalls is en- 
countered in the selection of 
this capacitor. It does not 
need to be so large as to give 
pure dc at full load. Its value 
should only be large enough 



to prevent the voltage drop 
between charging pulses from 
the rectifier from dropping 
below the point where the 
regulator falls out of regula- 
tion. Most regulators will 
require no more then 3 volts 
across the series pass transis- 
tor to maintain regulation. 
That being the case, we may 
have 1 8 V-1 2 V plus 3 V for 
15 volts minimum before 
dropping out of regulation. 
Fifteen volts minimum from 
18 volts maximum gives a 
maximum of 3 volts allow- 
able ripple. To have a larger 
capacitor and less ripple 
serves no useful purpose and 
wastes space with the larger 
capacitor. To figure this 
capacitor value, figure the 
regulator impedance as seen 
from the filter capacitor 
under full load; 3 Amps (full 
load), 18 volts (peak charge), 
divide (E/l equals R) 18 Vby 
3 A, giving us 6 Ohms, 

A simple review reminds 
us that T equals RC, or resis* 

tance (in Ohms) times capaci- 
tance (in farads) equals lime 
(in seconds) for a 63% charge 
or discharge of a capacitor. If 
we draw the discharge curve 
of a capacitor and label the 
lop as the peak 18 volts, and 
the 63% discharge point 
(6.6 V), we can now see what 
percentage of the discharge 
time it takes for the capacitor 
voltage to drop below 15 
volts (regulated output volt- 
age plus 3 volts). In this case I 
will refer to the Amateur 
Handbook^ where there is a 
printed graph which shows 
lime constant vs. percent of 
discharge* The 3 V allowable 
discharge is about 16% of the 
charge which becomes, on the 
graph, 84% charge at about .2 
time constant. As you can 
see, a greater peak voltage 
would allow more ripple to 
play with, and hence a 
smaller filter capacitor. In 
this case it will require 5- 
(1/-2) time constants to not 
drop below 84% of charge 
between charging pulses from 
the rectifier. The power sup- 
ply will be running from 60 
Hz ac and the full wave recti- 
fier will put out charge pulses 
at a 120 Hz rate, or one pulse 



84 



01 



UI4R EMULATED 




12. SV fiEGULfliTEO 
OUTPUT 



Fig, 2. 



every 8-1/3 ms. Five times 
this figure gives a required 
time constant of ,416 
seconds. Now we know that 
R equals 6 Ohms and T 
equals .0416 seconds, and 
that T/R or .0416/6 equals 
.0069333 farads or 6,933 uR 
This says that with the trans- 
former and current require- 
ments given, this power sup- 
ply needs 7,000 uF for filter- 
ing. 

After what has just been 
discussed, to remain pure I 
must mention that the regula- 
tor does not remain a con- 
stant 6 Ohms. This is because 
the regulator adjusts to main- 
tain regulation and as such is 
more of a constant current 
sink. This being the case, the 
discharge curve will be a 
straight line (linear) until the 
regulator drops out of regula- 
tion. When dealing with the 
upper part of the discharge 
curve, as we are, the differ- 
ence is unimportant, and falls 
into the area of slop to be 
covered by the "margin" 
factor. 

Now for the regulator, 
another pitfalL Nowadays the 
easiest thing to do is use an 
IC regulator with a external 
pass transistor. For the sake 
of this article^ the IC route 
won't be followed, since we 
would not learn much about 
how It works. Refer to Fig, 2 
for the regulator we will be 
using. The series pass transis- 
tor will be selected mostly by 
the current capability. We 
want a PNP that can pass 3 
Amps and dissipate 15 Watts 
or so* The dissipation re- 
quired is determined by the 
voltage drop across the series 
pass transistor at full load. 
Since at that point the filter 
cap will also have maximum 
ripple giving lower average 



power, we can add a safety 
margin by maintaining the 
full voltage differential for 
our calcuSations. 1 8 V-1 2.6 V 
equals 5.4 V. 54 V x 3 A 
equals 16,2 Watts worst case 
dissipation. A small heat sink 
and almost any power transis- 
tor can handle that- Let me 
inject that to parallel series 
pass transistors is a total 
waste, in this case, as almost 
any power transistor can 
handle this power leveL 

To point out a common 
mistake, you cannot just 
parallel two transistors. Refer 
to Fig. 3(a). It won't work, 
although it will appear to. 
The base emitter iunction is 
electrically a diode with a 
conduction voitagc of about 
.6 volts for a silicon transis- 
tor, and about .2 volts for a 
germanium transistor. It may 
be assumed that no two junc- 
tions are exactly alike^ and 
because of this, one will 
conduct before the other^ not 
allowing the base voltage to 
rise further^ to the conduc- 
tion point of the second tran- 
sistor. Thus it will not turn 
on unless the first transistor is 
damaged. 

Two transistors can be 
paralleled if a small resistor is 
placed in the emitter circuit 
of each transistor. This allows 
a small voltage change in the 
base emitter circuit, with the 
current through the transis- 
tor. If one transistor conducts 
more than the other, the volt- 
age builds across the junction 
of the conducting transistor, 
causing the other transistor to 
turn on harder, striking a 
balance. Without this emitter 
balancing resistor, the second 
transistor is wasted. Refer to 
Fig, 3(b), 

Now to pick a series pass 
transistor . , . PNP ... 20 



Watt , . . in ex pensive J and 
some gain* As you can see^ 
almost any PNP power tran- 
sistor will do, but let's pick a 
2N4901. This transistor is 
rated for 40 V, 85 W, and 
CQcSts about $1.75 from 
Motorola. The gain for this 
device IS a minimum of 25, 
which means that at 3 Amps 
we must be able to supply a 
worst case base current of 
1 20 mA. The best way to do 
this is to use another tran- 
sistor which will amplify a 
much smaller current. For the 
driver transistor, we will pick 
a 2N3053, which has a break- 
down voltage of 40 volts and 
a minimum gain of 25. 
Refering to Fig. 2, we will 
wire Q1 and Q2 together as 
shown, in a compound 
Darlington configuratiGiri. 

Now to figure the value of 
resistor Rl, which must 
supply enough base drive to 
provide the worst case drive 
to 02. Since 02 must drive 
Ql with a maximum of 120 
mA (output current divided 
by gain of Ql ), we will drive 
that 120 mA by the gain of 
Q2 to get a rounded off 5 m A 
drive requirement for 02. At 
3 Amps output, the filter 
capacitor voltage will be 
dipping to as low as 1 5 volts, 
so with a worst case low 
input voltage of 15 volts and 
division by -005 Amps, we 
find that the resistor value 
should be about 500 Ohms. 
To figure the power dissipa- 
tion of the resistor, we must 
take the maximum voltage 
across it> which occurs at no 
load, with maximum charge 
on the filter capacitor. We 
know from earlier that the no 
load voltage will be about IS 
volts. The base of 02 will 
always stay within about 1/2 
volt of the output voltage, so 
we now know that the worst 
case voltage across Rl will be 
about 6 volts* Again, using 
Ohm's Law, we take the 500 



Vvl 




Ohms and divide into the 6 
volts to our current a;t 120 
mA. I times E equals P^ or ,1 2 
Amp times 6 volts equals .72 
Watts. A one Watt resistor 
would be in order here. 

Now for the feedback loop 
which makes this into a regu- 
lator. Z1 is a 1 N4742, 1 Watt, 
12 volt zener diode. It is 
connected as shown with R3, 
whose only purpose is to sink 
any leakage the diode might 
have and to assure that the 
diode operates in its proper 
current range. The value is 
not critical and the 1 00 Ohms 
shown will allow about 6 mA 
to flow through the diode 
before regulation takes place. 
The purpose of R2 is only to 
protect Q3 against a sudden 
current surge that might 
damage the base junction 
before the regulator can 
respond. With Q3 installed as 
shown (almost any NPN tran- 
sistor will work), any current 
in excess of the 6 mA de- 
signed to flow through Z1 
will turn on Q3, causing it to 
steal base current from 02 
until the output voitagc 
reaches the cutoff point of 
Z1 . The circuit won't allow 
the output to go above 12.6 
volts (the extra ,6 volts comes 
from the base iunction of 
Q3), and if it tries to go 
below 12.6 volts, Ql and Q2 
drive harder and won't allow 
that. So what we have is a 
rock solid 12.6 volts. 

Now for the final pitfall. 
C2 is not a filter capacitor. 
To try and filter at this point 
will waste a big capacitor. C2 
should only be a small capaci- 
tor to bypas5 any high fre- 
quency noise which might 
appear at this point, A 1 uF 
will do jUst fine. 

In conclusion^ while this 
article was intended to show 
how to design a simple power 
supply and avoid some of the 
common pitfalls, if built it 
will provide a solid, pure 1 2.6 
volts at a continuous 3 Amps. 
In fact, since all was figured 
on worst cases, it will supply 
in excess of 3 Amps and not 
feel much strain. Current 
limiting and overvoltage pro- 
tection could be added with 
little effort. ■ 



85 



1 



I 




YD-e44 
Dynamic Mike 




ADVANCED COMMUNICATION 

EQUIPMENT 




QTR-24 
Woild Clock 



O 



M 



m 




Left to right - FRG-7, Solid State Synthesized Communicatbns Receiver • FR-101 Digital Solid State Receiver • SP-101B, 
Speaker • FR-101, Digital Solid State Receiver • FL-101. 100 W Transmitter • FL-2100B. 1200 W PEP Input Linear Amplifier 



W 

I 



< 




VC^.^^^^^^"-^^-^^^ 




Lett to right - FT^-esOB, 6 Meter Transceiver • YP-150. Dummy Load Wattmeter • YO-100. Monitor Scope • FTV-250, 
2 Meter Transverter • FTV-650> 6 Meter Transverter • FV-IOIB, External VFO • FT-lOlE 160-10 M Transceiver 




Lett to right - YC-601, Digital Frequency Display • YC-355D, Frequency Counter • FP-301 , AC Power Supply • FT-301S 
Digital, All Solid State Transceiver • FV-301, External VFO • FT-221, 144-148 All Solid State Ail Mode Transceiver 



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I 



I 



I • 




THE PACESETTER 
IN AMATEUR RADIO 




TSTQOA 



$S99.DQ 



ZM ALL MODE BASE/MOBILE TRANSCEIVER. 
SS8 (upper and lower), FM, AM and CVV. AC and 
DC. 4 MHz band coverage {144 to 148 MH;). DpaJ 
m receiver frequency and TS-700A automatically 
switches xniitter freq. 600 KHz for repeater 
operation. Xmit, Rev capability co 44 Ch, with 1 1 
xtBls. 





TS-8ZD 



$830.00 



TR'7400A 



£399.00 



2M MOBILE TRAtygCEIVER, Synthesized PLL. 
Seiectabfe output, 26 watts or 10 watts, 6 Digit 
LED freq. display. 144-143 MHz, BOO CH. in S 
KHz steps. 600 KHz repeater offset. Continuoys 
tone-coded squelch (CTSCJ. Tone Burst. 



TS-520 




SSB TRANSCEIVER. PLL RF Monitor Noise 
Blanker. Qigrtal hold locks counter St display at 
any frequency, but allows VFO to tune normally. 
True RF compressor adjustable speech processor. 
IF shift controL RF attenuator. VOX, GAIN, 
AMTIVOX and VOX delay controls. RF iiegative 
feedback. Optional digital readout. DRS Dial. Higti 
stability FETVFQ. 



PS-5 



$79.00 



$629.00 



SSB TRANSCEIVER. Proven in the shacks of 
thousands of discrtminating hams, field day sites, 
DX and corkteit stations and mobile installations, 
Superb engineering and styling. 



SP'520 ^ $22.95 

Optional external speaker for better readability. 

TV-502 SZ49.00 

TRANSVERTER. Puts you on 2M the easy way. 
144-145.7 MHz or optional 145^146 MHz. 



BYNAMJC MICROPHONE. 
Designed especially for 
homes. PTT and lock 
switches. 600 or 50K ohm. 



a 



jitn 



TR-72D0A 



$229.00 



2M MOBILE/BASE FM TRANSCEIVER. Ignition 
interference control. 2 pole Xtal filter in iF rcvr. 
Protection for final stage transistor & reverse 
polarity connections. Priority Ch. switch. Quick 
release mount. LEO CH. indicators. Switchable 
low or 1W output. 




jr:u:a f*^ t ^ 



CI 

X 




MCBD 



$39.50 



Dynamic microphone designed eKpressly for ama^ 
teur radio operation. Complete with PTT and 
LOCK switches, and a microphone plug. (600 or 

50k ohm) 




COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVER. 1.8 to 29.7 
MHz, WWV and CB band, 50 MHz, 144 MHz con- 
verter optional. Stable VfO & oscillator for 5 
fixed chanaels. 1 KNz dial readout. Xtal fitters 
{SSB/8 pole, CW/8 pole, AM/6 pole). Squelch. 
S meter. Noise blanker. 



$-599^$t3.g4 R 599 A-S45@.0Q T599[1'$4T9. 



SSfi TRANSMITTER. 3.5 to 29.7 MHz. Stable 
VFO. 1 KHz dial readout. & pole Xtal filter. AM 
Xmission available. Quilt-in AC pwr supply. Split 
frequency control available. 




VFO-820 




$139.00 



Designed exclusively fof use with TS-320. RIT 
circuit and control switch. Fully compatible with 
aptionai digital display, 

VFO'SaO (Not Shown) $116.00 

Solid State Remote VFO. RIT circuit with LEO 
indicator. 




TR'Z20OA 



$227.00 



PORTABLE 2M FM TRANSCEIVER. 12 Ch. 
capacity. Removable telescQping antenna. External 
12 VDC or internal l^LCAD batteries. 146 148 
MHz. 6 CH. supplied. Switchable 2W or 40QmW 
output. 




R-300 



$239.00 



ALL BAND COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVER. 
AC, batteries or external 00. 170 KHz to 30 MHz 
in G bands. Foreign broadcasts or ham radio in 
AM, SSB and CW. Dual pte MOS/FET transistors 
& double conversion. Band spread diaL 500 KHz 
marker. 



MASTERCHARGE & BANKAMERICARD ACCEPTED 



i 



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DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 




DRAKE 



® 



KNOWN FOR QUALITY 
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD 









RECEIVERS 

SSR-1 
SPR-4 
DSR-2 

R-4C 

4NB 

5NB 



General Coverage, .5 to 300 MHz 
Programmable, Solid State 
VLF-HF Digital Synthesized SSB, 
AM, CW, 1SB. RTTY 
C-Line. HF. 160-1 OM 
Noise Blanker for R-4C 
Noise Blanker for SPR-4 



$350.00 
$629.00 

$2950.00 

S599.00 

$52.00 

$70,00 



TRANSMITTER 



TAXC 



C-Line. HF. 160-1 OM 



TRANSCEiVERS 



TR^CW 


80-10M. SSB, AM, CW 


TR-33C 


2M, FM, 12 CH. Portable 


MMK-33 


Mobile/Dash/Desk Mount for TR- 




330 


34PNB 


Plug-In Noise Blanker for TR-4 




Series 


MMK-3 


Mobile Mount for TR-4 


RV-4C 


Remote VFO for TR-4 CW 


FF-1 


Crystal Control for TR-4 


SYNTHESIZER 


FS-4 


General Coverage for 4- Line and 




SPR-4 



LINEAR AMPLIFIER 



L-4B 



MATCHING NETWORKS 



$599,00 



$649.00 
$229.95 

SI 2.95 

3100.00 

S7.00 

$120.00 

$46.95 



$250.00 



Linear and w/power supply & tubes $895.00 



MN-4 


Antenna Matching Network. 200W 


$1 1 0.00 


MN-2000 


Antenna Matching Network. 1000W 


$220.00 


RCS^ 


Remote Controt Antenna Switch 


$120.00 


W-4 


RF Wattmeter, 1.8 to 54 MHz 


S72.00 


WV-4 


RF Wattmeter, 20 to 200 MHz 


$84.00 


7072 


Hand Held Microphone 


$19.00 


7075 


Desk Top Microphone 


$39.00 


1525EM 


Pushbutton Encoding Microphone 


$49.95 


HS-1 


Head Phones 


$10.00 


AA-10 


10W,2M Amplifier 


$49.95 


TV-300-HP 


300 ohm High Pass TV Set Filter 


$10.60 


TV-75-HP 


75 ohm High Pass TV Set Filter 


$13.25 


TV^2-LP 


Transmitter Low Pass Filter. 100W 


$14.60 


TV-3300-LP 


Transmitter Low Pass Filter. 1000W 


$26.60 


TV-5200-LP 


Transmitter Low Pass Filter. 1000W. 






1 0OW, 6M 


$26.60 



USED GEAR • TRADE UP • FREE UPS SHIPPING ON PREPAID ORDERS 



I 



I 



COLLINS AMATEUR EQUIPMENT 




KWIVI-2A TRANSCEIVER $3533.00 

Unmatched for mobile and fixed station applicattons. 175W 
on SSB, 160W on CW. Switch select up to 14 optional Xtais. 
Can be used for RTTY. Filter type SSB generation. Automatic 
load control. Inverse RF feedback. Reimeability-tuned variable 
oscillator* 





75S-3C RECEIVER $2504.00 

Sharp selectivity. SSB, CW and RTTY. Single control rejection 
tuning. Variable BFO, Optional mechanical filters for CW, 
RTTY and AM. 2^1 KHz mechanical filter. Zener regulated 
oscillators. 3-position AGC, 



wtrrgHiy^gjj^i^wW^ ■'"Wl! 



32S-3A TRANSIWITTER $2597.00 

Covers all ham bands between 3.4 MHz and 30 MHz. Nominal 
output of 100W. 175W, SSB and 160W CW; Dual conversion. 
Automatic load control. RF inverse feedback. CW spotting 
control. Collins mechanical filter. 




31»-3 SPEAKER 
$BQ.OO 




30L1 LINEAR AMPLIFIER 



$1536.00 



TDQO watts PEP on SSB and lOOD Average on CW. Singfe con- 
trol rejection tuning {50 dB). Variable BFO. 2J kHz 
Mechanical filter. Zener regulated Dscillators. 3 position AGC. 
Excluisive comparator circuit. 





3130^4 
SPEAKER CONSOLE 

$54«.M 



3196-5 VFO CONSOLE 
$1313.00 



s 






s 



I ll.l .'." '. f^,. 









516F-3 AC POWER SUPPLY 
$440.00 



303C-3 DIRECTIONAL WATT METER 

$360.00 



DL-1 DUMMY LOAD 
$370.00 



MASTERCHARGE & BANKAMERICARD ACCEPTED 



i 



id 




DIVISiON OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 



I 



I 



Bii^ THRULINE® WATTMETER 






• BUY ONLY THE ELEMENTS YOU NEED 
AND ADD EXTRA RANGES AT ANY TIME 

• READ RF WATTS DIRECTLY 



Table 1 

STANDARD 
ELEMENTS 



Power 
Range 



MODEL 43 



5 

10 

25 

50 

100 

250 

500 

10#0 

2500 

5000 



watts 
watts 
watc$ 
watts 
watts 
watts 
watts 
watts 
watts 



Frequency Bands iMHi) 



2- 

3a 



25- 
60 



125 



100- 
250 



200- 

500 



400- 
1000 



SON 

100H 

250H 

50OH 

lOOOH 

250OH 

5000H 



5A 

10A 

25A 

SOA 

lOOA 

250 A 

500A 

1000 A 



5B 

106 

2S8 

508 

1008 

250a 

5006 

10008 



5C 

10C 

25C 

SOC 

100C 

25 OC 

500C 

1000C 



5D 

10D 

25 D 

50D 

100D 

250D 

5O0D 

lOOOD 



5E 

10E 

25E 

50E 

lOOE 

2S0E 

500E 

1000E 



Table 2 

LOW- 
POWER 
ELEMENTS 



1 watt 


Cat. Ho. 


2.5 watts 


Cat. No. 


60-60 MHz 


060-1 


60-60 MHz 


060-2 


80-95 MHz 


Q80-1 


80-95 MHz 


080-2 


95-125 MHz 


095*1 


95-150 MHz 


095-2 


110-160 MHz 


110-1 


150-250 MHz 


150-2 


150-250 MHz 


150-1 


200-300 MHz 


200-2 


200-300 MHz 


200-1 


250450 MHz 


250-2 


275-450 MHz 


275-1 


400-850 MHz 


4O0-2 


42S-850 MHz 


425-1 


800-950 MHz 


800-2 


flOO-9SO MHz 


aoo-1 







WE HAVE A COMPLETE STOCK OF ALL BIRD WATTMETERS AND SLUGS 




NATION AL RADIO COMPANY, INC. 

INRCI 




NCX-1000 

The anly 1000 watt, "single package" 
transceiver. Heavy duty design . . . results 
of 50 years of design leadership in amateur 
equipment. State of the art speech pro- 
cessing, linear amplifier, power supply, all 
in one package. Nothing extra to buy. 
Covers all amateur hands in the HF 
spectrum , , , AM, SS' CW ft-t gni) 



NCL-2000 

Linear Amp lifter, A fulMO dB gain. 20 
watts in 2000 watts out. Can be driven 
with one watt. ContinuoLS duty design 
utilizes two 8122 ceramic tetroda output 
lubes, designed for both AlVl and SSB 
Operation. The industry standard for 12 
years. Thousands in use all over the world. 



$1,200 




Sf^: S:S:;:g:/ScS ift-;S 




O B © 



HRO-500 

The ultimate short wave receiver. This synthesized (phase lock loop) receiver tncorpo- 
rates all facilities for AM, Single Side Band (SSB). and CW receiption in aH frequencies 
from the bottom of the very low frequency band (VLF) ro the top of the high fre- 
quency band (HF), Natmnars ''dead accurate" dial means no searching for trans- 
missions. Dial up the frequency and it's there: aeronauttcal, marine, CB, amateur, 
military, etc. Continuous coverage. ^ oArt 

$3,000 



USED GEAR • TRADE UP • FREE UPS SHIPPING ON PREPAID ORDERS 



I 




ICOM 



VHF/UHF AMATUER 
& MARINE EQUIPMENT 




1 



IC^215. 2 METER FM PORTABLE. 
Three narrow filters for superb perform- 
ance. 3W or 400 mW. 15 CH. capacity. 
MOS FET RF Amp & 5 luFjed ckts. 
S-meter from paneL $229 DO 



VHF/UHF AMATEUR 
& MARINE EQUIPMENT 

IC-245. 146 ^Hz FM lOW XCVB. LSI 
Svnthesi?Br with 4 digit LED readout. 
Xmit & Hcv frequencies independently 
programmable. 60 dB spurious etlenua- 

'"""' $499.00 





IC-211. 4 MEG, MULTI-MODE 2!V1 
XCVR, 144-145 MHz on SSB & CW, 
plus 146-147 MHz on FM. Work AMAT 
OSCAR six or seven. LSI synthesizer 
with 7 diyit LEO. MOS FET RF Amp, 
5 Helical cavities, FET mixer & 3 I.F. 
filters. 



$749.00 



$249.00 




IC-5D2. 6 METER SSB & CW PORTA- 
BLE XCVR. Includes antenna & battery 
pack. 3W PEP 8c stable VFD for fun & 
F8 QSO's. Covers first SQO KHz of 6^ 
band, where most activity is. 



$299.00 





Z 



IC'22S. 145 MHz FM lOW XCVR. CMOS synthesizer can he set to any 15 KHz ch, between 
146 & 148 MHz by diode matrix board. Spurious attenuation far better than FCC spec. 10W 
or 1W. IDC modulatmn control. 





IC-21 A, 146 MHz FM 10W XCVR. MOS 
FET RF Amp & 5 helical resonator 
filter, ptys 3 I.F. filters. IDC modulation 
control. Variable output pwr: 500 MW 
to low Front panel discriminator meter, 
SWfl bridge, 117 VAC and 13.6 VOC 
pwr supplies. $399.00 



DV2T, DIGfTAL VFO. Use with 
21 A to complete 2M band. 



IC- 



$299.00 



!C-202. 2 METER SSB 

PORTABLE XCVfl. Puts 
sideband m your hand! 
Internal C batteries or ex- 
ternan2VDC. 3W PEP. 
True I.F. noise btaoker, 
T44.fl, 144.2 on two other 
200KHzbands.»lectabte. 
Hamtronics stocks 145.2 
and 145,6= US.QMHzfor 
calling frequency & satel- 
nteba.d $259,00 








iC-3QA. 450 MHz FM LOW XCVR. IW 
or low. Low noise MOS-FET RF Amp 
& 5 sectioti helical filter. 22 CH. 
capacity. Smeter St relative power out- 
put meter. IDC modulation conlroL 



$399.00 



MASTERCHARGE & BANKAMERICARD ACCEPTED 



i 



kA 




DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 



I 



I 



1 






TEMPO 




TEMPO OME 
AC/ONE 
VF/ONE 

TiMPOVHF/ON£ 
TEMPO SSB/ONE 
TEMPO 2020 

FMH 

RBF-1 

DM -20 

MS-2 



HF Transceiver. aOtOM. USB, 




CW 8t AM 


399.00 


Power Supply for TEMPO 




ONE 


99.00 


External VFO for TEMPO 




ONE 


109,00 


Transceiver. 2M* 144 yo T4S 




MHz^PLL 


399.00 


SSB Adapter fof TEMPO 




VHF/ONE 


199.00 


Transcerver. 80-1 DM. USB, 




LSB, CW and AM. PLU 




Digital 


75900 


2W, VHF/FM, 6 Ch, Hanrf 




Held. 144 148 MHz 


199.00 


Vyanmeter & SWR Bridge 


42.95 


Desk Mike. 600 or 50K ohm. 




PTT & Lock Switches 


39.00 


4 Ch. Pocket Scanning Rcvf. 


99.00 



ATLAS 




210X 
215X 

OMK 

220CS 
350 XL 

DD6-XL 

ao5 

311 

350PS 
DMK-XL 



Transceiver. lO-BOM. 200W 679.00 

Transceiver. 15-160M. 200W 679.00 
Deluxe Mtg. Kit fof 21 OX & 

21 5X 48.00 

AC Console f of 21 OX & 21 5X 1 49.00 
Traniceiver. SSB. Solid State. 
10-iaOM. 3S0W. 995.00 

Digital Dial Readout for 350- 
XL 195.00 

Plug-In Auxlliarv VFOh For 
350'XL 155.00 

Plug-In Auxiltary Crystal Os- 
cHlaior for 350-XL 135.00 

AC Pwr Supply w/Spkr St 
Phone Jack fof 3S0'XL 195,00 

Mobile Mounting Bracket for 
350^XL. Easy Plug-In 65.00 



SWAN 




700 CX 

VX2 
SS16B 

MARK II 



1200 X 



FP-1 



FC-76 

WIVI6200 

FS2 

SWR 3 
SWR-1A 

W2000 

m/t3ooo 

FS*1 
WM1S00 



MARK II 



1200 X 



Transceiver. 700W PEP, SSB. 
80-1 OM- USB, LSB or CW 
Plug-In VOX for 700 CX 
Super Selective IF Filter for 
700 CX 

Linear Amplifiere Full Legal 
Power. W/100W input. SO-10 
M. 

Portable Linear Amplifier. 
1200W PEP. SSB. 700W, Ch. 

300W; AM. S0-10M. 
Hybrid Telephone Patch. Con- 
nect Rcvr/Xmitter to Phone 
lines 



649.95 
44,95 

99.95 



849.95 



349.95 



64.95 




Frequency Counter. 5 Digit 

LED 169.95 

In- Line Presicion Wattmater 

for 2M. 2 Scales to 200W. 

Reads SWR. 59.95 

SWR & Field Strength Meter 16.95 

Pocket SWR Meter 12.95 

Relative Power Meter & SWR 

Bridge 25,95 

In-Line Wattmeter. 3 Scales 

to 2000W, 3.5 to 30 MHz 59.95 

Peak /RMS Wattmeter. Tells 

The Truth About SSB 79.95 

Pocket Field Strength Meter 10.95 

IrhLine Wattmeter. 4 Scales 

to 1 500W. 2 to 50 MHi 74.95 



Linear Arnplrfier. Full Legal 

Power. W/100W input, 80-10 

M. 849.95 

Portable Linear Amplifier. 

1200W PEP. SSB. 700W, CW. 

300W, AM. BO-I OM. 349.95 



USED GEAR • TRADE UP • FREE UPS SHIPPING ON PREPAID ORDERS 



I 



NYE VIKING 





No. 114^310-003 $8.25 No. 114.310*004GP $50.00 No. 114-404^002 $18.50 



No, SSK-1 $23,95 







No. 250-46-1 $36.50 



No, 250^46-3 $44.50 



No. 250-20-1 $19.95 No. 250-002S003 $212 



NPC 



2.5 AMP 



4 AMP 



GAMP 










12CB4 29.95 



103R 39.95 



104R 49.95 



12 AMP 

108 FM 
99.95 





25 AMP 



109R 149.95 



VIBROPLEX 






PRESENTATrON" 
66.00 



ORrGINAL" 




f f 



LIGHTNING BUG" 
39.95 



'CHAIMPION'* 

31 .50 



VJBRO-KEYER 
33.00 



X 




MASTERCHARGE & BANKAMERiCARD ACCEPTED 



ki 




DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 



1 



I 




I 



T)enIfon^ 



3 Kilowatt Tuner Matches 
Everything From 160 to 10 



160-10 MAT 

Built-in 
Wattmeter 

Front Panel Antenna 
Selector far 
Coax, Balanced 
Line and Random 
Wire. 




1000 to 1200 WATTS OUTPUT 
TO YOUR ANTENNA 

DenffoTL. Super Amp 



only $229.50 




Super 
Tuner 



1 GO-1 Meters 
Balanced Line, 
Coax, Random 
or Long Wire 
Maximum Power Transfer, Xmitter to Antenna. 

1 KW Model $1 29.50 3 KW Model $229.50 




BenHoTL. ANTENNAS 

The Sfey Openers 



t 



SKYM ASTER 

A tuily developed and t«4(ed 27 foot 
Mrtical ipitenna coirttt intrrt 10, IS, 20, 
arutAQ im-tGr 134 ndt Uting &l1lv omdevarly 
■ppdjtd MIV» rn^, A fult 1/4 wa^eantannil 
on '20 mitcrt. C'crtitfuctad of hq^vy lum- 
\wU lal'u^miiiuim with ^ fact^rv TUTiid end 
iHled HQ Trap, SKV MASTER f1 vwathflr- 
prijicif And wiith^lincb Mindi up taBO mph. 
H^ndtfil 2 KIA/ power l«vei and ii fqr 
grgijnd, roof ni tow^r mountiEEg, RadiBli 
inc^udHJ in auf Iqa' piicofiT 




$84.50 



Alio BD m raianatvr for tc^p maurtting g^ 

SKYhflASTEFl. 



$29.50 



^'^ 



SKVCLAW 

A tunahta mqtioljflnd liigK p-flrformittO* 
MflFtFcai ani^ffnp, dBJ^gnod *cjr 40, SO, IfiO 
m«t9r opitretton SKYCLAW eivet ^du 
Iht ^llowin^r Spectrum oavftrsfB: 
BAND aANDUVlDlli 

160 BO 

ao 2C0 

Tuning ii *ȴ ind rettab^e Rug^^d eorh 
UruEtJan Hiurei ihat rH|$ $elftuppcirtin|| 

unit it WB-aijiflCftro'Cif »nd swrwivei nicily 
In ICH] mph winds.. Handl^i fuM 3pgal 
pDwe-r limFL 



TfllM-TeNNA 

Thtf sntanna yo-ur n^hgfhbar] wJIL love. The 

n*A Otn^Trvrt TrJm-TMi^B vnXh 20 m*Ur 

baain i» deiiigrvad far ths diiKiriinjpattn^ 
qmB;T«iJr wl^ip wants fisniiatiC'perfarnn^n^ 
in trt vnvirafiimfitiiUv ».t3f^vAllntD««m. Wt 
reattv load'idf Up front there 'l a 1$ foot 
9 inch dirtctQF with prB^iion Hy-Q caiti, 
Andi 7 fMt bthind kt a 1i« loot ctMiftn 
«lBnwnt f«j djractlv with 5f ohm cobk, 
Ttie Trim-TBnna mciunU easily and iNiiat 
■m diff^raneft in Qrvtii4-air {lerf prmani^ (}«- 
tvv«eri tht THffl'T^nna and thdi dltMli^ 
tpng wire or inv^rfeed Vae you've txean 
mlnf. 4 & G Fcrwrtrd Oain Ov»f □ipolfl, 




$499.50 



II the amplifiar ywiVe thinking of buying doesn't detiwf at leoit IDOO tch 1ZQ0 watti output, 
to the antanns, you're buyinf th» uvr^m^^ arnpyfier,' 

Our Wew Supaf Amp \% iwB«pino the country t»cau$ft hami have rsatiz«d that the DanTron 
Amplifier will {deliver to the antenna, (ou^ut power |i. what otlwr iVb^nufactjrars rale 9S Fnput 
pQwer. 

The Super Amp runs a full 20D0 watts P,F,P. Input on SSB, and 10OO watts DC on CW,' RTTV 
or SSTV T 60-10 meters, tt» maximum lesal power^ 

Thft SupBf Amp i$ compact, low proiile^, has a solid one-pi^ece cabinet asiur^n^] maximum TV I 
EhaildinQ, 

The heart ol our Amplifier, the power Supply, is a oontinyous riHjt^. self-contained supply buitt 
fot contest performance, 

Wl^ mounted the 4 . 811 A'*, induitriaj workhorse tubei, in s ^ooMn^ chsmbef f&aturirr; the 
Oti-demand variad:]l€ co^Nng jv*^>n< 

Th#hSFns at OenTron F^ride thems«Jws on quality work, ^nd we fight to keep prices down. That's 
w#iV ttw dynamic OBnTmn Linear Amplffi&r l^eati them all at $439,60. 



NOW AVAILABLE WITH B7? B' FOR 



$S74*BO 



DenffoTL. ANTENNA TUNER 

The 80-10 Shytnateher 

Hare's an antenna tuner for SO Through 10 mfttKrs, hancfle^ EOO w P,E.P, and mstcl^es your 
52:Cihm transceiva-r to a ranefoni wire antenna. 



$129.50 





C^tnt^nuDus tuning 3.2 ^ 30 n^c 

"L" network 

Ceramic 12 pqShtion rolary switch 

SO— 239 receptional to transmitter 

Rarvdom wtretunar 

3G0Q volt capacitor spAcing 

Tapped inductor 

Ceramic antenna feed thru 

7" W. S" H. B' D., Weight: 5 lljs. 



$59.50 



$79.50 



EX 1 

The D«nTTCKn EX-1 VwTiwI Anwnrii tl 
diiMan4d f«f th« pvrfornHincv minded 
antarvna sxparinK'ntair. The EX-1 Ft e full 
41] mtt«r, % wtit*, iJT, ttll-tuptscLTtiiti 
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DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 



Carl C. Drumeller W5JJ 
5324 NM. 58 Street 
Warr Acres OK 73J 22 




Yaesu FRG 



Impressions 



- - take note, SWL fans! 



Manufactu rers' specif i- 
cations look very 
tempting. They can seem to 
provide the optimum solution 
to your radio receiving prob- 
lems. Andj remarkably 
enough, usually the specif ica- 
tions are atcuratie. 

Dry f i g u r es^ however^ 
don't tell the story as well as 
hands-on intimacy. Unfor- 
tunately, it*s seldom that one 
gets to take a prospective 
purchase home for a familiari- 
zation period before plunking 
down a wad of that green 
stuff. And once that green 
stuff ha^ changed hands, 
often it's difficult to whistle 
it back! 

That brings us to the 
subject of this article, one 
man's experience with a re- 
ceiver that's new' to the 
American market. Perhaps 
these experiences will assist 
you in making a decision as 
to whether the FRG-7 is your 
cup of tea. 

First impressions are 
strong, often lasting. The first 
impression presented by the 
FRG-7, as it is being un- 
wrapped from its heavy 
plastic cocoon, is that of 
exquisite neatness. It's 
packaged complete with 



every type of connector you 
could possibly need and even 
a hank of antenna for a 
random wire (called "long- 
wire" by those who don't 
know their nomenclature) 
antenna for reception of 
signals your dipole might not 
pick up too well. Look at the 
front, and you'll be impressed 
by the orderly array of con- 
trols. Nothing is "Mickey 
Mouse/' Yaesu has been 
making high quality trans- 
ceivers too long to half mast 
its standards! 

The instruction book, 
unlike that of many imports, 
is written by a person familiar 
with the English language. St*s 
not quite as complete in 
detail as one might like, and 
is really a far cry from those 
put out by the E, F, Johnson 
Company before it deserted 
amateur radio for the 
dazzling dollars of CB. It's 
not too skimpy^ though, and 
contains a pull-oyt diagram 
that can be read easily with- 
out the aid of a magnifying 
glass! From the list of recom- 
mended test equipment for 
servicing, one gets the impres- 
sion that Yaesu would like 
for owners to keep their 
hands out of the receiver's 
innards. That*s probably 



founded on past experiences 
with other solid state pro- 
ducts! 

It takes only a few 
minutes to absorb the simple 
operating procedures. You set 
the controls for the fre- 
quency band desired . . . and 
snap on a thumb-sized toggle 
switch. And, as an aside, 
unlike most )apanese- manu- 
factu red radio receivers, that 
toggle switch is in the 
primary of the power trans- 
former, not in the "B+" lead! 

I hope you do your initial 
listening either on AM phone 
or on CW. It works quite 
acceptably on both of those. 
But if your first try is on 
SSBj you may conclude that 
you made a regrettable 
mistake in judgment when 
you bought a Yaesu FRG-7! 
Let's face it. The combina- 
tion of 1000 kHz per band 
with a dial that has a backlash 
of 100 Hz makes getting a 
voice to sound intelligible, let 
alone natural, an exacting 
task! It can be done^ as 
improbable as that may 
appear initially. On top of 
those two characteristics, the 
receiver has an uncanny 
affinity for AM carriers. Com- 
paring it with a Drake TR-4C 



on the 7150-73Q0 kHz 
segrnent discloses far greater 
interference from carriers 
(even during daytime recep- 
tion) on the FRG-7, This test 
was made by switching the 
dipole from one receiver to 
the other with a coax switch. 

The ceramic filter used in 
the final i-f of the FRG-7 
really Is not suited for SSB 
rieteption in crowded amateur 
bands. 

Switching to a shortwave 
broadcast band quickly alters 
the unfortunate opinions that 
one may have formed while 
attempting to hear SSB 
signals. It performs quite 
creditably. The audio quality, 
of course, will not satisfy a 
''hl-iV fan, but the limited 
frequency response stems 
from the comparatively-sharp 
i-f selectivity. 

It's hard to fault the re- 
ceiver's performance on CW. 
It tunes easily. lt*s rock- 
stable. It has a choice of three 
audio response curves. In 
short, it's a honey! 

Youll notice I've omitted 
any listing of specifications, 
presuming you've looked over 
that information, scanning 
catalogues or dealers' hand- 
outs, Tve just given you my 
impressions. For many years 
Tve used only Drake or 
Collins receivers. The FRG-7 
plainly is not in the same 
league as these. And, of 
course, at $299.00, you really 
can't expect it to be. If one 
comes down out of the 
clouds and sheds any delu- 
sions of getting three 
thousand dollars worth of 
receiver for three hundred 
dollars, he just may find the 
FRG-7 a very satisfying bit of 
equipment. Don*t look for 
perfection; you won't find itl 
But if you look for a full- 
coverage receiver that'll do an 
excellent job of receiving CW^ 
a very good job of receiving 
AM voice, and an acceptable 
(after you've gotten used to 
it} job of receiving amateur 
SSB signals — one that 
doesn't cost an arm and a leg 
- youTI have to search far 
and wide before you find one 
that'll top the Yaesu 
FRG-7," 



96 



jl'l 



^ 






The First Report and Order, in docket 20777, requires that 
harmonic and spurious radiation from most hi amateur 
radio equipment must be attenuated by at least 40 dB* Can 
YOUR equipment meet this new regulation? 




It can... 11 it was made by R. L. Drake 

R. L. Drake has been making equipment to meet these new 
reg ulations for the last 1 3 years. We didn't wait to be "forced *' 
to produce quality equipment by FCC regulations. 

It can ... if you use a Drake Matching Network (tunable low- 
pass filter) 

If you don't own Drake equipment, you can still use your 
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meter and built-in antenna selector provide the ultimate an- 
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Drake TR-4Cw 




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To receive a FREE Drake Fuff Line Catalog, please send name and date of this pub f teat Ion to 



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DRAKE 



® 



540 Richard St, Miamisburg, Ohio 45342 
Phone: (513) 866-2421 ♦ Telexi 288017 



Western Sales and Service Center, 2020 Western Street, Las Vegas, Nevada 691 02 * 702/382-9470 



Clayton W, Abnms K6AEF 
1758 Comstock La/ie 
San Jose CA 952 24 



SSTV Meets 



the SWTP 6800 



-- modulate video with a micro 



Soon after completion of 
my SWTPC 6800 system, 
I thought^ *'Now what can I 
do with it?" Since my hobby 
is ham radio coupled with an 
Interest in SSTV, the answer 
was obvious. 1 decided to 



start in a small way with a 
program to load my WfJLMD 
SSTV l^ey board (Ref, 1). This 
project was quite successful, 
and 1 next attempted a more 
ambitious one ~ to generate 
SSTV in the CPU main 



memory. It became obvious 
that to generate SSTV I must 
first slow the microprocessor 
way down to accomplish the 
proper timings. I started by 
writing a short feasibility 
program which generated 




The system. 



timing pulses and video in the 
proper relationships. 1 fed 
these pulses into an SSTV 
modulator which uses only 
three ICs and is externa! to 
the SWTPC 6800 system. 
This program's performance 
exceeded my expectations; 
however, it had one large 
drawback. The picture dot 
patterns had to be entered a 
byte at a time into the main 
memory which was a big job. 
This article telts about my 
third program, which auio- 
matically loads memory and 
generates SSTV pictures. 



OP I 00 I FO I aO [ QQ j 00~ FF | 



Fig^ J. Hexadecimaf repre- 
sentation of seven picture 
dots in memory* 



tD4T 

1 



20 

as 
rt 

88 



|[MO 




Fig. 2. Coding of the dots to 

form the fetter A, 




93 



Memory 


Present 




Location 


Value 


Name 


031 A 


75 (Hex) 


Number of lines/ 

picture 

Half ffarifie -45 


02E3 


80 {Hex} 


Horizontal line freq. 
80 = 15 Hz (USA) 
70 = 16-2/3 (Europe) 


Q2E4 


5D (Hex) 


Sync pulsa width 
Horizontal ~ 5 ms 
Vertical = 30 ms 



Table h 



The Specifications 

I think a short technical 
discussion is in order as to 
how I accomplish this, I first 
decided on a few basic spe- 
cifications which were taken 
from my W^LMD keyboard 
design. These were: 

1. An SSTV picture 
will contain 30 ASCII 
characters in a 5 x 7 
dot matrix pattern, 

2. An SSTV picture 
dot will consist of three 
scan Hnes (vertical) and 
1 dot (horizontal). 

3. An SSTV picture 
will consist of 117 scan 
lines- 

4. An SSTV scan line 
will consist of 7 eight 
bit bytes (6 data^ 1 
sync), 

5. An SSTV picture in 
the SWTPC 6800 
memory will consist of 
819 bytes (117 lines x 
7 bytes/iine). 

As you can see from these 
specifications, the memory 
requirements are quite negli- 
gible and my first feasibility 
program fits easily into the 
4K of memory provided with 
the basic SWTPC 6800 sys- 
tem* 

Well, now that we have a 
set of specifications, how is 
the programming accom- 
plished? The only program- 
ming language which makes 
sense in this application is 
assembly language. The 6800 
assembly language instruc- 
tions coupled with the use of 
MIKBUG makes program- 
ming the SWTPC 6800 sys- 
tem an easy task. My first job 
was to flowchart the entire 
program, which is a highly 
recommended practice for 



anyone attempting such a 
project. 

The Seven "Picture Bytes" — 
and the Software 

Now let's examine in 
general how the seven picture 
bytes are used to generate the 
various sync pulses or picture 
dots. An example is shown in 
Fig. L 

The example represents a 
typical SSTV scan tine in 
memory. The first operation 
the program does in the trans- 
mit mode is load from me- 
mory the first byte into an 
accumulator. The accumu- 
lator in the 6800 is a 
powerful register which can 
be used to add, compare, or 
shift data. This byte is 
compared to see if it is FF. If 
it is, then it is a sync pulse. If 
not, it must be a data byte. 
The accumulator is then 
shifted to the left a bit at a 
time. If the shifted bit is a 
one, then bit of the parallel 




Sample SSTV generation with some unwanted ac ripple 
sneaking into the monitor to mess things upl 



(PIA) 



IS 



interface adaptor 
turned on. 

If the bit is zero, then the 
interface bit is turned off. If 
the byte is a sync byte (FF), 
then interface bit 2 is turned 
on for 5 or 30 milliseconds- 
Sound easy? Well, it is. All 
that is required is to connect 
these pulses to an SSTV 
modulator and out come 
SSTV pictures. Obviously, 
programming delays must be 
executed between all steps. 
Three program constants 
control all of these delays: 
one for the horizontal line 
frequency, one for the sync 



pulse durations, and one for 
the number of scan lines, just 
think of the possibilities! By 
manipulating these constants, 
any number of scan lines can 
be transmitted (up to 1 17) at 
any frequency, which ts only 
limited by the CPU cycle 
time and memory speed. 

The generation of the 
SSTV is quite easy; the big- 
gest trick is tS place the 
correct dots in the picture at 
the correct location. This is 
accomplished by use of a 
translate table and a dot 
table. The translate table is 
used to tell the program 




PSA BIT 

E $YNC 



am 



2 N 3904 

OR EQUlVi 



lOK 



NOftWAL 



IN4I4S 22 K 

T — "~^l f— VA i 

t.5 Z lf(4t4S 




2.5K 

SYNC 

FREQUENCY 
AD>JUST 




m 






20K 
r /A 



T 



iN4|4S 



WHITE 

FREQUENCY 



H^ 



BLACK 

FREWENCY 

ADJUST 



BLACK LETTERS ON 
WHITE BACKGROUND 






SYNC-" 



VIDEO-" 



O VOLTS 



I -H VOLT 

2.9 VOLTS 



ICK 



SuF 



i;3,9K ;fc.OlMF 



m 



m 




I^SSTV to 



TRANSMITTER 



Fig, 3. SSTV modulator schematic, 
frequency swing. 



"^Adjust value of resistor if required for correct SSTV 



BB 



M 



TV. 
DISPLAY 




TAPE 

RECORDED 

(.COMPUTER) 


JL 






1 






1 


SWTPC 
, CT-1024 




SWTPC AC -30 
AUDIO 


TERMINAL 
SYSTEM 




w w 


CASSETTE 
IWTERFACE | 



$TART 



LOAD € 

ASCII 

BUFFERS 



PARALLEL INTERFACE 
BOAHD 4PIA] 



I 



1 



swTpc eeoo 

COMPUTER 
SYSTEM 



O 2 



GNO 



DATA 



SSTV 

MO N IT on 



SSTV 



Q 



SYNC 



LOAD T LOOP/ 
BUFFERS- 



LOAD 
PICTURE 
eUFFERS 
OQ AP*D FF 



SSTV 
MODULATOR 



SSTV 



5S0 
TRflt*3M3TT£R 



Fig. 4. Block diagram of 
computer hardware inter- 
connections. 

where in the dot table the 
correct dots are located. The 
dot table is a 5 x 7 ASCII dot 
matrix array of bytes* The 
character dots were taken 
from the specification sheet 
of the 2513 Character Gener- 
ator ROM chip (Ref. 2). Not 
ail characters (ASCII) were 
coded in this program, due to 
their uncommon usage. The 
translate table in this program 
allows for expansion of 13 
dot patterns without rewrite 
of my generator routines. The 
reader can code any of the 
patterns to suit his needs. In 
order to accomplish this task, 



FIND 
&YTI- 

euFFEB 



LOAD 0OT$ 
IN PiCTuRt 
BUFFfR 
INDEX.ED BY 
TRANS Lftte 
TABLE 




YES 



JUMP TO 
TfliANSUIT, 



Fig, 5. Load SSTV picture 
program flowchart. 

I should explain in detail how 
the various tables are coded. 
Fig. 2 is an example of how 
to code the dots for the letter 

As you can see, you are 
only limited by your imagi- 
nation. With a littSe inge- 
nuity j a set of graphic-like 
dot patterns can be created- 
The translate table in me- 
mory is contiguous with the 
dot table. The low order ad- 
dress of the translate table is 



LOX *iTM 
.ADDRESS 



H 



LOAD AC- 

cuwyLft- 

TOR WITH 

PI-CTUH^S 

SVTE 



< -^ 

I CWPft TO LIT I 
t FULL I 

I PICTURE I 

L , 1 




VE5 



ADD 1 TO 
HORIZ ii.lN£ 
COONT 



STOPS 
ACCOM 

IN 
"BYTE" 




JSR "VERT' 
$$N0 VERT 
&TNC PULSE 



JSI? HOniZ 
SEND HORiZ 



J3R TO 
"DOT* 



rz 



QHECK PICT. 

LOOP 

NUM9&R 





LOAD NEXT 
PICTURE 




BftANCH 
TO LOAD" 
PiCtuRE 



Fig. 6. Transmit SSTV picture program flowchart 

Sm 100 




Another sampie (along with the ripple). 



equivalent to 6 of the 8 
ASCII code bits. For exam- 
ple, let's take the letter A. 
The ASCII code for A is 41 
hex. If you strip off the 8 and 
4 bits, the code remaining is 
01 hex. If you look in the 
translate table location 1 D01 
(hex), you will find a 47. This 
value means that the address 
of the dot bytes for A are 
located at 1 D47 in memory. 
You will find in the translate 
table {1D00 to 1D3F) a 
number of 04 characters. This 
value is a blank character and 
is placed on numbers with 
ASCII codes between 21 and 
2D, The characters are rareiy 
used and 13 of these codes 
can be used for special graph- 
ics. The character codes 
(ASCII) 5B-5F will load cha- 
racters with an inverted VEE. 
Now that you have a rough 
idea of how the program 
operates, let's use It. 

The program makes a few 
assumptions about how your 
6800 system is configured: 
The PI A card is in 
location 7 (address 
801 C), 

MIKBUG or equiva- 
lent is usedj with the 
following routines: 
E07E — output a 
string of characters; 
El D1 — output a 
single character; 
El AC — input a sin- 
gle character. 
At least 8K of 



memory. 

PI A bits are data 

pulses and bits 2 are 

sync pulses. 

The PI A can be changed 
easily on any bit convenient 
on your system. Some of the 
program constants which can 
be modified to fit your 
specific requirements are 
shown in Table 1. 

The program can be exe- 
cuted by loading MIKBUG 
location A048 and A049 with 
GOOD and typing G. The first 
routine executed is LOAD. 
This routine loads the picture 
buffers as you type in. The 
first message printed on the 
TV terminal is: 

PICTURE FORMATS 0^5 
12 3 4 5 

The program is now asking 
for you to load 5 lines of 6 
characters each. You first 
type in the picture number 
you want to load followed by 
30 characters. The first cha- 
racter of each line will be 
placed under its corres- 
ponding line number. 

You can now load all 6 
pictures or type an ASCII 
letter to end the process. The 
next message printed on the 
TV terminal screen is: 

SELECT LOOPS-PICTURES 
LOOP MAX=9 

7 

The program is now asking 



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Each program's source code is listed in full 
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Program B. Hexadedmaf object listings for SSTV generation program. 



can enter up to 7 loops/pic- 
tures and the process can be 



CL£AR 
,COUfCTtHJS 



— /^r\ 



■nvw 



terminated by entering an 
ASCII letter for the loop 
number. An SSTV picture 
can be looped up to 9 times. 
This type of programming 
will provide over S minutes of 
SSTV. Seven foop/pictures are 
entered with loop counts of 
9* Upon tnuy of the 7 loop/- 
pictureSp the SSTV trans- 
mission is executed. After 



transmission^ the program 
branches back to the load 
routine. 

Summary 

This completes the 
description and operation of 
the program. If you require 
more information^ please 
write. All letters with en- 
closed return postage will be 



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Fig, Z Transmit SSTV picture dot program flowchart 



answered. Fig. 3 is an SSTV 
modulator which ! use. The 
circuit was constructed on a 
vectorboard and installed in a 
minibox- The design is quite 
straightforward and can be 
duplicated with little cost and 
difficulty. The timing pulses 
are interfaced to the com- 
puter by a 7400 NAND gate. 
White letters on a blaclc back- 
ground or black letters on a 
white background are 
selected by an SPST switch. 
The video and sync pulses are 
mixed by 4 diodes, 1 IC, and 
1 transistor. This video then 
drives a 566 function genera- 
tor. The output triangular 
waveform is shaped into a 
sine wave by the output 
active filter. 

Conclusion 

Fig. 4 is a block diagram 
of the hardware configuration 
of my system. Figs* 5, 6, and 
7 are flowcharts of the three 



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Program A. Source Ustfngs for SSTV generation program, 

SSTV- The program will then 
respond with a slash after you 
enter the loop number* It will 
then wait for the picture you 
have just (oaded {0-5). You 

103 [^ 



you to type in the number of 

times each SSTV picttire is 
transmitted. For example, a 3 
loop would transmit approx- 
imately 24 seconds (3 x 8) of 



routines which make up the 
software. The flowcharts 
should be useful to anyone 
who wants to build this sys- 
tem around another micro- 
processor. 

I hope you will enjoy 
using this SSTV generator, 
Over-t he-air reports have 
indicated that the video is 
considerably more readable 
under QRM conditions than 
my W0LMD keyboard. The 
use of microprocessors are an 
obvious choice for the genera- 
tion of SSTV. Considering 
that my special purpose 
SSTV keyboard is complex 
(44 ICs) and my SSTV 6800 
generator runs on an unmo- 
dified SWTPC 6800 this 
proves that the micro- 
processor is the way to go for 
SSTV. ■ 



References 

^"An SSTV keyboard/' by Dn 
Robert Sudding W0LMD, CQ 
Magaiine, Sept., 1974, page 20. 

S i g net i cs Co r p . , Digit a! /L mea r 
MOS IC Manual ^"2513 High 
Speed Character Generator Ctiip/' 
pages 7-80 (1972 version). 



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S121022BA7333996E1DEE2A73FA7^6A74D3996EIDE£2A754A758A76 2 3996EIDEE2A70E 
5X21024969A770A7773996E1DEE2A77EA7B5A7SC397COOE9DEE6A60 9 7E139DEE25F2 7 
S1210267QS5CC1A3270220F8DFE239000000BDE1ACB70274S13G272C6131273081323B 
S12102S52734S13327388 134a 73CS1 35274081 362744395FBDE1ACFE0 2 72 A7005C7CBF 
S12102A3027 3CllE27EE20EECElGOOFF027220E5CElClEFFD27220DDCeiC5CFF0272 4F 
S12102C120B5CEiC5AFF027220CDCElC76FF027220C5CElC9 6FF027220BDCElCB4FF5B 
S121G2DF027220B5805D00000000000000000000007F02E77F02EC7F02EDSD0 3D4FE02 
S12102FD02E8A600FF02EA81FF2 70BB702E58D4AFE02EA0820EC7C02E7B60 2E7S17545 
Sl2i031B2 70B8D7BFE02EA08FF02EA20D7BD0 3B77C02EDB602EDD6 7D112 70B7F02E730 
Sl2I0339FE02Ea20ClFE02EE967FF602ECll270BBOQ3DA7F02E7FE02E82GAB7E00007C 
S12103577F02E67C02E64FB602E549B70 2E5250C201AF602E35AC100270920F98 601B5 
S12I037SB7SOlC20EFF602E6C1052 70 920D7a600B7S01C2 0DFS600B7801CF602E3BA55 
S1210393C100270220F9398604B7301CS6 04F602E45AC100270220F94AS 10027022058 
S12103B1EF4FB7801C5986Q4B7S0 1CB61EF6 02E45AC100270220F94A81D0270220EFA3 
S12103CF4FB7801C397F0 2ECCEOOD3A60 9 77D08A600977E08FF02EE7C02EC7F02EDD7 
S12103ED9 6 7E 8100271 48 101271 88 102271CS10327208 104272 48 1052 72 6CE0464FFF2 
S121040B02E62 028CE0797FF02E82020CEOACAFF02E6201SCEODFDFF02ES20 10CE1175 
S112042930FF02ES200SCEl463FF02ES200039Fa 
S9030000FC 

Program C Paper tape format for SSTV generation program. 



COMPUTER MUSiC WITH OR WiTMOUT 
THE COMPUTER ! 



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The module is physically and electrically 
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#8780 D/A CONVERTER Kit $34, 95 

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AC volts m 5 ranges: 100^V to tOOOV. 

DC current in 6 ranges: lOnA to 2A. 

AC current m 6 ranges: 10nA to 2A. 

Resistance in 6 ranges: 1 ft to 20Mn 

Input Impedance: lOMfl 

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(203Wx165Dx76Hmm). 






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HOBBY-WRAP wire wrapping, stripping unwrapping tool for awg 3d (025 square post) 



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OK MAlMiM\E & TOOL CORiHMitA TMO.\ 

HU COHN^tf ail7<EET. BflOHH, Mf W YCHHE. t* f i«4T(i U-i.JI~ * PHOME h1l3i >»44BO0 

TfLDi i2S09J TEUX 232i95 



Aim Your Antenna 



With a Micro 



-- beam heading BASIC program 



Dennis Bodson W4PWF 
255 North Columbus Street 
Ariingtoa VA 22203 



Bob Fenichel WA2TMT/4 
1 20 J South Courthouse Road 
Arlington VA 22204 




What direction? 



This article describes a 
computer program that 
can provide accuraie azimuth 
and distance information for 
properly aiming your beam 
antenna. Although the pro- 
gram was originally written in 
FORTRAN language for use 
with an IBM 370/155 com- 
puter, accessed through an 
IBM time-sharing terminal, 
the program is also presented 
in BASfC language. Also, the 
program can be modiHed to 
run on a microcomputer 
instead of through a time- 
sharing terminal. 

Background 

In the past year, several 

articles have appeared in 73 
Magazine describing methods 
of calculating beam bearing 
and distance. Two of these 
articles were "Aim your 
Beam Right" by WB4GVE 
(June, 1976) and "Global 
Calculations for the DXer" 
by W2 1 AT (August J 976). 

WB4GVE's artide pro- 
vided a method whereby 
azimuth information can be 
obtained using an HP-55 
calculator. The basic azimuth 
equation is: 



a 



lOS 



^^[f^^^^fm" 



ZKT • Tw* 1 






k»m 



favUTH 

WOTH 

t*l*chrtJR{ OTH 



mjH 80WING e Fl 



W2IAT's article described 
a procedure for determining 
the distance in statute miles 
between two stations using a 
non-programmable calculator. 
The basic equation for cal- 
culating the distance between 
any two points along the 
earth's surface in statute 
miles is: 






tdi7 



jcw* f 



mOfSDtAT[|)<^ 



liKjHClH LATqJ. Coi 4tOMa»r tOHHt] 



4 ' timwnem m M/i 

K]j K} » AHUEinti 
d«urmlnKl tsi licii 
LjtJ*i 6l veuf QTH 

ai ttn ajudin QTH 

^ ytllir OTN 
LATq * MlTmto Qt 



It should be noted that the 
constant used (69.05) is not 
the same as used by W21AT 
(69.15). The appropriate con- 
stant for statute miles may be 






ENTER LATITUCCCIH OECIfML DE&REES> 

SOUTH LATITUDES Mf ENTERED rtS NECATIVE NUMftERS 

ENTER LONGITUDES in DECimL DEOftEES) 

WEST LOWCITUOES ARE EMTERED ^ tC«¥ITjVE NUHKRS 



STAT m 



DrSTAHCE 

rtftUT m 



345. a% 



1^?,0» 



b24fl*4J 



l»241.^ 



©55. #1 



£MTEf? 1 TO COHTlrUE OR «fT CmCR rUMER TO STCP 



^^sscTiisriNr^ 



"i£B YiHJ mxM ^'^ 



found in "Radio Data Refer- 
ence Book," Second Edition, 
Radio Society of Great 
Britain (RSGB), p. 103, and 
"Reference Data For Radio 
Engineers," Fifth Edition^ 



IBM 3277 time'Sharifig termmaL 

Howard W. Sams & Co., pp. 
26-1 0. 

Development 

Calculating beam bearing 
using a computer instead of a 



calculator provides several 
distinct advantages. For one 
thing, a computer system can 
provide a detailed printout of 
the results for later use. 
Another advantage is that. 





An actual term/nal screen display. 



IBM 3284 printer 



109 



la 



10 




WRITE (2,100) 


20 




WRITE (6,100) 


30 


100 


FORMAT!* \T19/BEAM aEARING\T61 /DISTANCED 


40 




WRlTEi2.110l 


50 




WRITE (6.1 10) 


60 


110 


FORMAT(^ ",T10/LOCAL^OEG\T30;D1STANT-DEG',T50/STAT Mr,T65/NA 


70 




1 UT Mt\T82;'KMl 


80 




WRITE(2,120J 


90 




WRITE (6,1 20) 


100 


120 


FORMATl* 1 


110 


129 


WRITE(6.130) 


120 


130 


FORMAT(* ENTER LATlTUDEdN DECIMAL DEGREESn 


130 




WRITE(6J40) 


140 


140 


FORMATr SOUTH LATITUDES ARE EN I ERED AS NEGATIVE NUMBERS'! 


150 




READ(5/)PLAM2 


160 




WRITE(6J601 


170 


160 


FORMATC'J 


IBO 




WRITE (6, 1701 


190 


170 


FORMATC ENTER LONGlTUDEdlM DECIMAL DEGREESn 


200 




WRITE (6, 180) 


210 


180 


FORMATC WEST LONGITUDES ARE ENTERED AS NEGATIVE NUMBERS') 


220 




READ(5/JPL2 


230 




WRITE(6,190J 


240 


190 


FORMATi* 1 


250 




PI E-3.1 4 1592654 


260 




PLAM1-41.S7*PIE/180* 


270 




PLAM2=PLAM2'PI E/180. 


280 




N*1 


290 




PL1=^7J3*PIE/180. 


300 




PL2=PL2'P1E/180, 


310 


105 


CONTINUE 


320 




QP=COSiPLAMlJ*((TANiPLAM1)*COSiPL2^L1))TAN(PLAM2))/SlN|PL2^L1J 


330 




X=270.+((180./PlErATAN(QPj) 


340 




lF((PL2-PLl).LE.0.JGOTO202 


350 




1F((PL24»L1)XE PiE}X=X iro. 


360 


202 


tF(N.Ea2JGOTO300 


370 




PL3=PL2 


380 




PL4=PL1 


390 




PL2=PL4 


400 




PL1=PL3 


410 




PLAM3=PLAM2 


420 




PLAIV14=PLAM1 


430 




PLAIVI2=^PLAM4 


440 




PLAM1=PLAM3 


450 




Y=X 


460 




N-2 


470 




GO TO 1 05 


480 


300 


CONTINUE 


490 




C=ABS(PL2'PL1) 


500 




IFiC.GT,PIEiC=2.0*PIE-C 


510 




Z-ARCOS(SlN{PLAMirSIN(PLAM2)+COS(PLAMl]'COS(PLAM2)*COS(C)) 


520 




Z=Z*180./PIE 


530 




A=69.05*Z 


540 




6=60.00*2 


550 




E=11M2*Z 


560 


125 


WRITE(2.150)Y,X,A,B,E 


570 




WRlTEt6,150lY,XA,B.E 


580 


160 


FORMAT!^ rT09,F6,O,T3O,F6,0J49,F6.OJ64,F6.0J79,F6.0) 


590 




WRITe(6,220) 


600 


220 


FORMATr 6NTER 1 TO CONTINUE OR ANY OTHER NUMBER TO STO^J 


610 




READ(5;nNS 


620 




IF(NS-EQ.1)G0T0 129 


630 




S I OK 


640 




END 



Fig. J. Computer program statement listing (FORTRAN). 



not having a programmable 
calculator with "power-off" 
program storage, using a com- 
puter enables a program id be 
saved from one run to the 
next. 

In developing the program^ 
use was made of the basic 
equations for caJculating 
azimuth and distance cited 
earlier. These have been built 



upon to provide beam bear- 
ings for use at both the local 
and distant stations and to 
furnish the surface distance 
between the two locations in 
statute miles, kilometers, and 
nautical miles. The program 
provides prompting for key- 
ing in coordinates and can 
display beam bearing 
(azimuth) and distance infor- 



mation on both the terminal 
screen and on an external 
page printer. 

FORTRAN Program Details 

Fig^ 1 shows a listing of 
the 64 FORTRAN statements 
making up the computer pro- 
gram. Statements 10-30 write 
the headings *beam bearing' 
and 'distance* on both the 



terminal screen (6) and an 
output data set (2) for pos- 
sible later printout* State- 
ments 40-60 write the sub- 
headings 1ocal-dcg/ 'distant- 
deg/ 'stat mi/ *naut mi/ and 
*km' the same way as the 
previous write statements, 
but on the next line. The 'T" 
format is used to tab the 
subheadings across the lines 
in the same manner as a 
typewriter tab mechanism. 
Statements 80-100 write a 
blank line (^pace 1 line). 
Statements 110-150 prompt 
the user to enter the latitude 
and label it PLAM2. State- 
ment 150 reads from the 
keyboard (5) in a flexible 
format (*). Statements 
160'170 write a blank line on 
the screen (space 1 line). 
Statements 180-220 prompt 
the user to enter the lon- 
gitude from the keyboard and 
label it PL2. Statements 
230 240 write a blank line on 
the screen. Statement 250 
assigns the variable PIE the 
value of pi (3.1 4„,..). State- 
ments 260-270 convert both 
local and distant latitudes 
from decimal degrees to 
radians. Statement 280 
assigns variable N the value 1 
(to be used later in the pro- 
gram). Statements 290-300 
convert both local and distant 
longitudes from decimal 
degrees to radians. Statement 
310 will be used to branch 
back to that point in the 
program from a later state- 
ment in the program. State- 
ments 320-330 compute the 
beam bearing from one loca- 
tion to another. Statements 
340-350 ensure that the beam 
bearing chosen is the shorter 
of the two possible (,LE. 
stands for "Less than or 
Equal to'* I- Statement 360 
branches around statements 
370-470 if N=2, Statements 

370470 reverse local and 
distant longitudes and lati- 
tudes, assign the variable Y to 
the previously computed 
beam bearing, set N=2, and 
branch back to statement 310 
to compute beam bearing 
from the distant to the local 
QTH. Statement 480 is 
branched to from statement 
360 if N=2 (both bearings 



a 



110 



have been computed)- State- 
ments 490-520 compute the 
distance between the two 
locations. ABS (absolute 
value J strips off any neptive 
sign and \GT/ stands for 
^'Greater Than." Statements 
530-550 convert the distance 
to statute miles, nautical 
miles, and kilometers* State- 
ments 560-580 write the 
answers under the appro- 
priate subheadings on both 
the terminal and the output 
data set (for later printout). 
Formal F6,0 means the num- 
ber is printed in 6 spaces with 
no decimal places. Statements 
590-610 prompt the user in 
determining whether to com- 
pute again using a new set of 
inputs or end the run. State- 
ments 630 and 640 terminate 
the computer run. 

BASIC Program Details 

Fig. 2 shows a listing of 
the 63 BASIC statements 
used in rewriting the program 
in thai language. Statements 
10-60 prompt the user to 
enter distant latitude. State- 
ments 70-1 10 do the same fof 
distant longitude. Statements 
120-210 perform the same 
function as FORTRAN state* 
men IS 250-330, Statements 
220-260 perform the same 
function as FORTRAN state- 
ments 340-350, Statements 
270-390 are equivalent to 
FORTRAN statements 
360-490. Statements 400-420 
replace the IF statement on 
line 500 of the FORTRAN 
program. BASIC language 
does not contain an arc 
cosine (COS^I) function. 
Therefore, the mathematical 
series giving a close approxi- 
mation to this function has 
been substituted in state- 
ments 430-470. The series 
used is: 



&r1 






Statements 480-5 10 are 
equivalent to FORTRAN 
statements 520-550. State- 
ments 520-580 print out the 
bearing and distance informa* 
tion. Statements 590-620 
prompt the user in choosing 
between recomputation for 
another set of longitude and 



10 

20 
30 
40 
BO 
60 
TO 
BO 
90 

too 

110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 

350 
360 

370 
380 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
590 
600 
610 
620 
630 



if* 



PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT "ENTER LATITUDE f fN DECIMAL DEGREES}' 

PRINT "SOUTH LATITUDES ARE ENTERED AS NEGATIVE NUMBERS" 

PRINT "LATITUDE^'; 

INPUT A2 

PRINT 

PRINT "ENTER LONGITUDE (IN DECIMAL DEGREES)" 

PRINT '1/VEST LONGITUDES ARE ENTERED AS NEGATIVE NUMBERS" 

PRINT "LONGITUDE"; 

INPUT L2 

PRINT 

Pt = 3.14159 

A1 -41.87*P1/180. 

A2 =A2*P1/180, 

N-1 

LI -87.63* PI/180. 

L2= L2 • PinSO, 

Q2 = TAN (A1 1 * COS (L2 Li) -TAN tA2) 

Qt =CosArQ2/SIN (L24_1) 

XI =270 + ii18O./Pt) • ATN (QIH 

L9 = L2-L1 

IF L9< = 0. THEN 270 

IF L9<=P1 THEN 260 

GO TO 270 

XI =X1 -180. 

IF N«2THEN390 

L3 - L2 

L4- LI 

L2 -L4 

LI - L3 

A3 = A2 

A4 - A1 

A2 = A4 

A1 =A3 

Y1 -XI 

N ^ 2 

GO TO 190 

CI - ABS(L9t 

IF CI >P1 THEN 420 

GO TO 440 

CI =2.0 • PI -CI 

REM ARC COSINE MUST BE CONVERTED TO EQUIVALENT FORM IN BASIC 

Z2^S1N (AIJ *SIN (A2) 

Z3 = COS f A1 ) * COS ( A2} * COS (CI ) 

Z4 - Z2 + Z3 

Zl = PI/2. - 24 - Z4 t 3/6 - Z4 1 5*3./40. -Z4 t 7 • 15./336. 

Zl '21 * 180./P1 

A = 69,05 * Zl 

B =60.00 * Zl 

E -111.12 *Z1 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT "LOCAL-DEC "D ISTANT-DEG'% "STAT Ml", ''NAUT Ml", "KM' 

PRINT 

PRINT Y1,X1,A, B,E 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT '^ENTER 1 TO CONTINUE OR ANY OTHER NUMBER TO STOP" 

PRINT "CONTINUE' 

INPUT Nt 

IFN1 = 1 THEN 10 

END 



trr 



**. 



Fig. 2. Computer program (BASIC). 



latitude and program termina- 
tion. 



Operation 

After '*signing-on" the 
time-sharing terminal, the 
program is called up for use 
and run, tmmediately the 
headings and subheading are 
displayed on the terminal 
screen. Then, the phrases 



"Enter latitude (in decimal 
degrees)" and "South lati- 
tudes are entered as negative 
numbers'' appear on the 
screen. The desired distant 
latitude is then typed on the 
keyboard by the user The 
same procedure is followed 
next to enter longitude. Com- 
puted values for beam bearing 
and distance then appear on 



the screen under the appro- 
priate subheading?^ At this 
point, the program will 
prompt the user with **Enter 
1 to continue or any other 
number to stop/' If a '*T' is 
entered, the program will 
ag^in prompt the user for 
new latitude and longitude 
values and will compute a 
new line of computed 

111 jm 



L 



k closely at the new MT-3 



• • • 



A 



YouVe never seen anything like It 





Times have changed since DenTron iniroduced its 
first tuner. With rapid growth tn condominiums and hous- 
ing di3velopments, we have new probiems that require new 
solutions. 

DenTrorr decided to rethink the tuner and what its to* 
tal capabilities should be. 

The MT-3000A is a capsufized soiution to many prob* 
iems. It incorporates 4 unique features to give yotj the 
most versatile antenna tuner ever built 

First, as a lugged antenna tune^ the MT-3000A easily 
handles a full 3KW pep. It is continuous tuning 1,8-30mc. 
It matches everything between 160 and 10 meters. 

Second, the MT-3000A has built-in dual watt meters. 

Third, it has a built-in 50 ohm dummy load for proper 

exciter adjustment- 
Fourth, the antenna selector switch; (a) enables you 

to by-pass the tuner direct; (b) select the diimmy load or 5 

other antenna systems, including random wire or balanced 

Teeo. 



The compact size alone of the MT-3000A (5%" a 14" 
X 14") makes it revolutionary. Combine that with its four 
built-in accessories and we're sure you'll aqieB that the MT- 
3000A is one of the most innovative and exciting instru* 
ments offered for amateur use. 

At $349/50 the MT*3000A is not inexpensive. But 
it is less than you'd expect to pay for each of these accesso- 
ries separately. 

As unique as this tuner is, there are many things it 
shares with all DenTron products. It is built with the same 
meticulous attention to detail and American craftsmanship 
that is synonymous with DenTron. 

After seeing the outstanding MT-3000A, wouldn't you 
rather have your problems solved by DenTron? 



Radio Co inc 



2100 Enterprise ^ortii^^iv 
Twrodurg Ohio 44087 



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Phase Freq, Dele dor same as MC4044P 

ECL VCIVt 

feOO MH:; fffp/fltsp with reset 

1 GHz 248/256 Pfescaler 

650 MHz Pmcafer Dfvide by 10/11 

same as above excepi l^il. version 

605 MH; Prescal&r Divfde by 5/6 

^ame as above except Mil. version 

350 IWHz Prescaler Divide by 10/11 

same as above except Wlil. version 

350 MHz Prescaier "Divide by 5/6 

same as above except Wt\, version 



T.I. TMS406O/C21O7, 4K RAWl 
Batteries 

Gel-Cell 12 volts at 1.5 Amp Hr. #Ge-l2l5 



15.40 

7435 

110.50 

12,30 

2 60 

2.60 

4.53 

12.30 

29.20 

16.00 

24,00 

16.00 

24.00 

9.50 

16.50 

9.50 

16.50 

19.01 



519.95 



Crystals 

1.000000 W\Hz 
5 000000 N\Hi 
10.000000 JVlHz 
3579.545 KC 



JUST ARRIVED! These radios have Just been 

4.95 puJIed oiii of service. Sel up for appro-x. X50 MHz. 

4,95 Clean. All tubes inciuded. No accessories. Prices 

4.95 FOE Phoenix, 

2.95 Moloroia U43 GGT $49.95 

GE TPL $99,95 

GE IVfT*33 $39.95 

6EMT42M $79,95 



10,7 MHz Narrovy band Crystal F liters type 2194F $7.95; 



10.7 MHz Ceramic Filter 
MuRaia SFWlD.7IViA .. 



$3.95 



Johanson and Johnson 
Trimmer Capacitors 



1 to 14 pf. 
1 to 20 pf. 



11.95 
S1.95 



Ferrtte Beads 
12 for ,99 or 

120 for 9.99 



FET's 



2N3070 
2 N 3436 

2 N 345a 
2N3e21 
2M3322 
2N4351 
2N4416 
2N4875 



1.50 
2.25 
1.30 
1,60 
1.50 
285 
1.03 
1.75 



2NS460 

2N5465 

2W5565 

3IV126 

IVIFE2000 

MFE2001 

(VIFE2008 

MFE2009 



.90 
1-35 
S,4S 
300 

.90 
1.00 
4.20 
480 



MFE3002 

wipf:o2 

MPF121 

MPF4391 

U12e2 

MIV1F5 

40673 

40674 



3.35 
.45 

1.50 
80 
50 
00 
,39 
.49 



2 
5 

1, 
1 



2E26 5.00 

3B2& 400 

4X150A 15.00 

4X150G 18.00 

4CX250B 24.00 
4CX350 A/8321 35.00 

4CXr&000 $150.00 

DX415 25.00 

572B/T160L 25.00 



TUBES 

811 6SB 

811 A 9.95 

931A 11.95 

5849 32.00 

fel46A 6,25 

6146B/a298A 6^5 

6360 7.95 

6907 35.00 

7377 40.00 



79S4 

8072 

8156 

B908 

8950 

4-400A 

4-250A 

4-125A 

4*65A 



4.9S 

32.00 

3.95 

9.95 

5.50 

29,95 

24.95 

20,95 

15.95 



New Motorola Carbon Microphone Mcxlel P-7255A, This unit is a "noise 
cancelling" palm type mjcrophone. These mikes come with or without 
cables. Price without cables $19.95; with cables $29.95. 

H.P. 612A UHF Signal Generator 450 MiHz to 1230 MHz $900.00 
H.P. 624B Microwave test set 6565 ^Hz to 71 75 MHz $9,00,00 
Beckman Meter and Heterodyne Plug-in/Freq meter D.C to 1 GHz 
3900.00 

Motorola MC14410CP CMOS tone generator use? 1 MHz crystal to 
produce standard dual frequency telephone dialing signal. Directty 
compatible with our 12 key Chomeric pads. Kit includes thefoUowing. 

1 W1C14410CP 



1 1 MHz Crystal 

1 PrEnted Circuit Board (From Ham Racfio Sept. 1975) 

And all other parts for assembly, 

Fairchlld 95H90DC Prescaler divide by 10 to 350 MHz. 
WIH2 Counter Ifl 350 MHj. Kit includes the following, 
1 95H90DC 

1 2N5179 

2 UG-BS/u BNC's 

1 Printed Cfrcjit Board 

And all other parts for assembly. 



$i5.7e 

Wlli take any 35 



$29.95 



Fairchlld 11C90DC Prescaler divide by 10 to 650 MHz. Will take any 65 
MHz Counter to 650 F^Hz or with a 82S90 it wW divide by 10/100 to 650 MHi, 

This will take a 6.5 H\Hz counter to 650 IVliHz. Kit includes the foilowing. 

1 11C90DC 

1 2N5179 

2 UG-8S/U 
1 IVlC7e05CP 
1 Bridge 



1 Primed Circuit Board and all other parts for assembly. 
82S90 add 55.70 to total. $59.95 



TRANSFORMERS 



F-IBX 
F-93X 

F-92A 

N-SIX 

Modei 0*2 

BE- 12433-001 
BGH.9 

F-107Z 



6.3vct at 6 amps 

6.5v to 40v 3t 750 ma, 

6.5v to 40v at 1 amp 

Isoiation 115vac at 35va. 
6.5v at 3.3 amps 
6.5v 3t 3.3 smps 

30v at 15 



ma, 



6.3^ct ai 10 amps 
115 vac at lOOva 
12V @ 4A or 24 



Isolation 
V @ 2A 



3.56 
3.53 
4.59 

2.80 
4.95 

.49 

6.95 
7.80 



P6377 1 2v at 4 amps or 24v at 2 

amps. $6.30 

P6378 12vat 3 amps or 12vat 4 

amp&. $10.31 

P8196 SOvct at 1 .2 amps $6,28 



DIODES 



1W270 Germanium Diodes $7,95/c 

HEP170, 2 5A, 1000 PIV S4.95/20 

Semtech SFMS 20K, 20KV, ID ma, 
fast recovery SI. 26 ea. 



FANS 

Pamot or Fans, Model 4500 C 117 VAC, 60 Hi.ldvi , S7J& 



RF TRANSISTORS 



2N1561 15.00 

2N1562 15.00 

2N1692 15,00 

2rJ1693 15,00 

2N2631 4,20 

2N2e57 1.80 

2N2876 12,35 

2N28&0 25.00 

2N2927 7.00 

2 N 2947 17.35 

2N294S 15.50 

2I\I2949 3.90 

2N2950 5.00 

2N3287 4J0 

2N3300 1.05 

2iV3302 1.05 

2N3307 10.50 

2M3309 3 90 
2N3375/IVIM3375 7.00 

2N3553 1.80 

2N3571 4.10 

2N3818 6,00 

2(43824 3.20 

2^13666 1.09 

2N3S66 JAN 4J4 



2N3S66 JAN TX 4.B5 

2N3925 6.00 

2r'J39Z7 11.50 

2 N 3948 2.00 

2N3950 26.25 

2M3961 6.60 

2M4072 1.70 

2W4073 2.00 

2IVm35 2.00 

2AI44 27 1.24 

2rj44''0 20.00 

2i\l4440 S.60 

2N4957 6.30 

2N5070 13.80 

2N5090 6.90 

2N510B 3.90 

2N5109 1.55 
2N5177/MRF5177 20.00 

2N5179 .63 
2N51B4 

2N5216 47.50 

2N5583 5.60 

2N5589 4.60 



2W5590 630 

2N5591 10.35 

2N5635 4,95 

2M5636 11.95 

2W5637 20.70 

2 N 5643 20,70 

2rj5641 4.90 

2N5643 20.70 

2N5764 27.00 

2PJ5B41 11.00 
2N5e42/MMl6D7 19,50 
2N5849/MM1622 19.50 

2N5862 50.00 

2N5942 49.50 

21^5922 10.00 

2N6O80 5.45 

2i\l6081 8.60 

2hJ6082 11.25 

2W6083 12.95 

2N6084 14.95 

2N6094 5.75 

2 M 6095 10.35 

2N6096 19,35 

2>M6097 28.00 

2^^6166 85,00 



RF TRANSISTORS 



MRF207 2.00 

MRF208 10,20 

P^Rf209 12.35 

WIRF23? 1.85 

MRF238 8,55 

MRF450 1655 

MRF453 19.55 

P^RF504 6.75 

M.RF509 5,50 

MRF511 8.60 

MRF620 27,00 

IV1RF8004 1,90 

HEPS3013/75 2,95 

HEPS3014/76 4.95 

HEPS3002 11.03 

HEPS3003 29.86 

HEPS3005 9.55 

HEPS3006 19.90 

HEPS30Q7 24.95 

HEPS300a 2.18 

HEPS3010 11.34 

RCA TA7994 50.00 

RCA 40290 2,48 

Kertron K2126 5,50 

K&rlran KB600S 5.50 



AmpereK BLY90 22.50 

Amperex A 209 8.60 

MSC 2001 20.00 

Wise 3000 20.00 

Wise 3001 20.00 

MSC 3005 20.00 

MSC 80205 20.00 

MSC 80206 20.00 

MSC 80255 20.00 

Fairthild SE7056 3 00 

m^wsi 2,00 

MMI5OO 32.20 

W1M1550 10.00 

Miyil601 5.50 

MM 1602 7.50 

MM1607/2N5S42 8.65 

MM1614 2.75 

MM1620 17,50 

IVIIVri622/2N5B49 19,50 

MM1661 15,00 

MM1669 17.50 

MM1943 3.00 

MM2605 3.00 

IVIIV12608 5.00 



MM3002 

MM3009 

MM3375 

MM3904 

MIVI3906 

MM 4000 

Pi/? M 4001 

MM 4003 

JV1M4036 

MIVI1044 

MM4545 

MP^S006 

MM1552 

MM15S3 

HEPS5026 

MSC 80256 

CTC Dl*28 

CTC DlO-28 

CTC El-28 



1. 
1, 
1, 



1.65 
1,80 
7.00 
1.50 

1.43 

.24 

.39 

.35 

1.60 

3,00 

3.00 

2.15 

50.00 

56.50 

2.48 

20.00 

20.00 

20,00 

20.00 



electroi|ic§ 



2543 N. 32nd STREET 
PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85008 
PH. 602-9570786 



1 




1 


1 


iTnitiHiint^ 


1 


1 


L ^ ^« 


J 




NOC.O.D. „8 



113 











BEAM BEARING 




DISTANCE 




CITY 


LAT 


LONG 


LOCAL-DEG 


DISTANT DEG 


STAT Ml 


NAUTMI 


KM 


Bogota 


4.5N 


74.3W 


159. 




344, 


2708. 


2353. 


4358. 


Calcutta 


23.6N 


S8.4E 


4. 




357. 


7901. 


6S66. 


12715. 


Canton 


23.1 N 


113.3E 


339, 




197. 


7748. 


6732. 


12468. 


La Paz 


16.5S 


68.4W 


159. 




344. 


4213. 


3661. 


6780. 


Perth 


32.0S 


115.9E 


290. 




236. 


10969. 


9531. 


17652. 


New York 


40 .8 N 


74.0W 


91. 




280, 


710. 


617. 


1142. 


Los Angeles 


34 .ON 


118,0W 


262. 




63. 


1 730. 


1504. 


2785. 



Fig. 3. Printed copy of calculated data (Note: information contained within dotted lines does 
not appear on the printout). 



values. The entering of an 
integer other than "1 " causes 
the programming run to ter- 
minate. The output data set 
contains only the headings, 
subheadings^ and computed 



value Hnes {].&., none of the 
prompting). This can be 
printed out on an external 
page printer for easy refer- 
ence at a future date. Fig. 3 
shows how such a printout 



wilt appear. 

Not everyone (yet) has 
access to a time-sharing 
terminai or microcomputer. 
But, for those whq dOj com- 
puterized beam bearing calcu- 



lations are a great con- 
venience. For those inex- 
perienced in computer pro- 
gramming, the understanding 
and/or modifying of this 
program should also provide 
good practice to improve 
your programming skill. ■ 



ATTENTION: HAm OPERATOR/COMPUTEfi Ol^liflflS 

At t»Bl Bio mrasinfl t(xnp<in»nl«fCif lnn(3*«'Tienliogfl trw pulnmHted ham sJ^aCk Si* availaWeend Ehsyara all prOduds nf lr%lBrnalioftal Darta Sysiams, lot The folbwing boards plug 
into 3Ftf ALTAiP. »MSAt. C" «h*f 51 W U\J5 ppmpalibJe ccmputer and pfoyHie tne nfi^rjed nanftrare capafiility far mainOming limo o1 Oa-y "S" * fo™ Ihe compuEsf can oflSily 
manipulalB. nwaBjre (a«^/w ■wmpylej S\& iraquency o1 yi^jr i:rHnEri»ii:*f iM 'W^i^eir <,^ la 6OOMH2, decode WorEe Codft Or RTTV. atid ^ey yimr ItanitttAUit 16« CW arKSfiftTV 
Op«*tiOfl EjfieriSive soR*ar« 19 IncliKwa wtn ail nwdulga and soUwarfr * (k^kIh:! m UITS SK BASPC, PTCO BASIC 5. ajid AJltembte SOWM amtf Object llft1lf^JS.. 



5TM BUS COmFATIBLB BQAFtDS (ALT Am 860e/mSAi mSG, mtc.^ 

ifSES 



aa-uFC 



Cixk MMkriB 






tairf OStrifMAtJ dCiCSW^W itnorrt tr^} im* ft dsy Ptt9 i^vn 14* n El MppAntllonil bJCTi iii lUL'Njng DSCAJ4, aidjOmslKflllr 
lirrW alpnptifj Ibg daia Hk CdTHtiBIB, Ot (!Kt6 WpA^ BHUiCdlon^ 6iiCt\ B4 pvrtfflnvng 4 miryl^ |lRln;in Ittnn ^if 1im« rX ^Hf 

UK* t Id wl9ci iTpm 4 HitwH^ Mtodukr ngnU \t%Hsa aitti ca^^iU\i Bi^nsi Ireqyencv. e^m\ p^Kdi. or couni loisi in^rtivi 
■ tA tvema Use ^i » fT>o«Hlw ipd S^pter trirwmii iwJd ^wef-* ir^qiHifl^Y. wiininnic hcm^r^f kiugrtj *« cortacts and 

C-QTriDsH and avcn mass^r inaiiJB and mlskle La1ipaFaUji'« ytti^^ uSuC *' iiV'\urCiiEri >mKi lt« 1!^ pAnphnrnl [mdula 
tstad UfeM- 






PEmPHERAL OEVICES FOfi USE WiTH ANY COMPUTER: 



T»l 



Trnkwr/Ktyvf 



Ptib ^&r[lHsr«^ BofhMni pAC^LB^ 4 n« tmE INng Eg Nfi;vi m h«n radio Hw« OSCAR Usft r 10 MKh MicHHi Cods or to 
tff fW livnvTutIp PipnOv? dOLf&te- FsQiari«l bdIVi>«en -fOiif GOrShMt era V^CHr Irjrvnitni i3^jn«[7l«« nudic implgnq 

uvo n *in in&BS-UFC \o niMBufB lefnperature irwde or owmJu Rir iwnpqrfltLMi nwriKit luweisiinil iiaiJltCAmi™, or luat 



1 W-M 



$ 24J0Q 



L PKVnwn wrtti DfctDT « CD □. D6liv«rr SMC* U 30 iki|rt. Prrfiet vUd Ihiilu^ May 31 1 B71 



AaatfTYslBd umra flvqiawv b4 hgt<«r p"t«i. 



Tffltphone (703) 536-7373 



IDS 



INTERNATIONAL DATA SYSTEMS, INC. 

AQQ Nortti Wpahingtqn Slr««1, $uit& 200* Falls Chun^, Vkr^lnia 2£04fi, U.S.A. 



110 



0UTRAGEQUS1 



i/i A 4 V AH ACTOR, 3 tr-aniiijtgir UHF 

? tiinar, cgv^rjng the 44p MHz ATV tisntl 

^^ wTthQut iTiodif icfltion ! 

a.^ It has no movrng parts, It Is luni^d 
^£ eJetiricallV l>y ^ VABICAP DIODE Eufiird 

.^ xlicuita. 

^ b.) Ir has an ACTIVE R.F. TRAM- 

~ EI3TOR AMPLIFIER STAGE anti uft 

Z ACTIVE MIXER TRANSISTOR MIXER 

^^ STAGE, as opposed tu the con vent io-nal 

UI-lF luntr with a passiva N.F. stags and 

^^ B<u^c s^io and ^Btflctivl-tv makes it 

^ irtf^i foif ATV arncJ RePEATER afjplica- 

[Igns. 

Cam<p)ets uvhh 1 natr uct I Q n i and ithd' 

ni-atics -■ qfiIv $7.'9& each, 

t'OSTfAlD. MO^•EY BACK OUARAP^'TKE 

SCIENCE WORKSHOP, BOX 393S 
BETHPAGE, NEW YORK 11714 $30 



TELETYPE^ MODEL 33 ASR 



COMPUTER 1/0 COMPLETE WITH •• 



oo 



$840 



INCLUDING PACKING 
F.O.B. - N.J. FACTORY 



Tape Fufieh • Readj lo Go 
Tape Reader • line/Local Wired 

• Cuaraiiteed 30 Days 



Mtnf to $et PMrtsf 4: Supplies for SSASK/KSR's 



PAPER SPINDLE (181043) S1.2B 
TAPE SPI N D LE ( 1 829 tS)S 1.25 
PLATEN KNOB (180039) $1.00 
Pif ER TAPE 

28 ROLLS! CARTON $32.00 
7 ROLLS 1 BOX $10.00 
MYLAR 1 ROLL $23.00 

J*H"€R F COVERS (182109) $3.50* 
ftepfscement UPE-8D0 PUNCH $7S.0Q 
1;HAD BOX (182365) $3,50 
R«i3laceinentUX8aO REAPER $50.00 
fi^PAlNTED STAND WITH FEET 
(183246) $30.00 
FEET ALONE (183243) $1Z.00/Pr. 
UNE CORD (182510) S3.2B 




PAPER- WHITE nr CANARY 
$22.00 / 12- 5" diam. rolls. 
BLACK NYLON RIBBONS 
SINGLE SPOOL $11/D02, 
DO JBLE SPOOL $15/Doz. 
ANSWER SACK DRUM (1S0827) $7.00 
CODED (SPECIFY CODE) $10.00 

DOJVIE LID (181 137) $5.75* 

BLANK PLATE (131910)17.00* 

KNOB (181 B24UT00 

KEVTOPS(YOUR CHOICE) 60c ea. 

ONE PIECE COVER (187300) $22.00* 
UCC6 LINE LOCAL $150.00 
UCC-S FORTWX $150,00 

FRONT PLATE (18iai2) $2.50 
DATA SETS 101 C FOR TWX $450.00 
NEW 105A FORTWX $300.00 



COWIPLETE COVER READY TO INSTALL 
iNCLUomG ALL*'s ..... 

COPYHOLDER [1B2G36) 

TAPE UNWINDER (12") _ _ . 

WIND UPPAPER TAPE WINDER 

ELECTRIC TAPE WINDER . . 

ELECTRIC PAPER WINDER (LPW'300) 

DEC TYPE READER RUNCARD 

ACOUSTIC COUPLER 

OMNITEK 701A 

READER POWER PACK (182134) .. 

STANDARD ElA INTERFACE 

ACOUSTIC COVERS with FAN .... . 



$ 35 

$ 14 
S 32 
S 22 
% 55 
% 5Q 
S 45 

£160 
$ 35 
$ 55 
$2Sg 



If vou don'l see whal you need, CALL or WRITE! O If Us fur TELETYPE^ We Have II. 




TELETYPEWRITER COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALISTS 

550 Springfield Avenue • Berkelev Heiyhu, N. J. 07922 
(201)4645310 • TWX: 710 986 3016 • TELEX: 13-6479 

Deaf Line TTY; 20M64 5314 
SUSSfP iARY OF V AN 'T SLOT f A/ J^RPR iSES, INC, 




u 



PLEASE NOTE 
Due to Increased co^s at prod^gssmg drdsrs mirt- 
fmum orders: $10.00 casii or check, £25.00 charg=e. 
All orders shippijd UPS. Please include iuffident 
po^age. 



114 



''We may have the surplus 

electronics 

you need!" 




Te r m i na I / Key boa rd 
Witti Schematics 
$250.00 



•CRT Terminals 
•Assemblies 

Tape Drives $800.00 



• Peripherals 

• Components 

Keyboards $40,00 to 360.00 
(ASCII Encoded) 



E qu i pme n t C abrn ets $45 .00 to $60 .00 
(19" With Fan^ 



Send for a free catalog or call 
Bill Blaney, toll free 800 258-1036 

mNH603-S85 3705 

sSSi Come to our showroom 

WOFLDIAflQE ELECTFQnCSjrC. 

10 Flagstone Drive, Hudson, New Hampshire 03051 Wi6 



CANADIANS! 

Eliminate the Customs Hassles. 
Save Money and get Canadian 
Warranties on IMSAI and S-100 
compatible products 

IMSAI 8080 KtT $ 838.00 

ASS, S1 163.00 
(Can. Duty & Fed. Tax Included). 
AUTHORIZED DEALER 

Send S1 00 for complete IMSAI 
Catalog. 

We will develop complete applica- 
tion systems- 
Contact us for further information. 



A 

Rotundra "MML 



Cybernetics 



Box 1448, Calgary. Alta. T2P 2H9 
Phone (403) 283-8076 



R13 



j^f^yrr TOUCHTONE 

MICROPHONE 




STANDARD 12 TONE FREQUENCIES ARE CRYSTAL CONTROLLED 
BUILT-IN MIKE PROVIDES ULTRA CLARITY|ft *-* ^^ Q/- 
FITS MOST TELEPHONE-TYPE HANDSETS ^ •« ■-■ *'*' 



$39 



PLUS 

SHIPPING 

AND 6% TAX IN 

CAUfOHNlA 



A UTO-PA TCH USERS 

INSTANTLY CONVERTS MOST TELEPHONE-TYPE HANDSETS 
TO AUTO-PATCH OPERATION 

HI-FIDELITY CONDENSER TYPE MIKE REPLACES 
OLD FASHIONED CARBON MICROPHONE 

CONTROL STA TIONS 

TONE FREQUENCIES ARE 6 TIMES MORE ACCURATE 
THAN REQUIRED. OPERATES ON 6 to 24 VDC. CAN BE 
USED WITH MOST ROTARY DIAL PHONES FOR REPEATER 
CONTROL (Check with your local phone co.) 



BankAmericarq 



To Order: Send name, address, city, state, zip to: 
Enclose: Cash, Check or Postal Money Order only. 
Include $1.50 for Shipping & Handling or use your 
fiankAmericard or Master Charge by fOling in the proper boxes, 



r 



master charge 



BANKAMERICARD 
MASTER CHAflGE 

EXPIRATION DATE 



CARD NUMBER 



C& B RADIO & ELECTRONICS 

P.O. BOX 7028 

BURBANKCA 91510 

I 



MASTER CHARGE 
INTERBANK NUMBER 



TOilCHTONK'' IS THE REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF A f ^ T 



115 




vertical 
Performance 

DenTron 



READ 

ONLY 

^ MEWIDRY 

Will accept up to 16 ea. 1702A or S203 EProm Providing 

up to 4096 Words of non*volati!e memon/ for Boot Lo»rf« 

to Cci^ , le ProgTams. 

pTogrBmmiiig Available at Faciory for S3,00 per EProm 

when dccompanied by binary fof mated lap^. 

Each 1702-A has its own Vgg docked for Low Powet 

Consumption. WUI wofk wdh thf* weakest power supply 

based S- too buss comp4Jt-_ 

Switched Selected Addre^ifi in 4K Blocks, 

Switch selected w^ft -: ^n rh^^t even the slowest 1702*A 

csn v#ork irt your : , . i 

Solder masked on both sid#s of PC Board. 

Componem Screened on Componf^nt Side of PC B&ard. 



Kit Prite 
$119.00 



Assembled Price: 
SI 79.00 




8KSC-Z 

STATIC 

MEMORY 

CARD 



ALTAIR 'iMSAt*^ and S-100 bus? cofnpatible. 

Access Time: 250 "sec man. 

Zilog Speed CompatibJe up to 4 mhz. 

Memory Chip: 2102LHPC or 2102-2. 

Battary Sfandby:)! ;5 to 4 voltsX 

Address SE>ti?ct' 8 &a. Sp^t Dip SwHrh. 

Wait SljL jS' None. 

Current Reg,: Lesi than 200 ma per 1 K. 

All Address, Control, and Data Out lines fully buffered. 

All IC's supplied with IC Sockets. 

Solder Masked on both front and back of P.C. board. 



Kit Price: 
$295J0 




Assembled Price: 
$395.00 






iiiuEril^iii 

ELECTRONICS.INC. 

BOX 11651. KIHOXVILLE, TN. 37919 

TELEPHONE ** 61 S '693 BBSS 



S22 





1 The Dentron EX-1 is the 
antenna experimenter's deNght, 
The EX-t is a fult 40 meter 
% wave, 33' self -supporting 
vertical. The EX^I has a heavy 
duty base, mounting brackets, 
stainless steel clamps and the 
highest quality seamless anten- 
na aluminum. The ideal 
vertical for any band you 
choose. The EX»1 is great 
for phasing! $59^0 



2 The Dentron . Skyclflw ^^ 
40/80yt60 tunable monoband 
vertical. The Skyclaw "^ gtves 
you no-compromi^e perfor- 
mance on 160 (50 KHjband' 
width h SO (200 KH^ band- 
width I or 40 (the whole band). 
It's a self 'Supporting 25 foot 
verticaL It's an easy, one* 
man installation with an easy 
price. $79^0 



3 The Dentron Skymaster ^^ 
covers 10, 15, 20 and 40 
meters. Using only one 

cleverly appired wave trap, the 
Skymaster ^^ covers these 
entire bands. Constructed of 
heavy seamless aluminum with 
a factory tuned and sealed 
HQ Trap. Handles 2 KW power 
level, is 27!4 feet high and 
includes radial s. S84.50 

Add 80 meters to the Sky- 
masters ^^ with the 80^ VR 
top resonator (100 KC band* 
width K $29.50 



4 The Dentron Top Bander ^^ 
for 160 meters mobile. Now 
you can operate 160 meters 
in your car, boat, plane, or 
RV. It's a streamlined 10!^ 
feet and includes a lightweight 
factory sealed loading coil. 
Handles 600 watts PEP, has a 
standard 3/8" - 24 ball mount 
thread. S59.S0 



The Dentron All Band Doublet 
Covers 160-10 Meters. $24 JO 



> 



Radio Co . Inc. 

2100 Enferpfise Porkwoy 
Twinsbufg.Ohio 44087 
(216)425-3173 



w«i 



116 



Aivid G. Evans K7HKL 
5 1 28 So. 3600 W. 
Kesrns UT 841 18 



Regulated 



Nicad Charger 



- - don't cook 'em ! 



More and more nicad 
cells are becoming 
available and many hams are 
Ulili/ing ihem in portable rigs 
and test equipment. To avoid 
damaging these batteries 
though, 3 few precautions are 
necessary: 

1. Always utilize the full 
capacity of the cell, Nicads 
have a sort of '*memory" 
action and a unit thai is 
habitually required to provide 
only Vi of its rated capacity 
will go dead at that half way 
level when the whole bit is 
needed, 

2, Don't reverse charge a 
nicad^ Keep the charge con- 



dition on all cells in a series 
string at the same percentage 
rate. Subslituiion of a 
partially charged cell into a 
series string of fuHy charged 
units may ruin the weaker 
cell through reverse charging. 
3. When charging standard 
nicads (other than "Quick- 
Charge" units), limit the 
charge current to about 1/10 
the rated Ampere-hour 
capacity. Excessive charge 
current causes overheating, 
which may result in seal 
rupture and venting of excess 
pressure. Once the seal is 
broken, the cell will rapidly 
dry out and become useless. 



Item 3 above leads right 
into the reason for this 
article. Fig. 1 is representative 
of a "universal" type nicad 
charger circuit 

The transformer, rectifier, 
and filter capacitor are con- 
ventional design. The trans- 
former itself is an 18 volt 
doorbell unit which gives a 
rectified dc output of 25 
volts. 

The current regulator is 
somewhat less conventional, 
as most hams are familiar 
with the emitter follower 
circuit in Fig, 2. Placing the 
load in the collector circuit as 
in Fig. 1 allows a measure of 
gain and results in better cur- 



tflV «¥5 





Fig. h 



Fig. 2* 



rent limiting action. 

In Fig, 1, resistor R1 is 
used to provide forward bias 
to the base of Ql* bringing 
that transistor into conduc- 
tion. With no collector load 
(batteries) in the circuit, the 
emitter current is very low. 
Thus the resulting voltage 
drop across the base-emitter 
junction and R2 is not ade- 
quate to forward bias the two 
diodes, D1 ^nd D2. This 
leaves the transistor in a full- 
on state with the whole 
supply voltage present at the 
output termirials. 

Now, if we put a heavy 
load (0 Ohms) across the 
output terminals, the current 
will increase(!), but how 
much? Watch what happens. 
As the current increases, the 
voltage drop across R2 also 
increases. When the base- 
emitter drop plus the R2 
drop reaches approximately 
1.2 volts, the two diodes go 
into conduction and limit any 
further increase in base 
potential. Thus the current is 
limited to that point where 
the emitter circuit voltage 
drops equal the series turn-on 
potential of Dl and D2. 

For silicon diodes, the 
turn*on potential is about 0.6 
volts. This also holds true for 
the base-emitter junction of 
silicon transistors. This means 
thai the required value for R2 
is about 0.6 volts divided by 
the current limit desired. 

Varying the load (using 1 
to 18 nicad cells) reveals that 
the current limiting action 
will hold within 1 to 2 mA 
from to 24 volts. In other 
words, you can charge any 
random number of cells from 
1 to 1 8 without adjusting the 
charger. 

Transistor Ql should be 
chosen for a reasonably good 
hfc and a power capability of 
twice the total supply voltage 
limes the current limit value. 
Since my primary interest is 
in 450 mAh penlight cells, 
my charge current is set at 45 
mA. This means that my tran- 
sistor must dissipate 25 volts 
times 0.045 Amperes, or 

LI 25 Watts. Double that for 
safety and a 2 Watt transistor 
is about right. ■ 



117 



Complete 



Repeater Control System 



-- all that's missing is the computer 



E. E. Buffington W4VGZ 
27S6 WoodbuTy Drive 
BurUngion NC 27215 



You can build a repeater 
that will perform better 
than many commercial units. 
You can do it with six small 
plug-in circuit boards^ a trans- 
mitter, and a receiver. Three 
of these boards were 
described in 73 recently in 
connection with autopatch* 
The circuits described in this 
article are made to interface 
with the autopatch boards. 

CW Identifier 

The K20AW identifier is 
repackaged into a 22 pin 
plug-in 4 X 5 inch board. This 
circuit was presented in the 
February, 1973 issue of 7J 
Magazine in an article by Pete 
StarL i did add an audio 
oscillator for feeding the 
audio board described in 73, 
April J 1977. The circuit 



master, schematic, parts 

layout, and parts list are pro- 
vided for you to duplicate 
Pete Stark's excellent design 
in a more convenient layout. 

Timer Board 

The timer board has the 

four second tail timer, the 
three minute timeout or 
**windbag'' timer, and the five 
minute ID timer. 

Request for transmitter on 

can originate from a signal 
being received (COS), local 
microphone (PTT), autopatch 
(AP), and the CW identifier 
board (ID HOLD). The shut- 
down control (TRANS- 
MITTER ENABLED) is also 
an input. The four second 
and three minute timers are 
resettabie by the action of 



the 2N3906 transistor which, 
upon being triggered, 
partially discharges the timing 
capacitor. This reset does not 
result in four more seconds or 
three more minutes, as only 
about half the delay can be 
reset out. 

The ID timer and logic will 
start the identifier initially 
with COS, PTT, or AP going 
low, and will identify five 
minutes later. It is possible 
for two IDs to take place one 
after another if the five 
minute timer runs down and 
just afterwards COS goes low. 
I am working on a new logic 
scheme that will result in less 
extraneous IDs, I will try lo 
lay it out so that it will plug 
in the same socket so that no 
wiring changes to the socket 
are necessary. 



118 




>5 



S 

s 



Ci 









9^ 



"5^ 



O 

I 

5 



I 




IT m 15 20 £J 22 E:i J4 25 2t £T £6 Sa 5d 51 5? 

TYPICAL CAL(_ 
DE WltiAJ F 



^ 









Fig. 3. Timer and control circuit schematic, Z/ — 7420; Z2, 

Z3 -- 7400; Z4 — 7404; Z5, Z6^ Z7 — 555. Fig. 4(b). Timer and control component layout. 

Fig. 4(a). Timer and control board. 




120 




■a 

z 

UJ 






O 
X 






o 



a 



If}* 






^ 

O 



M 



J 



U- 



I^H 




N* 



TTB 



o 



>i( 













> 

irt^~ I ll 






t^^ cy 



^<^ 

•* 







♦-A/A 1 

o 



CD 






I 



in 




H h 



CV: 



^f 






> 
+ 






I 



1s| 




4. 

CM 




N 






-'(^VV- 



U2:ij 



M 









4- »r 






T5 



"mi 



in 



vi *i 



-Q Eg ojQ 

AAA 



r- — 






*^ 



CM 



Ff'g. 6(b). Transmitter control component layout. 

Fig. 6(a). Transmitter control board. 



Fig. 5. Transmitter controL Z1 — 7473; Z2 — 74723; Z3 
DTL-946; 14 - 7404; Z5 - 7400; Z6 - DTL-946; Z7 
74123; Z8 - CLIVl 3500 or CLM 4 120. 




121 



TO tAPE REC 
V 




SWltCMIiKr 



HtC AUDIO 



tOC*L 
ItlC 



UKE 



TTL FlEtAY 



*13V 



8^V 



MOO 



NON 



330 



CL 



KON 



■+s 



.:> 



TO xwrm 



r 



TO XMTH 



koh 







+f3V 



MON 



4 




TO Murrif 



f /J?* & Suggested transmit switching aYcuits, 



Fig. 7, Overaii sciiemaiic. 



Repeater Shutdown Board 

This circuit is a must for 
remote controlled repeaters. 
This one will count the rings 
on ihe phone line and shut 
the repeater off by the 
"transmitter on enable" line 
going low. As a convenience 
and backup feature, touch* 
tone in the fourth column 
can also be used to turn off 



or on the machine. The (A) 
and (B) buttons of the 16 
button pad are pressed alter- 
nately to do this. The 741 23 
(a retriggerable multivibrator, 
Z7) is used as a half-second 
debouncer. In the article 
(April, 1977) on autopatch, I 
included the schematic for a 
(*) and (#) one-second 
debounce circuit. This cir- 
cuitry is included on this 
board. The neon optoisolator 
only draws 2 mA from the 
phone line during ringing. A 
means for manually ad- 
vancing the counter using a 
push-button is shown on the 
overall schematic. The 10k 
Ohm resistor and the 1 uF 
capacitor connected to pin 6 
of Z1 insure that after a 
power failure the circuit wilt 
come on with the transmitter 
enabled 

The Extender 

A circuit master is in- 
cluded for an extender card- 
This card is soldered to a 22 
pin connector. If you mount 
your circuit boards so that 
both sides are accessible for 
adjustment or test, then you 
will not need this aid (your 
boards will take up a lot of 
space though). 




Fig. 9. Extender board. 



122 



The 1977 Atlanta HamFestival 

and 
Georgia State ARRL Convention 

June 18-199 1977 

Downtown Atlanta Marriott Hotel • Courtland and Cain Streets • Atlanta, GA. 30303 

• GIANT Covered Fleamarket Swapshop! • 120 major exhibits! 

• More than 50 technical forums! • Special MICROPROCESSOR Section! 

• The BIGGEST door priies In all of Ham Radio: 

First Prize is a complete 2MFM Mobile rig — Including a 1977 AMC Gremlin!!! 

Registration: $3.00 individual, $5.00 Family IN ADVANCE. 

$4.00 individual, $6.00 Family at the door. 

For Advance Registration Materials call 404/971-HAMS day or night or write to: 

Atlanta HamFestival 

53 Old Stone Mill Road 

Marietta, GA 30067 

SPECIAL HAMFESTIVAL RATES: $18 SINGLE, $24 DOUBLE. 
CONTACT THE HOTEL DIRECTLY for reservations toil free at 1-800-228-9290 — and Hurryil 

THE BEST HAMFEST MN THE WORLD! 



Interfacing 

The six boards will require 
very little to interface with a 
receiver and transmitter. An 
active high of three volts or 
so is needed from the receiver 
is a carrier operated switch 
(COS) signal. The receiver 
audio input to the audio 
board can come directly from 
the discriminator over a 
shielded wire. The 470k Ohm 
resistor on the audio board is 
large enough so that loading 
of the discriminator should 
not be a problem, A few 
circuits are gjvcn as su^es- 
tions for turning on the trans- 
mitter. You can» I am sure, 
think of a better one to fit 
your individual transmitter. A 
simitar circuit can be used for 
the (AP) signal turning on the 
tape recorder. 

If you use all six of these 
boards^ you should remove 
the MC7805CP from the 
dialer board and mount the 
regulator on a good heat sink, 
as the five volt load wiil be 
near an Amp and the 
MC7805CP does not have 
enough heat sink mounted to 



K20AW Identifier 

Quantity Oetcrlptton 

2 220 Ohm % W 

1 1 k Ohm Va W 

2 4.7k Ohm 14 W 
1 lOkOhmViW 

1 100 uF 10 volts 

1 2.2 uF 10 volts 

1 ,01 uF disc ceramic 

1 10 uF di>pped tantalum 
(ufikj Program diodes a« required 

2 7473 

1 7493 

2 7400 
2 74154 

1 20k pot. Bourns 3389W 

Ttmtr ami Control 

5 4,7k Ohm y*W 
1 820 k Ohm % W 

1 3,3 megohm % W 

1 7.5magohnn V* W 

2 47 uF ID V lamalum 

6 10 mF 10 V dipped tamaliim 
1 4,7 uF 10 V tantalum 

1 1 uF 10 V tantalum 

3 .01 uF disc ceramic 
1 7420 



2 7400 
1 7404 

3 555 
Transmitter Control 



1 
1 
f 
1 
2 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
2 
I 
t 

2 
2 
1 
2 
1 



1 00 Ohm y* W 

47k Ohm % W 

4.7k Ohm Vi W 

3.3k Ohm 'A\N 

10k Ohm Vi W 

33k Ohm Vm. W 

220 Ohm % W 

LED 

1N914 diode 

2IM3904 

4?uF 10 V tantalum 

22 uF 10 V tantalufti 

1 uF 10 V tantalum 

7473 

74123 

DTL 946 

7404 

7400 

OptoisoJator 

CLM 3500 or CLM 4120, 

Oairex Electron ics« 

560 South Third Ave., 

Mt. Vernon NY 10650, 

(914) 664-6602 



Fig. W. Parts h'st Circuit boards and parts can be obtained from: Stafford Electronics, 427 
South Benbow Rd., Greensboro NC 27401, (919) 274-9917. 



the dialer circuit board. 

Parting Shots 

So good luck with your 
repeater project and please let 
me know about it A QSL 



card with "it works" would 
be OK- If you have trouble 
getting any of the parts, send 
an SASE and I will try to 
help you find a source. Try 
the ads in 73 first because 



that is where I get most of 
the parts I use. In a project 
this largCj errors are bound to 
creep in. Let me or the editor 
know about it and correc- 
tions can be made. ■ 

123 



Transmission Line Primer 



--in case you don't know everything 



J. A. Murphy 

Z431 Oakdale, Apt. #2102 

S^ Antonio TX 7S229 



A number of articles have 
appeared in the ama- 
teur literature in the past few 
years attempting to "'ex- 
plain," or perhaps "explain 
away," the concept of re- 
flected power on transmission 
lines. The conclusions 
reached by some of the 
authors range from 'Mt 
doesn't seem to make any 
difference, so why worry 
about it?" to "I caji*t under- 
stand it, so it must not 
exist!" But of course re- 
flected power does exist; pan 
of the signal arriving at a 
point of mismatch on a trans- 
mission line is reflected back 
down the line just as surely as 
part of a radio signal striking 
the moon J or part of a radar 
signal striking an airplane, is 
reflected back the way it 
came. So the problem is in 
understanding how a trans- 
mission line operates. What 
seems to be needed is a new 



50S 



H: 75V DC 







Fig. L 



(to the amateur fraternity at 
least) way of looking at the 
problem* 

In the field of high speed 
digital logic, the charac- 
teristics of transmission lines 
and the effects of reflections 
on these lines is far more 
critical than in most radio 
communications systems. 
Luckily, the operation of a 
line driven with step func* 
tions or narrow pulses is also 
much easier to analyze than 
that of a line driven with 
constantly varying signals 
such as sine waves. Let's look 
into a very simple "digital" 
circuit consisting of a batteryi 
a couple of resistors, and a 
chunk of cable. The analysis 
requires only the simplest of 
algebra and will provide tre- 
mendous insight into the 
whole subject. 

First let's consider the 
trivial circuit in Fig, 1, When 
the switch is moved from 
contact A to contact B, a 
current of 1 Amp flows 
through the battery and both 
resistor 5| dropping 50 volts 
across RS and 25 volts across 
RL. Simple enough- Now let's 
move on to the circuit in Fig. 
2, in which a long piece of 
cable, or transmission Hne^ 
has been added. Now if wc 
ignore the small resistance of 
the cable, we might expect 
this circuit to behave exactly 
like the first one. But it 
doesn't, not exactly! Remem- 



ber that signals propagate 

along a transmission line at a 
finite speed; granted, it is a 
very high speed, usually 
greater than half the speed of 
light I but still a finite speed. 
This speed is specified by the 
line's velocity factor, which 
gives the speed of signal 
propagation on the tine as a 
fraction of the speed of light. 
For most of the lines used by 
amateurs, this factor is about 
0*56. That means signals 
propagate along the line a! 
0.66 times the speed of light, 
or about 0.66 leet per nano- 
second. Then if our line in 
Fig, 2 is 660 feet long^ it will 
take a signal TOGO ns,or 1 us, 
to get from one end lo the 
other. 

When the switch in Fig. 2 
is thrown, current starts to 
flow through the battery, RS, 
and the end of the line. But it 
doesn't make it to the far end 
of the line, and RL, for 1000 
ns. The obvious question at 
this point is *'How much cur- 
rent flows during that 1000 
ns?" Since there is no current 
at the far end of the line or in 
RL, then the value of RL can 
have no effect on the cur rem. 
The only things controlling 
the current are the battery 
voltage, the value of RS, and 
the parameters of the line. 
The pertinent line parameter 
here is its characteristic 
impedance, or surge imped* 
ance. You've probably seen 



this defined as the impedance 
that would be seen looking 
into the end of an infinitely 
long line. It is equivalent, and 
perhaps easier to grasp, lo say 
it is the impedance seen at 
the driven end of a cable 
before the sign^il has had time 
to reach the other end. And 
from that il follows that the 
linens characteristic, or surgp, 
impedance (call it ZO), is the 
impedance seen by any signal 
moving atong the line, that is, 
any wave propagating along a 
line always has its voltjge 
equal to its current limes ZO* 
Actually we've put ihc carl 
before the horse; the last 
statement is more nearly the 
textbook definition of ZO, 
and the previous two state- 
ments follow from il! 

So if ZO for the cable in 
Fig. 2 is 50 Ohms, the current 
through RS right after the 
switch is thrown is ,75 Amps 
and the volt^ige across the 
near end o! ihc line is 37,5 
voiis. If we look at the line 
500 ns Liter, we find 37,5 
volts across il at all points 
from the near end up to the 
middle and volts at all 
points from the middle lo the 
far end. Similarly we find .75 
Amps fiowing in the line at 
all points up to the middle 
and no current beyond. We 
arc observing a signal, or wave 
front, or step, of 37.5 volts 
and ,75 Amps propagating 
along the line at the rate of 
0,66 feet per nanosecond. 

Now let's consider what 
happens after 1000 ns, when 
the step reaches the far end 
of the line and RL. The ratio 
of voltage to current on the 
line is 37,5/.7S-50, ihe line 
impedance. The ratio of volt- 
age to current at RL must be 
the value of RL, or 25. So 
either the voltage, the cur* 
rent, or both must change, 
(Note thai if RL were equal 
to ZO, no change would be 
necessarYi steady state con- 
di tions would be reached in 
1000 ns, and the only effect 
of the cable would be .i lime 
delay.) If cither the voltage or 
the current at the far end of 
the line changes, ihis change 
won*t be seen at the near end 
for another 1000 ns, during 



124 



which lime the change propa- 
gates back along the line. This 
change travelihg back along 
the tine is called a reflection! 
But, as we have seen^ any 
signal propagating along a line 
must have its voltage and 
current related by ZO. Thus 
the ratio of the change in 
voltage to the change in cur- 
rent caused by RL must be 
related by ZO* If v^e now 
designate the voltage and 
current moving from the near 
: nd toward the far end with a 
+ superscript and those 
moving in the opposite direc- 
tion with a - superscript, we 
can write three equations 
describing our findings: 

0) 

E+/l+=ZO 

(2) 
E-/^|-=ZO 

(3) 
(E++E-)/(l++ii=RL 

Equation 1 says that the 
forward voliage and current 
are related by ZO. Equation 2 
says that the reflected voltage 
and current are similarly 
related J but with an added - 
sign since the direction of 
propagation h reversed. Equa- 
tion 3 simpty says that the 
total voltage and curreht at 
the far end of the line, the 
sum of the forward and 
reflected waves, must be 
related by RL. The solution 
of these three equations for 
E" and I" yiefds: 

(4) 
E-=(RL'ZO)/(RL+ZO)'E+ 

(5) 
l-(Z0-RL)/(ZO+RL)-i+ 

Substituting the values 
from our example gives -12.5 
volts for E" and .25 Amps for 
iv Summing the forward and 
reflected components gives 
25 volts and 1 .0 Amp at RL. 

Now let's follow the re- 
flection back along the cable 
toward RS- If we look at the 
line 1750 ns after the switch 
was thrown, 750 ns after the 
reflection started, we will still 
find 37.5 volts and .75 Amps 
at all points in the first 
quarter of the line, but we'll 
see 25 volts and 1 .0 Amp at 
all points in the last three 



quarters of the line. Remem- 
ber that this 25 volts and 1 .0 
Amp are actually the sum of 
a forward wave (37.5 volts 
and .75 Amps) and a re- 
fleeted wave (-12.5 volts and 
,25 Amps). We are watching a 
reflected wave propagate 
back to the near end (^f the 
line. After 2000 ns^ the re- 
flection reaches RS, where it 
sees a perfect match. There- 
fore^ no changes in voltage or 
current are caused and no 
additional reflections are 
created. The reflected -12.5 
volts combines with the 37.5 
volts already present at the 
near end of the line to give 25 
volts, the reflected .25 Amps 
combines with the .75 Amps 
already flowing giving 1,0 
Amp, and steady state con- 
ditions are reached. Now the 
voltages and currents at the 
resistors are just like they 
were in Fig. 1, The steady 
state conditions of the two 
circuits are identical. The 
presence of the transmission 
line caused a transient con- 
dition^ 2 us long in this case^ 
to occur before steady state 
conditions were reached. 

If we consider the battery 
and RS to be a transmitter 
and RL to be a load, in both 
Fig. 1 and Fig, 2 the trans- 
mitter delivers 25 Watts to 
the load once steady state 
conditions are reached. But in 
Fig. 2 the transmitter de- 
livered 28.125 Watts to the 
tine for 2 us. You might say 
the transmitter "thought" the 
load was 50 OhmSi the line 
impedance, and delivered 
power accordingly, until the 
reflected 3.125 Watt reflec- 
tion got back and ''told" it 
different. 

So reflected power does 
exist. It's real, honest to 
goodness power, voltage in 
phase with current, capable 
of producing heat, doing 
work, or fitting whatever 
definition of power you care 
to use. And the job it does is 
** telling" the transmitter 
what's out there at the end of 
the line and forcing it to 
''adjust" its output accord- 
ingly. And if you're still 
worried about that "extra" 
power, consider what 



happens when you throw the 
switch back the other way* 
Again there is a 2 us transient 
condition. We continue to see 
25 volts and 1.0 Amp (25 
Watts) at RL for 1 us after 
the transmitter is turned off. 
And at the near end of the 
tine we see -1 2.5 volts and .25 
Amps {3T25 Watts) coming 
out of the line and being 
dissipated in the transmitter 
for 2 iJs! The ''extra*' power 
that; we put into the line for 2 
us when we turned the trans- 
mitter on came back out of 
the line for 2 us when we 
turned it ofL 

The circuit in Fig. 2 is just 
about the simplest possible 
case of line reflections. Now 
let's look at some of the 
reasons for its simplicity and 
see how things might get 
more complicated. Notice 
that we let the output imped- 
ance of our transmitter, RS, 
match the line impedance, 
ZO. This condition rarely 
exists in the real world! The 
widespread, and incorrect, 
use of the term *Viutput 
impedance'* to refer to 
recommended load Imped- 
ance has led many people to 
believe that a transmitter 
designed to drive a 50 Ohm 
load has a 50 Ohm output 
impedance. While this is not 
impossible, it is highly un- 
likely. It takes a lot of extra 
work to make an amplifier of 
any kind, rf, audio, or any- 
thing else, have an output 
impedance anywhere near its 
recommended load imped- 
ance^ and there is usually no 
reason whatsoever to try to 
do so. Except in very special 
applications^ it would never 
even occur to the designer to 
think of such a thing! There- 
fore the reflected power will 
generally sec a very large 
'^mismatch'* when it gets 
back to the transmitter and a 
considerable portion of it will 
be re- reflected. This means 
that, even in the simple dc 
circuits we've been looking 
at^ the reflections, and the 
transient condition, will con- 
tinue forever and the steady 
state conditions will never be 
reached but will be 
approached asymptotically 



by a series of discrete 
changes, or steps. This should 
not be too surprising, as it k 
very similar to charging a 
capacitor with a battery and 
resistor; the voltage on the 
capacitor never reaches the 
battery voltage, but 
approaches it asymptotically. 

We also assumed we were 
dealing with a lossless line, a 
very difficult thing to come 
by! With any real line, part of 
the forward power is lost 
before it reaches the far end 
of the line, resulting in less 
power in the load and less 
reflected power. Similarly, 
part of the reflected power is 
lost before it gets back to the 
transmitter. This means that 
we've lost some of the infor- 
mation that '*tells'' the trans- 
mitter about the value of RL. 
Instead of "realizing" that 
the load is not ZO, but RL, 
the transmitter "thinks** that 
the load is something 
between ZO and RL. This 
results in a little additional 
loss. 

We also assumed the line 
was distortionless, or that It 
treated all frequencies in 
exactly the same way. This is 
another condition that is 
rarely even approximated In 
practice. The effect is to 
"round off" the nice square 
pulse we started with. Again 
this has no effect of the 
basics of reflections. 

We have dealt only with 
impedances that were pure 
resistances, but while this 
greatly simplifies the math, it 
has no effect on the conclu- 
sions. 

And finally we have only 
considered dc, or square 
pulse, conditions. But one of 
the basic principles of elec- 
tronics tells us that if we 
know how a circuit responds 
to very narrow pulses, we can 
predict how it will respond to 
any other waveshape. We can 
create any arbitrary wave- 



1$ 

-a 



RS 

sort 



DC 




TfiANSMlESlOW 




RL 



Ffg. 2. 



125 



form by adding together a 
great number of narrow 
pulses and find the re5ponse 
by adding the responses to 
each of the pulses. When we 
consider sine waves, we must 
think of lime delay in ternfis 
of phase shift and take into 
consideration the standing 
waves produced by the addi- 
tion of the sine waves moving 
in opposite directions on the 
tine. Things rapidly become 
much more complicated, but 
the basics remain unchanged: 
Any signal moving along a 



line does so with its voltage 
and current related by ZO; 
pomis of mismatch on the 
line cause reflections* 

Piease note that weVc said 
nothing about the impor- 
tance, or lack thereofp of 
reflections on overall system 
performance; that is not the 
purpose of this article. In a 
digital system, where the 
transmission line may be a 
couple of feet of hookup 
wire, or a few inches of 
copper on a PC card, reflec- 
tions may be intolerable, in a 



relatively narrow band radio 
communications system, if 
the transmitter can operate 
into the load presented by 
the line, and the extra loss 
caused by reflections is 
tolerable, and the higher peak 
voltage caused by the 
standing waves doesn't break 
down the line, you can prob- 
ably forget all about reflected 
power. The point is that 
reflections do exist, ihey are 
not a figment of some mathe- 
matician's imagination, and 
they don't violate any laws of 



nature! 

So the next time you hear 
somebody claim thdi re- 
flected power docsn*t exist, 
or that the voluge and cur- 
rent in a reflected wave are 
always 90*^ out of phase^ or 
that directional wattmeters 
can*t be buili, or any of the 
other absurd statements that 
are so often tossed about, sit 
down and draw a little circuit 
similar to Fig. 2 and think 
about it for a few minutes* 
Ail those stupid engineers are 
right after all[ ■ 



Things Remembered 



-- ever heard of an 807? 



Daniel T. Davis WBLUK 
16iOE, McKinJey 
South Bend IN 46617 



I've never really been too 
certain about what it 
takes to be called an old- 
timer - being licensed for 50 
years, holding a two letter 
call, or perhaps having had 
your start with a spark gap 
transmitter. Whatever the 
specific element happens to 
be, menx)ries have to play an 
important role, and this is an 
area where Vm making pro- 
gress towards that "OT" 
designation. 

After having been exposed 
to amateur radio for a quarter 
of a century and an actual 
participant in it for the past 
20 years, I've begun to notice 
that a lot of things I once 
took for granted just aren't 
around any more. 



Recently I put together a 
partial list of some of the 
things associated with ama- 
teur radio which were once 
important to me. Check it 
over and see if there's any- 
thing you recognize: 

- Crystals for 80 and 40 
meters that came in those 
rugged FT-243 holcfers. 

- Those strange WV calls 
which were assigned to 
Novices briefly in the late 
1950s. 

- The thrill of using a VFO 
for the first time to explore 
the area below 3700 kHz. 

- When you said "kilocycle" 
and everyone knew what you 
meant, 

- A CW signal that was actu- 
ally produced by a human 
being and not a device, 
mechanical or electronic, 

- Blazing arguments about 
whether sideband would ever 
compete with AM. 

- Transmitters that had a 
DSB mode. 

- Building those Johnson or 



WRL screen modulators as a 
means of getting on phone 
inexpensively. 

— Discovering that the screen 
modulator really worked* 

— The night I actually heard 
someone over six meters on 
my Hallicrafters S-53A. 

— Catalogs from mailorder 
electronics supply houses that 
were 200 pages thick, 

— When six or seven manufac- 
turers published catalog. 

— All those surplus equip- 
ment stores near Arch Street 
in Philadelphia where a 1 10 V 
ac DPDT relay cost a buck, 

— Row after row of ARC-5 
equipment in those surplus 
stores, 

— An 807 which didn't 
become gassy after 50 hours 
of use. 

— The Viking Adventurer, 
Globe Chief 90, Heath AT-1, 
and all the similar trans- 
mitters that made it possible 
for a Novice with a school- 
boy's allowance to get on the 
air. 



— Hearing the FCC examiner 
tell you that someone tn 
Washington would send you 
your General ticket in about 
four weeks- 

— rinding out that the 
examiner and the man in 
Washington were men of 
integrity. 

— When you didn't have to 
own a linear and make an 
appointment to QSO on 20 
phone. 

— Something called 2J^ 
meters. 

— Or even 1 1 meters. 

— Fidgeting with the BFO to 
unscramble those ^'Donald 
Duck'* voices. 

— A handful of guys fooling 
around with commercial FM 
gear on six meters. 

— When it was rare to see a 
K-cal! in the "Silent Keys" 
column of QS7". 

— Almost coming to blows 
with someone over incentive 
licensing* 

— When postagq for a QSL 
card only cost two cents, 

— An enfant terrible publish- 
ing a new ham magazine that 
was irreverent, humorous, 
and simply interesting to 
read. 

— The enfant terrible has 
mellowed somewhat, but 
thankfully his magazine 
hasn't. 

Nop Tm neither ready nor 
qualified to be called an old- 
timer I really look forward 
to my next 25 years in ham 
radioj but in my "middle 
age" I can't help but look 
back and, like the well-known 
comedian, simply say, 
"Thanks for the mem- 
ories," ■ 



126 



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for an Economv Pri<»? 

THAT'S RIGHT! 

introducing the ECONO-LINE 



Modii Input Output Typlcit Fr«qu*ne^ Prki 

7qg?S 1 4W 60 SOW nn/70e>ui 143-149 M Hi $169.00 

Now get TPL COMMUNICATIONS 
quality and reliability ei an economy 
pTice. The new Econo-Line gives you 
everything that you've come to expect 
from TPL at a real cost reduction. The 
latest mechanical and electronic construc- 
tion techniques combine to make the 
Econo-Line your hmt amplifier value. 
Unique broad band circuitry requires no 
tuning throughout the entire 2-meter band 
and adjacent MARS channels. See these 
great new additions to the TPL COMMUN- 
tCATIONS product line at your favorite 
amateur radio dealer. 

Fof prices and specifications please vvrite 
for our Amateur Products Summary I FCC 
type accepted power amplifiers also avail- 
able. Please call or write for a copy of 
TPL'S Commerciot Products Summery. 



S43.95 
Kit 



SLINKY! 

A LOT of antenm in a LITTLE space 

New Slinky® dipole* with helical 
loading radiates a good stgnal at 1/10 
wavelength long! 

*patmt So. JM3SJ2& 

nc r IflSITClbll f«l 




HPl 



■ — |-1U» tDAE ULUI CfH 



i\ ^^v^^fe'm mi 






am 




mT 



"^mm. 



<m mmnvt um 




i^* tat 14 V 



• Tft kt wkmcutcM\bf inun SO f t9, 40. • 3C merer inrvnj^ ■ operifes 

it tnY itngrh Frcm 24 id 7Q I4*( > no ivzTra t&aiun of i^mntmitch 
n9«<itfi ■ PDrtlbl«— «r«cti i litres <ri mmulat « UTiill 
•nougn lohtinatiic or ipanniflnt • lull ragatpDw«r * tow SwR 
QVff carnpl«i#€£}/'7:5, 46, ^ ^Q rn«terbdnicl3 • much \ijwnt wint^ 
■ph«rlc naise pickuip th«ri a vnriicsl and ne^ds no r«dlil9 • hrl 
Include* a pan of ip#ci4iliy-m»4it 44nQh dia, toy 4'|nch long 
C9ili, containing 3.3 & fMl 0' rttdlittn^ co^lduc|o^ ^$\vr^, SO ^ 
flGSI^U co«ii. Pi,S'59 connflcloj. nylon rop« & mtlruclion man- 
uat « now m less Gy US D«pl ot Slsle. US J^rrny, radio achoaki, 
plui ihooKanas of hmtrm thm wtfrk) ovm* 





FT- 101 E TRANSCEIVER 




FT 301 
FP301 DIG 

FP301 
FP301 CiD 
FRG-7 
QTR 24 
FT TOI-e 
160 -tOM 
FT-101EE 
160-10M 
FT-10TEX 
160-10M 

PL 2100B 

FTV-650a 

FTV-250 

£P101B 

SP-IOIPB 

YO-IDO 

yD-844 

FA 9 

MMB-1 

RFP-102 

XF-30C 

FR-lOlS 

SOUP STATE 

FR 101 DIG 

SOLID STATE 

FT 301 S 

FT 301 S 



160NI'1QM Transceiver' 200WFEP 
T60M^10M Transceiver- 200WPEP 
AC Power Supply 
AC P.S- w/CIOck «nd CW ID 
G«nera] Cov. Svnthesized Receiver 
Yaesu World Clock 

XCVR W/Procwsor 

XCVR W/O Processor 

XCVR W/O Processor 
AC Ontv. Less Mike 
Linear Amptifief 
6M Transvorter 
2M Transverier 
ExternaF VFO 
Speaker 
Speafcer/PateH 
Monitof Scope 
DynajTuic Base Mike 
Coottng Fen 
MobiJ^ Mounl 
RF Speech Processor 
60O Hz CW Finer 

16Q-2M/SW RCVR 

160-2M/5W RCVR 
1 60-1 owl 40WPEP 
leO-IOM 40WPEP Digital 



S769 


Accenories: 






935 


FC-6 


6M Convsrtier 


24 


125 


FC 2 


3M Cofi^mrter 


25 


2C^ 


FM 1 


FM Detector 


20 


29S 




Aux/SW CrystaJs 


5 


30 


XF30B 


AM-Wide Filter 


40 




XF 30c 


600 Hf CW Filter 


40 


729 


XF^30D 


FM Filter 


40 




SP-101B 


Speaker 


22 



&4g 



589 

399 

199 

199 

109 

22 

59 

199 

29 

15 

19 

79 

40 

489 

599 

765 



FL-101 

SOLID STATE 160-10M 

TRAlSJSMtTTER 525 

Accessortes; 

R*^P-101 RF Speech Procestor 79 

MONITOR/TEST EQUIPMENT 

YC 500 J 500 MHz (10 PPM) 

Counter 249 

500 MHz i1 PFMJ 
Couniar 365 

500 MHz t0.02 PPM) 
Courrter 4S9 

Monitor Sc;Op« 199 

Dummv Lo«l/W*rt M»t«r 69 
Digital Reactout 

n 01/401 varies) leg 

VHP FM & SSB TRANSCEIVERS 
FT 620B 6M AM/CW/SSB 365 

FT'221 2M AM/FM/CW/SSB 629 

Accessories: 
MMB-4 Mobile Mount 

{FT'620B. FT-221J 19 



YC 500 S 

YC 50O E 

YO100 
YP 150 

Yc-eoi 





Name. 



Call 



Radio Electronics 

209 Mystic Avenue . 
Medford IVIA02155 
(617) 395-8280 

FREE Gift With 
Everi) Order I 



Address^ 
City 



State 



Order: 



Zip 



D Check enclosed 

D BankAmericard D MasterCharge D American Express 

Credit card # Interbank # 

Signature Card expiration date _ 



MasterCharge 

American Express 

BankAmericard 

accepted on 

MOST items! 



Prices FOB Madford MA. 
All units can he shipped 
UPS. MA resident* add 5% 
sales tax. Minimum $3.00 
for shipping 8i handling on 
oil orders. $10.00 merchan- 
dii« minimum please. 



Cash orders over SI 200 deduct 5% No other discouirts offered. All sales finaL 



HflM RRDIO/ 

MOBILE 

COiiMUNICHTIOiiS 



THOMSON-CSF 



NPC 





ELECTRONICS 




MODEL 


NET PRICE 


103R 


£39,95 


V2V4 


S19.95 


M3 HM 4 


S41 .95 


600 


$20.50 


104B 


$49,95 


102 


S24.95 


12/115 


S69,95 


612 


S27-95 


ioaR 


$79.95 


107 


$28.95 


108RM 


S99.95 


12HM4 


S29.95 


109R 


$149.95 






ALS01 Avwtatpl« » 
1 3 HM 4 wnli buih in 



MODEL 1ZHM4 

NFC 3.5 Amp Hegulated Ptiuvvr SiJO«>lV. 
SoliO Siaitt. Short CircuiT Fraiactcd 



Lmr ciEl TBgutalBd poiier wppi^ 
qutdlv cflweis t15 volts AC iD 
13.5 volks DC ± 200 fnilhvolls 

re^ ((teaJly vuitid lor ijpenaa B ] 
nwbtle CS Innsce^vrfs in ]f€Kit 
honv IT Gflice base s&BidiL 



TVP1C*L 
Casn: 3' ITH) ■ 4^ (W| h SW |D| Sti^Dping WQi^Tit 3 lbs 



T4VDC 



iDmVFIMS 



MODEL 107 



i^PC 4 A ma Powtfr 

Supply, E ^priFJ Max, 

Soktd State. OuorlcucJ 




• 



POWER supprr 



I. Ht 



Ftmctians stitrtlly irt carwening U5 volts AC h] 12 vtrits DC 4 amps 
cGnttniiQLis, 6 amps max £natales anyone to etiioy CB radm. ^iJ S" track 
cartridge, cas^itte playnr or ciar rad^o rn a home or ofticf 

Conbrtiuous Current (f u4l L«fttf)i 
CXMpui Voftogfl \*m LiMd» 
Output Votugi (Fui LtiAllii 

Fbpjjia {)=utt LOWlli 
Short Cltctf« r* f O l« B ft Oft 



4 Amp 

12 V fnm 
10000 uf 

TTiermHl Bfrvfthar 




itJl 



tJL££"^^:i 




Fos c m 
rftj>i«S£tr*fH 




MODEL 103R 



NPC 4 Anrifi R«^lat«dl 
Pownr Supply. 
Solid SlATA. DljbI 
Qv^rload PfDticthon, 



Cu* 3r{K»ii4V |lMMS4i'(0| Sh4VfMig WedQlit 5 tts 



Convene 115 vctts AC to 13.6 volts DC t m m\\\m\h K,irKllEs ?.5 
turnp^ cnfHliiirt5Lis artd 4 amDis rnas. IdEaliy SLiitfld tur appltcafmrs 
whf.n m hsjm <inri oc statjiltry ar^ untrartam sydh as Cfi rransflisssioit, 
srnatl Ham radio triansmiiitei', amj Fi»gh qmalkty eigitkack car stereos 
Cart ai^ t»e used to Irtckle^harge i ? votE e;ar tuatlev^es 

TYOCAL MJAXIWUMi 

i3.e r ^vcm; 13 & t 3V|>C 

20 my M mV 

2 mV nMS 5 mV RMS 

SOuSec 

?..S AlTlp 

4Aff*D 

1 Amp 



LifW/iOdlj PegyldbOtl 

Cuf rant CJnhnuoiA 
CurriKil LifTir! 
CuiTHnl Foktbodi 






MODEL 1Q9R 



MODEL 108RM 

MPC 12 Amp FlaguFatQd 
Power Supplv 
SoHdl Stats. 

3 Way Prcnected- 







t 



)•• 



This ficavy chiiy unit quieily corivtrts Ub wufls AC (o 13 6 volts DC 
^ ?QiD mlllivotrs B amps contmuous 12 ampa max j'^Ii ^olia state 
ftaltirtsttu^tcuireni ovffl^^ and ov^rvoltdp prciti^hon Ideany 
fuilftl iQf opBratioQ imtane Ham rw^ t metir AW-f^M-SS8 trans- 
clivers in yaw home or oflice Can also M used lo tticut^dtargc 12 
VQiorbafreries 

U6 : 3VDC 

samv 

irnVRAilS 





TVnCAL 


Output VMtB9S 


i:J6 ' 7V0C 


Lifw/LoM} n^^utafMHt 


MmV 


R4«HpWN0«Wi 


3mVHMS 


traiifKfft BJUXH HB 


20uSec 


Cuit«nt CWUHUfOBl 


fiAmfi 


CurfMil LMfMi 


T2Anff» 


Currvnl Foltfba^ 


?.S Amp 


QwwrtfilnQwfHpiicrfffli 


t4 5Sr 



T5 V 

C«H:4H-*fKI>ii7H-(W(ii5»~fD» Shtpfiing ViavQhf tSltof 

ALSO AVAILABLE AS ^ODEL lOeHA 
WITHOUT METEB AND OV£ftVOLTAG6 
PFlOT£CTlON. 



MAXIMUM 
13.6 f 3VOC 



NPC 25 Afnn ^agulVTWl FoMVr Supply. 4-Way Pr<jl«v1cd. 
Oucpui Vott»o« arkd CurT*nt M«tirt. 

&e^lieatfy'«iityi^quifiiyconvcmii^vQttsAClol36votts OC s ?W 
millivfilts to am|35 caniinifQus 7B amps ina.c All solid siatf Features 
du^ ctffTffit ovwlQWl. QfWfrv{}(iagt and tiwrmal pnrtecUGni Idcilly suN^ 
fcr operating motMlf t^im ndtoKid linear anpiifiiar in yoor lagme or ofhct. 
Exodtenf timdh jicnnr supp^ hr teeing and ser^aFig oT mctnlf QOiivnu- 
ntotions tt^ipmenl 

TYPICAL 

CNjl{>LJT Volt»g^ 13 6 I 2VDC 

aipp^e Noieo 5 mV HMS 

Tro nsien E Ro»pDnB« 20 uSoc 

C uf Ffjril C t3 riuniiaui 1 Q Amp 

Current Lirrnl 2G Amp 

OvBrvoKft^&Proifi'CliChn 14.5V tBV 

Thermal Ow*rlCig.d IflO^'F 

Cas*.4Jv; (H) * B' (W| x Bl+' <0|, Stiipplnfj Weighit: l&lbs. 

M0DEL104R 

MPC 6 Amp P□y^far Supply 
R^gul^ted, 
Solid State. DtiaE 
Overload Protectior*. 

Convens n& volls AC to 13 € votis 
OC x^OO miUivDils Kanille$ 4 
ani{K conlimjous and fi ampfi mnt 
kSsJIysiirtedforipplicatiorB wfwre 
oseHnl DC laMtl^ i& importam, ludi as CB trrasmlssMkri, snail Han 
FvSatvgsiltp. «id Mgh Quality «i0iihtadi ear s&etws. Cai bt us«d lo 
tidtlc-ctivoe 12 von car tmmm 

13.6 I a VDC 13 « JE 3 VOC 

?0 uShcc 

4 (Amp 

i J^mp 

3 Amp 

IDV SfiippmgllVtai^iLAIbL 




Otitinjt VMagit 



Current ConbniiotM 
CuTTwn Ltmil 
Cuft»nt 

CA$e J 




MODEL IZVM 

IStPC T.75 Amp 
Pavvm SupPiy- 

3. Amp i^M. 

FunctioTB silently in convcfl- 

tf^ 115 vAlts AC to 12 VD^ts 

DC I dean y surted lar m>Dst 

a|iplicslioni locludlTig S-trach st^eo, ti<urglar alarm, car ratt^o and 

disettf tape player within pcn»ei ^ atinQ, 

Comiououg Cumei^t (Full Loadr 
OultJul VoHqge (No Load I 
Output Vottnge \?^i\\ LEaodli 
FltlftrliiaCipacMor 
RIpptflfFullLoBdl 
Short Circuit PfDlflcliurt 

CnM: a" [H) * 4" (W) X S v FD). ahippinfl Wiigtii: 3 lUfl 



1 7S Amp 

16 V muE 
1 2 V mm 
S,O0OuF 
4V RMS 

Thermal Breflker 




DCZSarr 

or cilia. 

CcmtKiiKnA Cufram iFufl U09d) 



MODEL 102 

NPC 2.S Amp 
Po^mt Supply. 
4 Amp Ma A. Solid St Ate 
Dvtflofd Pf Qi1*ei«d. 

Fundi«fs Silently m cmvert- 

mg 115 volts AC to 12«volts 

nfi. 4 mm BVE EngWn aoyont to tnioy D8 

.fdg«. cassoftiapeplayvor cv rate in ■ teme 



iHou>adi 



(HMS' *tW|4i 



mpCH* |f^ td*d1 
Shsf 1 Circurr PrDActHlfi 

Cts* 3 ' IH ) x 4 i-i (W) 1 S^" ^Q) StippptAQ VM^m. 4 lbs 



79 Amp 
i6Vfri«i 
i2 V mm 
SjOOOuF 

evRws 




1i ■■■WBAT^l 



imw.JiHifK 
ti in 



|ji nn I 







-S.r *©©* 





13 VOC yn 




I4VIX; 1N 


Outptat VflMag? {Nd LoatI) 


11&VRMS 




130 V RMS 


OutpLdtVQllfl9*iFullLOAd) 


iCKfVRMS 




115 V RMS 


FrqtjuorieylNoLoEid) 


SAHi 




&6Hz 


Fr««iuBncy( Full Load) 


um 




ft?H/ 


Rowwr ContinuoiH 




MOW 




Po*Mr Poait 




340W 




Parailfrl Connection 




350W 





AH vaiu9« Are Tirpt&tl 



MRRINE Er RV 



MODEL 12-115 

NPC 12 115 So^ld State Invflrler. 200 W, 

ParaUal Connectior^ tor Hloh*r Power up to 3S0 W, 

Ctnivfiils 1^ voUs DC 10 115 VDlts AC m BD H? tHilput. 200 watts cunliTT- 
JOLi^ o[H3ral:l{}n wjifi ptrahi pownr u^ lo 240 waits A'll silicon SDmlcondoi:- 
tors assure tiigh relliitiilTiy al excessive ambjsnt EeniperaEures. The 
output voltage IS a sijiiarD wave The inverter \% m\ rsi:omrnend«(f 
where hiigh translf nis ^ta oot [oFerabtt, 

The 12- 1 IS allows von to Have AC house curreni 11 y[Hjr boai. Mf. Truck, 
camper. Iwuse tfailef. ot tUuSeboaE Will operate s/nail household appli- 
ances. T V , hand toots, eiettr^c shaver AC radian, and t^ghli wicttirt 
powif rating, flulh-m overload prDteciM]n 

Ca»i4W im X 7^^ (W1 ■ SH' (Ol SNipping Wb<ghl 7 lbs 



MODEL 61S 

Pow*r ConvBfier 

NPC 612 COO verts fi voll 

0«ga!lVi9 ground or 12 volt 
posh IV ground elflctrlcal 
syslemg tu M volt nega- 
tive nrourtd aperation. 
Pro V id US full 3 ajnp wn- 
tlJiuous powef. The in- 
CKpcosive BolutJDh for 
insiallintj c^t radios, sifreo 
and cassctiB laps players, 
ir vehicles with % vnll neg- 
alrve ground or 12 vol! 
pcttdrve QTDorid systems.. 
CuB.^ 4H)^iia iw> is'ib} 





Magnetic Mount or Gutter Clamp 5/8 wave 
Specrfy, 2 meters, 220, 450. 1/4 wave 



Larsen Antennas 

to fit Any Mobile Unit 

3/8" single hole mount 

tsen flntennos ''°-» »'^ 



$38.50 
Si 8.50 



1/4 wave -$11,50 





mcuniEAMp. 



COAXIAL ANTENNA CHANGEOVER RELAY 




Model 372 - $27.50 



Gsi ttmiimutti l«9»l wtiO0u\^Utift ^^IlKhJF dWIfiriri KH*TI#< 

en.u»fnjil t»*e*^ 



Db't.pWI Li 



Cait««nn<i 





Model 377 - $17.95 



.nNdil 377, 



fOJftomial anrf irt^dlrl^. Cff^Oe ppiw»1iid from VOX C»rcgrt 
fdf aSniCi»4!ieil* jbjtemitic eperjTiorr df Irain PTT CK iTi«n4jii 



1«L 




UNIVERSAL HYBRID COUPLER II PHONE PATCH 



(iwid«t Toom 



xninr. 







ni lor dfw impdM^nl 



11 uifldi rti ihe ^tBtmrt mkrojuhdne. CT^t Ctr^rrpfiMrnp iiw 
(uiniTtlewvi u ft Qfiim(Hir*«r/HmltEr witn in* ttition 







Model 300 2W with Compreamp 

-$125.00 






Model 300 IW without Compreamp 

- $85,00 



COAXIAL SWITCHES AND ACCESSORIES 



i.1/1- a T-f fir ■ r 

1-1/2 fei. 




BARKER a WILUAMSON, INC 



Model 359 - $37.50 





tMiiL. Or 






tgt Id 
film tMB flip, 

cwi te iisiiwith 
»H tvpCl 01 IrofHTHtlpri PEHbAffvt t)¥ » ICHqtflKfirfq dry Mil 
bBtttry— fm •Rtvnn poww rwmj i il - fruuiit w»tNhit inv 
mnpiq fhirtgn arr you^ rmmrtiitter. Jual exmhwcI tN> 
COfTififmtnp rhRr\weeri ycujr mic'cphefw j 50 ,000 'Ohi+i 
dvr«iiiir.' ui nhjivimfjedsnci »r*mlcf aM vQv^ tfJimriilTtur'-i 
mrcreplisritf! Inour Anmctr^or Fr^i panEl rarlc;#r twtch N't) 
VOLi. tivr><i» the (^DFTv»rwwTV7 ■iwhtfn voyl w«f11 H] 
Comp^en^n i«vel ct Bdjusublt^ too. 




li 

H4» 




5lMf»pM4 WMi*irt 






for Wft^Kia itllCl>en and RF flMmtung 



mdklftrw I9 ^nn Cvwr^^r i^Kfwi writ> b Mj m ^ egn- 
m*nne and f«Hr*biKtv (rom «ud« lriHit*ni:«i Iq lS0»*Hf- 

B&W ctMKItl Mltchfll *fi fiBsignoc* iot u|f with BJ. ici T5- 
ohnTi fign-rttetirt lOKll, wicJ ** poww faiflctnt lOtBwaTU 
AM- 2000 warn %$fi Cv^nwrion ir» Unf i^pe Inseftjan 
toa It nt^lj^dblt. «nd VSWR a 4«M IM^^ t J 1 ui} ID 150 



COAXIAL SWITCH SELECTOR CHART 



■i3{KMitttii-46di bwm.c i^aliflcBr*t 



mitmMnd-V)M 



vvf-lh rH fViihottt i>r0l9T;|4b« grounciing at ifiKlm QutEhiiL 
FlMiar t&iderr^uriTKt] CJOnrwC-lor rtiod<II CM tH W tHAf wflM 

Qf canfl'l fTiCiuntBil, JtMial ItwclfplaEfi ■nOun'tid} mrnA^lcir 
iThsdill^'H for pmniil moi inl ing only , uvF pjinul ifuiM^ 

Uit ihi HMcior ctiiii twlc« to choDH tlv rnodetj vqu 






RrwvI 5AQ 



!«1A 






FRICE 


Outpun 


PtKVmCfll 




MoiintMia 




AutDrrunc 
Grounding 


D»»i 

PtST? 


f 




PCTMl 


Wan Dft« 


STB 


18.95 


6 


Akrial 


Ji 






m 


SupctihOJ 


PnOtAK WW ten Ground! iii excsw «i«n«J 
oylOut Circuit. 


376 


18.95 


5 


RaJiaP 


91 


« 




X 


Suppli«t 


Pj=rOTAX iwitch. Gmundiall except wl«cl«d 
jJipuT CiftuH. SiMth KwMCh position Qf<Hjindft 
i/ti oulpuli. 


ESOA 


14.00 


5 


Radial 


H 


K 






DP-5 




E6(M^ 


12.50 


2 


Radial 


m 


K 






DP 2 




551 A 


17.50 


2 


Rndial 


n 


K 






DP2 


Se*ci«t 2-pole. 2-oosi1ion twiicti i^ad to 
iMntcfi' fny RF dKVfCr in or ouf o^ ic^iti 
tonjiection m j cast r si hhe See t«gurt fovtfi 


BU 


.95 


— 


— 




X 






— 




iOQ 


17.95 


b 


Ax^t 


% 








DP 5 




&90G 


17.95 


S 


Ax«l 


m 






X 


Sumiii'^ 


CiFQundf dH e«c#pit Mi«>i:Cnd Output circurr. 


5e? 


16. go 


2 


Aj(|*l 


n 








DP 2 




iiBE 


18.50 


6 


In-lme 




X 


H 


H 




Grouni^»all exc^i 9«licied output CircutT. 



^AhW 37« 




MridM WM a 






There is no substitute for quality, perfoirnance* 
or the sdtisfacUon of owning the very best 

Hence, the incomparable Hy-Cain 3750 Amateur 
transceiver. The 3750 covers alJ amateur bands 
1.8-30 MHz (160-10 meters). It utilizes advanced 
Phase-Lock-Loop circuitry with dual gate MOS 
FETs at all critical RF ampiifief and mixer stages. 
There's a rotating dial for easy band-scanning and an 
electronic frequency counter with digital readout 
and a memory display that remembers frequencies at 
the flip of a switch. And that's just the beginning. 

Matching speaker unit (3854) and complete 
externa) VFO (3855) also available. 

See the incomparable Hy-Gain 3750 at your radio 
dealer or write Department WA, There is no substitute. 



Wf%^. 




3854 - S59.9S 



3750 - S1B9^.0<} 



- $4% t)0 



There is no substitute. 



Amateur Rad»o Systern^ 



Super 

3-Eieinent Thutiderbird 
tot 10. 15 and 20 Meters 
Model TH3Mk3 — $199.95 

Hy -Gain's Sup«T 3 ekmcnt 
ThLtfKfertjird delivers outataiKting perform- 
ance on 10. 15 and 20 meters The 
TH3Mk3 fitatiif«s separate and matchi^ 
l^-Q traps for each bdnd aod ke<b wKh 52 
ohm COOL Hy-Qam Bita H^ch pfvssits 
tapeted: iTnped9rKe Fck mo^ ejicient 
3 band rnot^hifig, 4nd provides DC g7i:>und 
to eliminate ptecifTiilatlon static- The 
TH3MJt3 deHven maumiim F/B ratio, 
and SW3^ less than ISA M n^sonance on 
all lHnd&. Its m«chai!tk:irily superior 
constmctiDni feaiufcg. taper swaged sk>tte4| 
tubing far c^^y adjust mml and l^rg^^r 
diameter. Comc» equlpfJtd with heavy 
likable boom-tcj-miftst clamp, H/-Gain 
ferrite beaEun Bri-B6 Is recommended for 
u^e with the TH3Mk3. 



Electrical 
Gain — average 
Front-tD-back rails 
SWi? (34 lesonance) 

Impedance 
Fo«er ratmg 



Mechsnlcal 

Longest elemen! 
Boohm length 
Turning radius 
Wind Joad at 80 WPH 
MiiKLmirm wind survival 
Net wejght 

/^5.t diameter accepted 
Surface area 



THADkX 

6,?ftB 
25dB 
Less than 

15:1 
50 ohms 
Ma^ legal 



adB 
25dB 
Les3 than 

50 ohfTW 
Ma* legal 



31.1" 

20 

I56ll>& 
100 MPH 
57lfas- 
l V*' to 2Vi!" 
fi.t sq. fL 



zr 

14' 
15.?' 
1032 fcs 
100 MPH 
36 Jbs 

4.03 *q. ft. 



^SXl 





HY'GAtN'S INCOMPARABLE 

HY TOWER 

POR 80 THRU 10 METERS 

Model 18HT 

• Outstanding O m it i- Directional Perforraance 

• Atitomatic B^nd Switching 

• Inskt^Us on 4 sq. ft. of r«*a1 f'State 

• Completely SeU-Sut)t>oi't^n£ 

By any standard of measurement, the Hy-Tciwer is unques- 
Liatlably the finest miilti*band vertical antenna system on the 
market today^ Virtually indestructiblei, the Model IHHT 
features autonnatic band selection oti 80 thru 10 meters 
Ihruugh the use of a unjciue stub decoupling system which 
effiH'tively Isolate^ varjaui^ sections of tin* antenna so that an 
elec-trieal ^A wavelength <or odd multiple iiT a Vi wavelength) 
extents on all bands. Fed with 52 ohm coax, it takes maximum 
Ifgtil ijowet ,,. delivers outstanding performance on all 
hjinds. With the additit^ti of a base loading coil, it al^o delivei^ 
outstanding pi^rfurmance or* 160 meters. Structurally » the 
Mode) laHT is buLlt to last a lifetime. Rugged hot-dipped 
gatvat^i?.ed 24 ft, lower [eriuires no guyed supports. Top 
mast, wfiieh extends to a height of 50 Ft*« i£ BOGlSTG tapers 
aluminum. All hardware is iridite treated to MIL specs. If 
you^re looking for the epitonie in vertical antenna systems, 
you'll want Hy-Tower, Shpg, Wt., 96.7 lbs- Order No. 182 
^ice: S2&9.95 

NEW Special hinged base assenibly on Model 18HT allows 
complete assembly of antenna at ground level ... permits 
easy raising and lowering of the antenna^ 



BROAD BAND DOUBLET BALLTN 
for 10 thru SO meier?^ 
Model BN<86 
fl5.S5 

The model BN-86 balun provides optimum balance 
of power to both sides of any doublet and vastly 
improves the transfer of energy froni feed line to 
antenna. Power capacity Is 1 KW DC, Features 
weittherproof construction and built-in mounting 
brackets. $ir>.95 Shpg. Wt. I lb. Order No. 242 




k 



-#A 




i^K- 









MULTI-BAND HY-Q TRAP DOUBLETS 
lly-Q Traps 

• Install Horizontally or as Inverted V 

• Super-.StT'E^Tigih Alummum Clad Wire 

' A^'eatherpioof Center and End Insulatora 



6-Element Super Thunder- 
lliid DX for 10, 15 and 20 
Meters Model TH6DXX 

f 2^9 .95 Separate Hy-Q 
traps^ featuring larg^ 
diameter coils that develop 
an exceptionally favorable 
L/C ratio and t-ery high Q, 
provide peak performance 
on each band whether 
working phonir or CW. 
Exiclusive My -Gain beta 
mat cli, factory prctuned^ 
insur€s maximum gain and 
F/B ratio without com- 
promise. The TH6DXX 
feeds with 52 ohm coaxial 
cable and delivers le^s than 
1.5:1 SWR on all bands. 
MechanicflDy superior con- 
struction features taper 
swaged, slotted tubing for 
easy adjustment and re- 
adjustment^ and for larger 
diameter and less wind 
loading. Full circumference 
eompression clamps 
repla<£ setf-tapping sheet 
metal screws. Includes 
large diameter. hea%y gauge 
aluminum boom« heavy 
cast aluminum boom-to- 
masi clamp, and hea^T 
gauge machine formed ele- 
ment -to-boom brackets, 
Hy ^Gain's ferrite balun 
BN-86 is recommended for 
use with the TH6DXX, 



Inj^tatled horizontally or ms an inverted V, Hy^ain doublets wjth 
Hy-Q traps deliver true half w^aveleni^th performAiirtf on every 
design frequency. Matched traps, individually pretuned for each 
band feature large diameter coils that develop an esrceptionatly 
favorable L/C ratio and very hlKh Q performance. Mechanically 
sup<'rior solid aluminum ti'ap housings provide maximum protec* 
tion and support to the loading coll. Fed with 52 ohm coax, 
Hy-Gain doublets employ super-strength aluminum clad single 
strand slf^^l wire elements that defy deterioratuui from salt water 
and smoke . , . will not stretch , , . withstand hurricane-like 
winds, SWR less than 1,5:1 on all bands. Strong, lightweight, 
weatherproof center in!Jiikito¥s are molded fr^im. high impact 
cyoliu:, Hardware is irtdatc treiiti^d to MIL specs* Heavily serrated 
7-ineh i^nd insulators molded from high impikct t:yc-o]ac increase 
leakage path to approximately 12 inches, 

MODEL 2BDQ for 40 and 80 meters. 100* 10^%*' overall. Takes 

maximum legal power. Shpg, Wt., 7.5 lbs $49.95 

Ofder Ho. 3^0 

MODEL 5BDQ for 10, 15, 20, 40 and ftO meters. 94' overall. 

Takes maximum power. Sbpg. Wt., 12-2 Ibn. $79,93 

Order No. 3H3 




CENTER INSULATOR 
Band Doublets Model CI 



fox Multi- 



Strong lightweight, weatherproof 

Model CI is molded from high impact 
cycolae. Hardware is iridite treated to 
MIL specs. Accepts '4" or *4** coaxial. 
Shpg. Wt.. O.e lbs. $5.95 Order No. 
15 






MULTI-BAND ANTENNA 
Dipole Antenna — Model DIV-80 

$i:t.95 

For 10 thru 80 meters— choke of one band 

A dipolc antenna for the individuals who prefer the "do-it-yotir- 
self flexlbiUty of custom-designing an antenna Cor your specific 
needs, (Work the frequenctes you wish in the 10 through 80 
meters b;inds>. 

The DlV-80 features: Durable Copperweld wire for greater 
strength, Mosley Dipole Connector (DPC-l) for RG-&A7 c»r 
RG«bS/U coax and all the technical information you will need to 
construct your custom-designed antenna. 




END INSULATORS for Doublets Model El 

Rugged 7 -inch end Insiilators are molded from high Impact 
eycolac that is heavily serrated to increase leakage path 
approximately 12 inches* Available in pairs only* Shpg, Wt-» 
lbs. $3.95 Order No. 156 



to 
0.4 



flemo/e 

Motor 
ContfoUed 




COAXJ ANTENNA 
SWITCH 



• Control uml works on 1 iCi/Z^O 
VAC, SD/'SO H^ a^d supplies 
necessary DC to nmlot. 

• Excel tent i^i sin^te coaK fe^ lo 
muliiband iiuads or arrays ot 
monobanders. The ftve pasiiions 
allow a Single coax feeii to Itiree 
beams and two dipolei, or o^her 
similar combinations. 

t Ccnlrol cabFo {not BuppElBd} 
same as for HAM-M rotator. 

• Selects antennas ri&rnolely, 
grounds atl unuaed antonnas. 
GNO positton grounds all an- 
tennas when leaving sistian, 

"Rain-Hal" construction shieids 
motor and &wttches 

• Motor: 24 VAC 2 amp, Lubrica- 
iion good to — 40^F, 

• SwJtcn RF Capability Maxirnum 
legal limit. Price; Si 20.00 



MATCHING NETWORKS 




MN 4 

2C1 AalEt 



Price: SnO.OO 



ilM-AOOD 

Price: $220.00 



' 



6iin«r«l^ • fhltgrftl Witlmetfir ft^9xii forward pQw«r In 

wjlla and VSWP iiifocl'v. can bo r^nUbcnted lo ttfn^ ih- 
Itecled pci^er • MalchD& 519 ohm IrinimlillAr oulpul to cdax 
nnlonnii fBedimi? MiiCh VSWR of at leas! 5:1 * Gov^ra ham 
bonds BD Ehru 10 metoirs * Switch** In or out wifh front 
p«tifil swach • S4E«t 5^i"H, lOii'^W, &"0 iU.Q x 2^3 » 
20 3 cml MN-50W. 14*^^0 i36.5 CfflJ 
» CenUnuDui Puiy Output; MH-A. 2DD watts. MN-2C 
IQOO watts 4200D watts PEFk • MN-SODO ontf: lip to 3 An- 
IC4VUI Eonnect^rii fAlscled by UorA pdn^t SAitcfi 




RF 

WATTMETERS 



W-4 1.0*54 MHi Price: S 72.00 

WV-4 20'2O0MNz Hfice; S 84.00 

forward mr-_ - ri-ed pow«r ■dlreclfy in 
mtis IVSVinR from nomogram). Twd &cates m 
•ach direction Sti*; 5^i*H. 3?4*W. 4*'D (t4JJ x 



Model ful\ Scal« 



CaliOraltcNn Accuracy 



W-4 



300 wflirs l5% gf rfiadjng + 2 watts 

20aa wjUs i;[S^cj of reading f 2t} v/att$ 



"Zy . 100 mi I Eft ±15% fsf reading h l WriM | 
TOaa watts tt5% of rBsdinp ^- lOwatttj 




DRAKE 




-1 



COAAMUNICATIONS 
RECEIVER 



• Sj^nthesized • General Coveragt 

• Low Cost • An Solid State • Built-in AC 
Power Supply • Selectable Sidebands 

• Excel Jen t Performance 

FRELIMINARy SPECIFIC At IONS: • Coveragti 5m kHz %a 
30 MHi * Fr«qu«ncy can be read »i;cutaiely lo belter than 
5 kHz * 5«ntlt4*ity lypically S mtcrovcrits lor ID dB S+N/N 
SSB and twilti ttisn 2 microvoUs for lO dB S-'-f^/^M AM 
• $el»ctvbl« ilideb»n#$ • 9ulri-(n fnawer supply! 117/^34 
VAC - 2ii^m * tl lh« AC jHWcr t9ttre« ^jli. mc umi vwittf^^es 
oulomatically to an tntom«f bittery psck wh^cti us«s eight 
D-celi!s (not supptied) • For reduced currfAl drain on PC 
operation trre didia d<j not irgtii up unlaws a red pitthbittton 
om the ffoni pariiel ts deprttted. 

Ttie perform a nc p. versplllkty. Site snd low Cdtti of the 
^R-t malcA II 4cleal tdr us« aA a star>d-by amateur ar 
ngvicQ-amfltQur rHcelver, thori weve race Ivor, CB moni ten- 
receiver, or general purposa I Ab oral pry recelvar. 

Price: $350.00 



GEMERAL: * AH amAltur b«nd« ID thiu 80 m«irer5 hn arevun 
600 kHi ranges, ai SoJid Slat* VFO witn 1 KHz dJ^al diwi&iona 
* ilDdva SSB UpO«r jind' Lower, CW j|n4 AM * AiMiMn 
&td*bHi* and autDmatic TAR awitcbiris on CW ■ 30 lirbflt 
■nd lattii.coiiduclora • OlmvnsiaRa: 5'i"H. tO?:i'^W, t4S*' 
I M C 1 «-: 3 ji 3^6 ^ era). Wt: Ifi tbm {7 3 ligj 
TRANSMIT: • VOI Af PTT On SSB or AM * Inpvt PowtR 
SSB 300 watts P.E.P , AM. 260 watts PEP contfoUisd 
carriiftr compalib^e witn SSB linears; CW, 260 watl^ • 
Adjui1tibl« pi- net work. 

RECEIVE: « Sensilklty bdEtor tt^an V% j^V for 1D de S/N • 
l.f. Selflctivltv Si KHz @ € dB^ 3.6 hhlE Of? 60 dS. • AOC 
luM cin rttcftlve rriDdss. vi^rluble wISti RT gnin confrol. latl 
allncli Rtiil slow relaaifi wdh rtojse pLilfte mi^pprefision « 
Diod* DttectDJ for AM roception. 

Price: $649.00 

34-PNB Plug-rn Noise Blanker , . 
FF 1 Crvstal Coritrol Unrt . . , , , 

MMK^3 Mobile Mount 

RV-4C Remote VFO _..,.... 




TR4CW SIDEBAND TRANSCEIVER 



100.00 
. 46.95 
. . 7.00 
120.00 



POWER SUPPLIES 
AC-4 Ppwer Supply 
DC-4 Power Supply 



ST20.00 
. 1 35.00 



2 METER FM 

PORTABLE TRANSCEIVER 

Mode! TR-33C 



LINEAR AMPLIFIER 
Model LAB 





Amateur Net $229.95 
SCPC" FrequencY Control 
12 Channels with Selectable Xmtr Offsets, 
All FET Front^end and Crystal Filter for 
Superb Receiver Intermod Rejection. 
Expanded Antenna Choice, 
Low Receiver Battery Drain. 
Traditional R, L, Drake Service Backup. 
Single Crystal Per Channel. 



L-4B Linear Amplifier ...._,,... 895.00 

• 2000 Watts PEP^SSB •Class B G rounded- 
Grid - two 3-500Z Tubes • Broad Band 
Tuned-Input • RF Negative Feedback • 
Transmitting AGC • Oirectionaf Wattmeter 

• Two Tautbarid Suspertsion Meters • L-4S 
13-1 5/1 r' W, 7 7/8" H, 14-S/1©" O. Wt,: 
32 lbs, • Power Supply 6 3/4" W, 7-7/S" H, 
11" D, Wt.: 43 lbs. 

POWER SUPPLIES 

AC 4 Power Supply . . _ . . $1 20.00 

DC 4 Power Supply . , , . 1 35.00 




i 



Touch-n-go 
DRAKE 1525EM 

Push Button Encoding Mike 

Drake 1525EM, microphone with tone encoder and 
connector for TR 33C, TR-22. TR-22C. ML-2 .......... 

• Microphone and ayto-patch encoder in stngle convenient 
connector. Fully wired and ready for use. 

• Hi§h accuracy IC ions generator, no frequency adjustments. 

• High reJ lability Digitran® keyboard. 

• Power for tone encoder obtained frofn transceiver through frticrophone cable. No 
battery required. Low current drain. 

• Low output impedance allows use with almost afl transceive^rs. 

• Four pm microphone piug^ directly connects to Drake TB-33G without any modifica- 
tion in transceiveT. Conr^patible with all previous Drake and other 2 meter units with 
minor modifications. 

• Tone level adjustable. 

• Hang up hook suppMed. 



$49.95 
package with coll cord and 







why waste watts? 

(SWR-lA$24,q5) 




SWR-l Qiiards against power loss 

U you're not pumping out all the 
power you're paying for, our little 
SWR-l combination power meter 
and SWR bridge will tell you so. You 
read forward and reflected power 
simuttaneouslv. up to 1000 watts RF 
imd 1 :1 to infinity VSWR at 3.5 to 150 
MHz. 

Cot it ail tuned up? Keep it that 
way with SWR-l. You can leave it 
right in your antenna circuit. 



® 






ELECTRONICS 



I'^j-ji' . 



1. 



P 



DELUXE 
742TRtaAhrD 
MOHILt 
ANTENN4 

• AuLomaiicany idjialii to 
f^ropc-r rcivonAnce fof 20, 40 
ifKf 75 mtlef^, 

• Power raied M iOO WilH 

• rn dudes hist ^ettujn, auh> 
m^ta'oiJ jnti whi|> itjp i^^- 
tinn. 74: Aniennj 

Price : $109,95 




EXCLL^SIVE 

DELUXE 
5'BJS\DMt3BlLE 
45 ANTEN^iA 

• All t-iind truftua) switchi^ 
aniciuia for 10. 15, 20. 40 
And 75 mrlcr*. 

• Power rafEd ai 1000 Waltj 
PIP 

• Indudes ba\e sceiion wiih 
mobileooit and sii, foot whip 
lopiEfCtiPii.45 Antenna 
Price: $119.95 



JMR /VIOBIL-Ef4R~ 

Two-way-radio headset with superior fide IHy 
Electret^Capacitof boom microphone and 

palm-held talk switch. 



$69.95 



SWAN METERS HELP YOU 
GET IT ALL TOGETHER 

These wattmeters tell vou what's going on. 

with cme of these m-tine warrmeters power readings? For whatever purpose 

vou 11 know If you re getr*ng It all we ve got the wattmeter for vou Use 

together all the time Need high ac- vour Swan credit card Applications 

curacy' H l^h power ha nd l (ng"' Peak at your deal er dr wri te to us . 





iyii*ii!M*M]inin.rH'L'fi i 



meter Witn Wuscli Kaaei 
to 2000 wdtt^ N^vv f\m- 

response directiofiai coud 
ler for maxj mtj m accu fiiCY 

$59.95 



IVJ7il.f*IiIil 



eak reading 
wattmeter Rwdi RMS 
pow?f Thfin *trh Che Hjck 
Of a swtrtn. true peak 
power Of vour Single 
stsrttjano iignial T^at s 
what counts on sss 



WM 1 SDO Nigh- AC curacy in- 
line W?ttm«ter 10*^ fyH 
scalar accuracY on S SO 
SOO and 1500 *fltt scaiBh 
1 TO 50 WHI Forward ana 
reffected power use tt 
*cff troutjie-^ttooriog too 

S74 5S 



E L E C T R N i C S 



SWAN TJNEAR AMPIJFIERS A Mark U 2000 
watt P,E.P. full leeal input power unit or the 
120OX mntchmg Cygnet 1200 watt P.E.P. input 
powerhouse with huill-in power supply « The choice 
iA yours. $B49.9& 




Mmrmm ttmm* 



NEW Swan MM BX 
Iltllpedance Matcher 

It keeps your transmitter and your antenna 
speaking terms for a song. Price : $23.95 



on 



CYGNET 12II0X PORTABLE 
LINEAR AMPLIFiER 

To quadruplf' lh€ output or the 300B Cygnet d^ 
noi'O, simpiv add this matrhing unit for more than 
a kilowatt of power. Complete with self-contained 

gou-t^r sypply and provision for external ALC. this 
yttn«| offers exceptionally high efficiency and 
tUiearity. S 349. 95 

4?!?^-^*^"*^/ ^'^^'^ produc^i include: fixed and mobile anfennat, VFO*s telephone iHttch, 
VOX. waitmfter, microphones and mounting kits. At another e,xira tervice, &n(y Swan 
hteciramcs ^ffi^n factory -backed financing to the amateur radio communiiy Viwit on 
aiithonied Swun LiectFomc& dealer for complete details 




® 



CLtCTAONtCfi 




/MODEL 

]0\5-A 



FOR BROADCAST-QLTALTTY TRANS- 
MISSION AND RECEPTION FOR BOTH 
MOBILE UNITS AND BASE STATIONS. 

• Boom-mounted elect ret -capacitor micro- 
photie deli vets studio^quality, uti distorted 
voice reproduction. Variabl*' gain conlrol 
lets you ad)U5t for optimum irtodulation. 

• Cushioned earcup lets you monitor in 
privacy - no speaker blare to disturb 
otherfi. Blocks out environmental noifiCA^ 
too. M^de of unbreakable ABS plastic. 

■ Headband self-adiusts for comfortable 
wear over long houra, Sprini;-flest hinge 
lets you slip headset on and off witK 
ju£t one band. Reversible for right or left 
ear. 

• H(*adset can be hung on standard micro- 
phone dip. 

•Compact palm -held talk switch lets you 
keep both hands nn the wheel for safer 
driving. Made of unbreakable ABS plaiitie. 

• Built-in FET transistor amplifier adaptii 
microphone output to any trAnaceiver 
impedance. 

•Compatible with most t-wo-way radios in- 
cluding 40'Channe[ CB unit*. 

• Built-in VelcTo pad for easy mounting of 
the talk 3wUeh. 

• Made in U.S.A. 



SPECIFICATIONS 

Earphone impedance 

and type: 8 ohma, dynamic 

Microphone type: Electret capacitor 

Microphone freqtiency 

response: 200-6000 Hz 

Amplifier type: FET transiitor, 

Tariabl« Kain 

Amplifier battery 7 -volt Mallory 
power: TR'175 

Switching: Relay or electronic 

IDEAL FOR EVERY TWO-WAY RADIO 
COMMUNICATIONS NEED . . . 

CB operators ■ Amateur radio opera ton • 
Police and fire vehicles ■ Ambulances and 
emergency' ^ehicls • Taxis and trucker** 
Ttrlarine pleasure and work bo^ts • Con- 
struction and demolition crewm • Induftri- 
al communic4tion& - Security patrols • 
Airport tower and ground crew* • Re- 
mote broadcast and TV-camera crewi • 
Forester* and fire -watch units • 




ARGQIMAUT 



AMPLIFIER 



imr 



Af^GONAUT. MODEL 509 

Cfjver% all Afna^teur bands 1&80 mtTCfS. 
9 MH2 crystal fillet. 2.5 kHz bandwidth. t,7 
shape factor €/BQ> dfi points. Power 
required 12-T5 VDC ^ 150 rnA receive. 800 
mA transmit at rated output. Connructioni 
dluminuiTi chassis, lop and frofit panel, 
molded plastic end panels. Cr^am from 
paneJ, wninul vinyi top and end trim. Sue. 
HWD 4Vr X 13" X 7", Weight 6 lbs, 

LINEAR AMPLIFIER^ MODEL 40S 

Covers alJ Am^ite'ur bands 10-80 meters^ 
50 vsetis output power, continuous »ir» 



TEIM-TEC 



naue RF v&tjfnt\eF. SWB m«tir« Pb> lP f 
required 13-15 VDC @ 8 A, mah. Consttvt^ 
tkan. alumiriijm chassis, top and front p^riieL 
molded ptastic side pa^neis, G-einri froni 

panef. vvarnut viny* 'op ^n6 end trim. Sr«i 
HWD 4V," X 7" » S". Vyejght.ay* Ibi. 

Argonaut, MotjBl SOS , 8329.00 

Linear Ampiitim, Model 405 *..,.. 159.00 

Power Suppty, Mocfei 251 

IWill povuer both units) . . , *, *♦ * * . ^ 79.00 

Power Supply. Modet 210 

{VVi\i F>ovwr Arf^r\But gnly| ^ ...,., » 27, iO 



Tim netr iiltz«-n»dcfi] fuUy Bolid-state TRITON makes eip^ating easief 
and a lot more fun, without the liTmtAtkn^ of vacuum tubes. 

For ooe thing, vitu €&n change bands with the flkk of a switch and no danj^er 
of (M*ieKmaace damage. And no deterioraiifln of pedonnance with age. 

But that's not all. A superlati^-e B-poh i-f filter and les than 2% 
mdio dialortion^ transmitting and receivingr niaJtes it the smooths 
and dianttt signal on the air. 

Hie THrrON IV spedficatloiis are impeccable. For selectivity, stability and 
receiver ler^itivjty. And it han featurea^ such as fuU CW break-in, pre- 
selectabte ALC* off-aet tiinins;, ."separate AC power supply, 12 VDC operation, 
perfectly shaped CW wave fonn, built-in SWR bridge and on and oti. 

For new itandard^ of SSB and CW oommimication, write for full detaila 
or talk it ovia- with your TEN^TEC dealer. We^ like to teH yon why *They 



Don't Make Tim Like They Used To** maket Ham Hadio even more fun. 



TRITON IV $689.00 

ACCESSOSmS; 

Mudd 240 One-^ixty Ooovvitar S 97.00 

MHkl 244 Digital RadHit ^ ^..._.. 197 J» 



24S CW FUtzT 

M«ltl 24» tttmt Btuik«r 



J moo 
. aeoQ 



Model 2S^j PijmwT SiEpply ^ — _ 

Modd 2€2G Pmt^ SupplymfX 139.00 




TEN-TBC 




KB20-A ELECTRONIC KEYER 

A fine instrument for ail -around hi eh perfor- 
mance electronic keying. Paddle actuation 
force is factory adjusted far rythmic smooth 
keying. Contact adjustments on front, 
Welfihling factor factory set for optimum 
smoothness and articulation. Over-ride 
"straight key*" conveniently located for 
emphasis. QRS sending or tune-up. Reed 
relay output. Side-tone generator with 
adjustable level. Self-completing characters. 
Plug-in circuit board , For 117 VAC, 50-60 
Uz or 6-14 VDC. Finished in cream and 
walnut vinyl* Price $67.50 

KR5-A ELECTRONIC KEYER 

Similar to KR20-A but without side-tone 
osciUator or AC power itupply. Ideal for 
portable, mobile or fixed station, A great 
value that will give years of troublefree 
service. Housed in an attractive case with 
cream front, walnut vinyl lop. For 6-14 
VDC operation. Price $38.50 

KRl-A DELUXE DUAL PADDLE 

Paddle assembly is that uaed in the KR50, 
housed in an attractive formed aluminum 
case. Price $35.00 

KR2*A SINGLE LEVER PADDLE 

For keying conventional "TO" or discrete 



character keyers« a5 used in the KR20-A. 
Price $I5.00 

KR50 ELECTRONIC KEYER 

A completely automatic electronic keyer 
futty adjustable to your operating style and 
preference, speed, touch and weithting, the 
ratio of the length of dits and dahs to the 
space between them* Self-controlled ke;yer 
to transmit youx thoughts clearly, articu* 
lately and almost effortless. The jambie 
(squeeze) feature allows the insertion of dit^ 
and dahs with perfect timing. 

An automatic weii^Kcing system provides 
increased character to space ratio at slower 
speeds, decreasing as the speed is increasedi, 
keeping the balance between smoothness at 
low speeds and easy to copy higher speed. 
High mteUiglbilily and rvthrriic transmission 
is maintained at all speeds, automatically. 

Memories provided for both dits and 
dah^ taut either may be defeated by switches 
on the rear panel. Thus, the KR50 may be 
operated as a full iambic (squeeze) keyer, 
with a single memory or as a conventional 
tvp*^ kever, AH characters are self -complet- 
ing. Price $110.00 

SPECIFICATIONS 

Speed Range: 6-50 w.p.m. 
Weighting Ratio Range: 50% to 150% of 
classical dit length. 



Memories: DIt and djih. Individual defeat 

switches. 
Paddle Actuation Force; 5-50 gms. 
Power Sourcer 1 17VAC, 50-60 Hz, 6-14 

VDC. 
Finish: Cream front, walnut vinyl top and 

side panel trim. 
Output: Reed relay. Contact rating 15 VA, 

40O V, max. 
Paddles: Tor Que drive with baU bearing 

pivot. 
Side-tone: 500 Ha tone* 
Adjustable output to 1 volt. 
Size HWD: 2^'^ x bW x B^A" 
Weight: 1^^ lbs* 



niir 

TEN -TEC 




KR50 



OflTM SHOAE 



RF V TECHNOLOGY 



DUPLEXER & 

CAVITY 

KITS... 




NOW AVAILABLE FOR YOU 
FULLY ASSEMBLED & TUNED! 

UPGRADE YOUR REPEATER WITH AN 

RF TECHNOLOGY DUPLEXER* 
ALL DUPLEXERS AHU CAVITIES ARE 
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED WITH 
INVAR® AND MEET ALL COMMER- 
CIAL STANDARDS 

ONLY TOP QUALITY MATERIALS GO 
INTO OUR PRODUCTS. 
BOTH KITS ^ ASSEMBLED DUPLEX- 
ERS AND CAVITIES ARE AVAILABLE 
TO YOU AT A SAVINGS TO YOU, 

Mod. 62-3 ... cav,« S ilitr^. Insertion 
kiu 0*€ db with tscililiaii 100 db typical; 



pwr. 3&0 w, KLi «a99 ea. — Ajaemtaleii 

Mod. 4 230-3 , . . 4 cav» 220 MHx 

itueTtiaQ Ids 0^6 db with 80 db itotition 
typical; pwr. 3&0 w. Kit 1279 «a, — 
Assembled «349. 

Mod, 444&^ ,,.4 cav. 440 MHs, 
Lnsection Ion O.B db with SO db iiOlatiOn 
1q3& Q.6 db with ao db itfO^Uon (ypkul; 
pwi. 3 BO w. Klt« $24.9 ea. — Aflienibkd 
«329. 

MAd. ^a Cikv\ty KltJi: 2 mCr. «T& u,, 
22G MHz |t6S en., 440 MHx $e& et.; 6 
mtr. 911^ am. Add tJ& fqr Ass«mtal«d KU. 

Also Hvallable: 6 mtr., 4 cav. Kit §^99 

— AsKmbl^d §499, 2 mtr. 4 cav, KU «280 

— Assembled $399, 440 MHz TV Bepeal«r 
Duple xer. 




Now You Can Receive The Weak Signals With The ALL NEW 



IModel PT-2 h a continuotJi tvnitig 6-160 
melrf Pre-Amp specificallj ile4p«d for 
■ne with a lraikKeiv«r. Tbe PT 2 com- 
hinc* the fei lures of the well-known FT 
with new pophiaticated ccintrtiJ ritruitty 
that permiti i I to be added tu vi dually 
jny trmnceiver with .No modi Tioi lion. 
No N^fKHLi haul cart be wilhoul one. 



AMfCO 



PRLAMPLIFIER 



■ Impruiiefl anwitivih and ftgnd-lci-nttue rilio, 

• Buoatc ii|riult up to 26 dk 

• Fof xm Of SSB. 

• B\-pa»r« iladif automaticallv when the tranKciver ii traniniiiting. 
« t LT aiiiplirirr |P^r«i tupenor ercMf mofkiliitiDfi protectvoo, 
« Advanced •olid-tlate circuilry. 

■ Simptr tn in^itail. 

• Impmvisf immunity to tranHreivpT front -end overload by uie of Hi built-in attemiitor. 

• Provldei mailer power cuntrul I'ur At Alton equip m^nl. 



4IOOCL PT-I 



$69.95 




The indispensable 
BIRD model 43 
THRUUNE^ 
Wattmeter 

MODEL PRICE 

Elements (TaWe 1)2-30 MHz 40 

Elements I Table n2S- 1000 MHz 35 

Elements (Tab^e 2) S0 

SOF. gOM 5W 27 

iasoQCN(iy() 25Mr 47 

ftOS5QCN(M) SOW 75 

Minimomior* 119 



Read RF Watts Directly. m 

0.45-2300 MHz, 1-10.000 watts ±57o, Low Insertion 
VSWR-r05. 

Unequalled economy and flexibility; Buy only the 
etement(s) covering your present frequency and power 
needs, add extra ranges later if your requirennents 
expand- 





Table 1 




STANDARD .^^^U: 

ELEMENTS 25wan. 

(CATALOG ,^:-: 

NUMBERS^ 2sow^i, 

1000 warn 
2^00 w&tH 
5000 wa Ms 



Table 2 

LOW- 
POWER 
ELEMENTS 



Frequency Bjfuit (MHz} 



50H 
lOOH 
2I0H 

5Q0H 
1000H 
2500H 
5000 H 



5A 

10A 

25A 

50A 

lOOA 

250A 

500A 

lOOOA 



10B 

2SB 

50B 

lOOfi 

SOOB 
16DDB 



SC 
IOC 

2'iC 

50C 

100C 

250C 

SOOC 

lOOOC 



100 

25D 

SOO 

100D 

2^00 

SOOD 

1000D 



1 wjii 


C^t. No, 


2.5 w«ltf 


fcOBil MM/ 


ObO-l 


WH30 MM/ 


80-9^ MM/ 


08O1 


80-95 MHi 


95^125 MHz 


095-1 


95-150 MM; 


; nCMtOMH/ 


110-1 


150-250 MHz 


150-250 MHz 


150-1 


200-300 MH2 


200-300 MHz 


200-1 


250-450 MH2 


275 450MH2 


275-1 


4fK)fl50MHj: 


425-850 N\Hz 


425-1 


BDO'iSO MHi 


800'9SO MHz 


aoo-i 





5E 

lOE 

25E 

50€ 

tOOE 

250C 

lOOOE 



Cat No, 



060-2 
080-2 
0952 
150-2 
200-3 
250-2 
400-2 
SOO-2 




^\ CH 



Novice Crystals (Specify Band Qntly} 



TWO METERS 




Motorola HT 220 Crystals 

CRYSTALS m STOCK |n StOCk! 

Jiandard ♦ Icom • Heathkit • K^n • CI egg • Regency •Wilson* VHF 
Eng # Drake • And Other si S4.50 @ Lifetime Guarantee 



Make/Model 


Xmit Freq. 


Rec. Freq. 









































THE Q3|](S ^^ 11'4 



#/ 



W2AU" BALUN 

THE kfn^nti LLUHii HAM tm coMttu^iAi fiAuiN m m mm ioiut 



TM raOVtH iMU«t 




1 mm to , taauBi t^ 

I iiiMnu f ■ tim 



tu. en. 



l^i«* 








HI It UST..* 
QIO SIGNALS DQNT JUST HAPPEN — 
GIVE tfDUR ANTENNA A UUEMi 

«M kdft 1* M V Hi !■■ hiliKfil Hat 

laruuBLi IT ui LU»ittc ittuoa. i wv, met tma 

Ifef IM uniii iirrit! Uwn <tiict.;i i^ r«v m waMt thM Mk Mid m* 
■wdMH «it inM id wi*it 1 M bins Ibv wHM t«tt fw tta fMi 

Ikf ttignriii fl< 1W fiftei mfh i kiiM-M ItfWMRf iflT'ettcf md l»^ «f 




!«■■« ClMbkMte 









UG-255 




SERIES 31 — BNC CONNECTORS 

AmpKenot's BNC connectors are smalL lightweight* weatherproof 
connectors with bayonet action for qtiick disconnect appUfjcatlpn&. 
Shells, coupling ring^ and msile contacts are siccursitely ma chined 
from bifass, springs are made of beryUium copper. All parts In turn 
are ASTRO pb ted® to give you connectors that con take constant 
handling, high temperatufes and resist abrasion. 



BNC BULKHEAD RECEP- 
TACLE 31-221-385 UG4094 

Mates with any BNC pluR, 
Receptacle can be mounted 
into panels up to 104" thick, 

BNC (M) TO UHF (F) ADAP- 
TER 309-29l>0-3d5 UG-22S 
Adapts any BNC jack to any 
UUFplug, S3,B3 
DOUBLE MATE ADAPTER 
8 3*B77-3B5 Both coupling 
rings are free turning Con^ 
nee la 2 female eotnponentt* 
*2.72 

JACK ADPATER *1.9» 
575-102-385 Adapts 
83*1SF*3S5 to Motorola type 
auto antenna jack OT pin lack* 
PANEL RECEPTACLE 
S3*lR-3&5 SO 239 Mounts 
with 4 fasteners in 21/32*' 
diameter hole . SI 1 7 
PANEL RECEPTACLE 
S3-&T8-3S5 S0239SH Mounts 
in single 21/32" diameter 
hole. Knurled lock nuts pre- 
vent turning, $1.59 
BNC ANGLE ADAPTER 
rn-0a9 3&5 UG-30G Adapts 
uny BNC plug for right angle 
use. £4.23 

BNC TEE ADAPTER 
31'00a-3a5 UG-274 Adapta 2 
BNC plues to 31<0Q3-3B& or 
other f*;male BNC type recep- 
table. $4,56 



UG*1094 



!I75<102*3S5 



BNC(F> TO UHF (M) ADAP- 
TER 31-028-385 UG-273 
Adapts any BNC plug to any 
UHF jack. $2.39 
PUSH- ON &3-iSP-385 
S3-5SF*385 Features an un- 
threaded^ spnngy shell to push 
fill on female connertois. 
12.27 

LIGHTNING A RKESTOR 
575-1 05-3&5 Eliminates statie 
bujid'up from antenna, Pro- 
lectB your valuable equipment 
against lightning damage. 
$4.80 

BNC PLUG 31-002-3B5 UG- 
88 Commonly used for com' 
munications antenna lead 
cabies. For RG 55/U &t RG 
68/U cables. $1.59 
BNC STRAIGHT ADAPTER 
ai'219-385 UG-914 1 9/32" 
long, allows length of cables to 
be Joined. Mates with BNC 
plugs. $2.12 

BNC PANEL RECEPTACLE 
31 003-385 UG-290 Mounts 
with 4 fasteners Ui 29/64" 
diameter hole, $1,74 




83-^77-385 




S0239 



SERIES 581 --PACKAGED CABLE ASSEMBLIES 

All popular lengths arc now available in your choice of RG 8/U or RG 
58 /U type low loss poly foam dielectric cable. Installed PL-259 connec- 
tors are ASTROplated — Amphenol*s new non-tamlshing finish — which 
has all the advantages of precious metal plus more heat, corromon and 
abrasion resistors that silver ever had! These cable assemblies arc ideal for 
CB, ham radio and other communications antenna installations and they 
are ready for immediate use, ^^ g^^ ^ypE POLYFOAM 

COAXIAL CABLE ASSEM- 
BLIES 581-803 3-fu with 
ASTROplated PL-259*s on 
both ends. $&.€0 
581^20 20- fit with ASTRO* 
plated PL-259's on both ends. 
$11,80 

581^50 50- fit with ASTRO- 
plated PL*259*s on both ends. 
$23.10 

581-875 75-nt with ASTRO- 
plated PL^259*s on both ends< 

581-8100 100-ft* with 
ASTROplated PL-259'a on 
both ends. $38.50 
RG 58;U TYPE POLYFOAM 
UG-290 COAXIAL CABLE ASSEM- 

BLIES 581*5812 12'ft. with 
ASTROplated PL-259's on 
both ends. $6.34 
581-5820 20-ft with ASTRO- 
plated PL-259's on one end 
and SPADE LUGS ON 
OTHER END. $6.30 
518-5820-2 ao*ft. with 
ASTROplated PL-2B9's on 
both ends, $7*36 
581-5850 5Q-ft. with ASTRO- 
plated PL*259^s on both ends. 
$11.20 
UG-273 -^ 581-5875 7 5-ft. with ASTRO- 

plated PL-2&9's on both ends. 
$14,00 

581-58100 lOO-ft, with 
ASTROplated PL-a59's on 
UG-8S UG-914 both ends- $16.10 



as- 




S0239SH 



10 



UG-306 




UG-274 



fl3-IISP-385 



L£0 




575<105-3B5 



@9p 




A new precision clock which tells time anywhere in the world at a 
glance^ has been announced by Yaesu Electronics Corporation. The time in 
any principal city or time zone can be simuhaneonsly coordinated with 
local time on a 24 hour basis. After the initial setting^ as the clock runs, a 
Time Zone Hour Disc advances automatically, showing conect time aU 
over the world without further adjustment. The clock is especially 
designed to withstand shock and may be hung on a wall or placed on its 
desk mount. The clock will run an entire year on a single 1 ,5 volt flashlight 
battery and the mechanism starts as soon as the battery is inserted. It 
measures six inches in diameter by two and one half inches deep. An 
excellent item for the business office, ham radio operator, short wave 
listener, boat owner, and others who want an accurate dependable clock. 

Price: $30.00 Amateur net. 




Now... more than ever™ 
the TEMPO tine means solid value 



Tempo VHF/ONE 

lh€ "O^f" jre«f W Swcfl waiSiog tor 

$399 ,00 

Md m i ti to «iJt *nY Mmpr ^ Ihtt h iH Hmrtv t^4j *tM ilf«*4<y 4it 
Z-tmUt MMi tttnt iaiti*f#kf NiliH' 4r r^w^Nil AMAiAf At i*n#ii 
|fii» If. Hii VHfiONE i% IN: wrr la v^. 

• Fvh 3 -wtw b«n# maj p < t44 ta T'lS late tw itwmjh 

riiii^il imi ll^liMtflll -^l-t" tvt ■ T"'*Ma ■ IJi" Imj^. ftvihi ^ 

Jllhful 4Jf %k. ■ P*Q¥ti4«<ifl im «n ke^bwv SSB msptaf . ■ l)44yt LAP 

* AulorfMtic rtpBilH ipJ^I — i^laenbli up 4« iJjimiii Tqi ngirfiMP Of irt^^tl* 
Dparitian, ■ M\iJiffit^or\»,ptm«t eot4 4ncl pnoMlPkng bf|$hfl1 IfwIIIilKld. « 
Th'U' buiHt in [irtjqi*miTuh4i Ehj«iii*li.. -■ AlL lallil luik. > lO^^^lfl auij^lft ' 
Kupir iRliPii-vi-tV W'th ■ -nrv^til lllli^ ii th> l<rEt tf- ami' h tVfMi iMfj|i*iNC Irlr*) 
al lhi-HC4ifii1 4F ■ ■QO SitaEbibltt rmcaiva frAquBdoiia. ^ Accwppf V V'1><n 




$199.00 

Sflhctrfgki UFif]*' or lowir lUibiml. ' Fliifi ■Ilra[jl4v iniil- thp 
VHF.i=anfl with iid iTiDdpriul Iqpi . ■ Nuhi mank-ir buitt-^n. ■ HiTjiHi 
VXG loT JluN tiialtunirv dimrif* ' 



ATLAS 350-XIi 




ALL SOLID STATE 
SS&TBANSCEJVER 



^0 WATTS PEP. OR CW INPUT 
10 THROUGH 160 
METER COVERAGE 




ittu5trated with 
optmnal AC supply^ 
AuKJIJary VFO, and 
Digital DiaL 

Th« all naw Atla^ 3 50 -XL has aU the exciting naw features yo\i 
want, plus supetioi' performajice and ii^lectivity eontvol never b€foi% 
possible^ 

• 10-160 METERS 

Full cover^&ge of aU six amateiur t>ftnd5 in 500 kHz segments. Primary 
:&ie<iuency control provides highly stable operation. Also included is 
provision for adding up lo 10 ttdditlonal &6o kHz segfiients between 
2 lo 22 MHz by plugging in auxiliary crystals. 

• 350 WATTS 

P^E^P, and CW input. Enough power to work the world barefoot! 

IDEAL FOR. DESKTOP OR MOBILE OPERATION 

Measuring just 5 in. iiigh x 12 in. wide x 12V^ in. de#p, and weighing 
only 13 pounds, the Atlas 350*XL offers more features, perfor* 
mance and value than any other transceiver, re£ardless of siie, on 
the market today f 



• SELECTIVITY CONTROL 

This amazing new breakthrough in filter design is truly the filter of 
the future. Selectivity control on the front panel provides control of 
bandwidth as weli as selection of upper or lower ^deband, or double 
sideband. Continuously variable from 300 to 2700 Hz bandwidth. 
Shape factor is better Uiaji 1.7 « with ultimate rejection better than 
130 dB. Selectivity for SSB can be set for maximum voice fidelity at 
2700 Hz bandwidth, providing transmission and reception of audio 
from 300 to 3000 Hz, or it can b€ narrowed down to 2400, 2100 or 
even 1500 Hz if necessary to reduce adjacent channel QRM. 
Selectivity can be narrowedi gradually to as little as 300 Hz tot CW 
reception. 

This amazine new breakthrough in fOter design is by Bob 
Crawford and Eckert Argo of Consulting Engineers. Atlas Radio is 
privileged to be first to offer this * programmable filter'' in the radio 
communication field and for sometime to come will be th« only 
one. 

• receiver INCREMENTAL TUNING 

• audiofrequency notch FILTER 

• push TO TALK 

• VOX OPERATION 

• full break-in CW operation 

MODEL 350-XL ....,*,,,-,,,,,- .*.,.. $995 

• digital dial readout 

The AHa^ 350- XL ha» space provided for ctuick installation of this 
plug^in accessory. Provides precise frequency readout within 50 H2, 
AU L,E*D. Dot Matrix 6 digit display. 
DD6-XL digital DIAL ---,-.--.., , , „ .$195 

• PLUG-IN AUXILIARY VFO or CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR 

Auxiliary VFO is plugged into the space provided on the front panel 
of the 3 50- XL. You have a second tuneable VFO with same timing 
rmnges as primary VFO for tuning to a separate transmit or receive 
frequency. LElDs indicate which VFO, primary or secondary, will be 
used for receive and transmit. 

Or instead of the auidliary VFO a Crystal Oscillator may be 
plugged into the front panel. Eleven crystal sockets are available 
with a vernier control for ejtact frequency setting. 

MODEL 305 AUXILIARY VFO $155 

MODEL 311 AUXILIARY CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR ,..*,, .$133 

• 350-PS MATCHING AC SUPPLY 

Includes front facing speaker and phone jack, Provides 14 volts 
filtered and regulated D,C. for both low current and high cturrent 
circuits of the 250* XL. Internal space provided for future installa* 
tion of accessories such as CW Keyer, Speech Processor, Phone 
Patch, etc. Operates on 10O-130 or 200-260 volts, 50-60 Hz , ,fl95 

• same PLUG4N-AND-GO MOBILE FEATURE AS OUR 
FAMOUS 2103G/215X 

The 350'XL has its own optional Mobile Mounting Bracket for 1 
quick, easy plug^in or removal from your car. All cortnection* are 
made automatically ,...,,,,,,,,,,,...,.«.,,,..,,,.,,. ,SS5 

• atlas 210x/2153C SSB TRANSCEIVERS 

Our famous little compact SSB Transceivers remain a v«ry impor- 
tant part of our product line ,,,,,,,...,,.,,,,,.,,,,,„, ,S679 
With noise blanker installed ,.,.., ^ ,,,..,,,._.....,.. , .$719 










•to. 114 sc-oos - 



«fM-«iajB 



1t4-3aJ40^ - 






NYE VIKING SPEED*X KEYS 

NYE VIKING Standard Speed' X keys feature smooth^ adjustable 
bearings, heavy Hi uty silver contacts, and are mounted on a heavy 
oval die cast base with black wrinkle finish. Available with 
standard, or Navy knob^ with« or without switch, and with nickel 
or braas plated key arm and hardware. 

Pamper yourself with a Gold-Plated NYE VIKING KEY! 
Model No. 114-31C-004GP has all the smooth action features of 
NYE Speed-X keys in a special ^^presentation" model. All 
hardware is heavily gold plated and it is moimtedon onyj£4ikejet 
black plastic sub -base. Ll&t price is $50.00. 





NYE VIKING SQUEEZE KEY 

Extra-long, finger-fitting molded paddles with 
adjustable spring tension, adjustable contact 
flpacmg. Knife-edge bearings and extra large* 
gold plated silver contacts! Nickel plated bra$i 
hardware and heavy, die cast base with 
non-skid feet. Base and dust cover black 
Ciackle finished- SSK-1 — $23.45. 
SSK-ICP has heavily chronie-plated base and 
dust cover. List price* $29.95. 

You get a sure, smooth, Speed-X model 
310^001 transmitting key, linear circuit oscillator and amplifier, with a 
built 4n 2" speaker^ aU mounted on a heavy duty aluminum base with 
non-skid feet. Operates on standard 9V transistor type battery (not 
included). List price. SI 6. 50, 

PHONE PATCH Model No. 250-46*1 measures 6-1/2" wide, 2-1/4" 
high and 2-7/8'' deep. List price, $36.50. Model 250-46*3, designed for 
use with transceivers having a built^n speaker, has its own built-in 2" x 
6" 2 watt speaker. Measures 6-1/2" wide, 2-1/4** high and 2-7/8'' deep. 
List price, $44.50. 



Me. SSK-1 



CODE PRACTICE SET 







Gain (ov^e i&otropic 



• Model TA^ 3 

• 3 Elements 

• 1(1.1 db For waif d 
source) 

• 20 db FEont-tO'Back Ratio 

The Mosiey TA-33, 3-<ileinent beam provides 
outstanding 10., 15 and 20 meter perfor- 
mance. Exceptionally broadband — gives 
excellent results over full Ham bandwidth. 
Incorporating MosJey Famous Trap-Master 
traps. Power Rating — 2KW P,E.P. SSB. The 
TA-33 may also be used on 40 meters with 
TA-40KR conversion* Complete with hard- 
ware- $198.15 

MULTI-BAND BEAMS 

TRAP MASTER 33 . * , 10, 15 & 20 Meters 

• Model TA-33Jr. 

^ 3 Elements 

V 10^1 db Forward Gain (over isotKopic 
source) 

• 20 db Front-to*Back Ratio 

The TA-33Jr . . . incorporates Mosley Trap- 
Master Junior traps. This is the low power 
brother of the TA-33. Power Rating — 1 KW 
P.EJ. SSB. $144.45 




TA«33JR. POWER CONVERSION KIT 
MODEL MPK-3 

Owners of the Mosley Trap-Master TA-33Jr, 
may obtain higher power without buying an 
entirely new antenna. The addition of the 
MPK-3 (power conversion kit) converts the 
TA-33Jr. into essentially a new antenna with 
7 50 watts AM/CW and ZOOO watts P,EP. 
SSB, $49.65 




TRAP MASTER 36 



10, 15 & 20 Meters 




MOSLEY AK^O MAST PLATE ADAPTER 
Mast Plate Adapter for adapting your Mosley 
IW* mounted beam to fit 2" CD mast. 
Complete with angle and hardware. $9.85 



• Model TA-36 

• 6 Elements 

• Forward Gain (over isotropic souiee) - 10.1 
db on 15 & 20 meters, 11.1 db on 10 
meters. 

Front-to-Baek Ratio on all bands. 20 db. 
This wide-spaced, six element configuration 
employs 4 operating elements on 10 meters^ 3 
operating elements on 15 meters, and 3 
operatrng elements on 20 meters. Automatic 
bands witching is accompii«ihed through 
Mosley exclusively designed high Impedance 
parallel resonant "Trap Circuit.'^ The TA-36 is 
designed for 1000 watts AM/CW or 2000 
watts P,E.P. SSB. Traps are weather and dirt 
proofs olfering frequency stability under all 
weather conditions. $32^.35 




NATION AL RADIO COMPANY, INC. 

NRCI 





NCL-2000 

Linear AmpUfier. A full 10 Db gain. 20 watts 
in 2000 watts out. Can be driven with one 
watt. Continuous duty design utilises two 
B122 ceraiiiic tetrode output tubes, designed 
for both AM and SSB operation. The industry 
standard for 12 years. Thousands in use all 
over the w&rld. Price: $1^200 



NCX-1000 

The only lOOO watt, "single package" trans- 
ceiver. Heavy duty design . * . results of 50 
years of design leadership in amateur equip- 
ment. State of the art speech processing, 
linear amplifier^ power supply^ all in one 
package. Nothing extra to buy. Covers all 
amateur bands in HF spectrum , , , AM, SSB, 
CW. Price: $1,600 




CLASSIC-33 ... 10, 15 *= 20 Meters 
Model CL-33 

• 3 Elements 

• 10.1 db Forward Gain (over isotropic 
source) on all bands. 

• 20 db Front-to-Back Ratio on 15 &; 20 
meters, 15 db on 10 meters. 

BRIDGING THE GAP . . . The Classic 33, 
combines the best of two Mosley systems. 
Incorporating Mosley Classic Feed System for 
a "Balanced Capacitive Matching*' system 
with a feed point impedance of 52 ohms at 
resionance, and the Famous Mosley Trap- 
Master Traps for * 'weather-proof* traps with 
resonant frequency stability. This extra 
sturdy multi-band beam. Model CL-33, for 
operation on 10, 15 Sc 20 meters features 
improved boom to clement clamping, stainless 
steel hardware, balanced radiation and a 
longer boom for even wider elenient spacing. 
Power Rating — 2 KW P.E.P. SSB. Recom- 
mended mast size — 2" CD. Wind Load — 120 
lbs. at 80 MPH. Appro X. shipping weight — 45 
lbs. $223.90 




CLASSIC-203 . . . 20 Meters 
Model CL<203 

3 Elements 

• 10.1 db Forwiurd Gain (over isotropic 
source) 

• 20 db Front-to -Back Ratio 
Incorporating the Mosley patented Classic 
Feed System, this full si^e 20 meter single- 
band beam has IVa" to 3/8" dia. '^swaged" 
elements wide spaced on a 2" dia, 24^ boom. 
Maximum element length-37* 8W*. The high 
standards in equality construction established 
by Mosley in over a quarter -century of manu- 
facturing is reflected in this mono -band . . . 
Model CL'203. Boom-to-mast clamping 
assurer stability with a time- tested arrange- 
ment of mast plate, cast aluminum clamping 
blocks and stainless steel U-bolts, The exclu- 
sive "Balanced Capacitive Matching" System 
i^as a nominal feed point impedance of 52 
Ohms at 2 KW P.E,P. SSB. Recommended 
mast &izc-2" O.D. Approx. shipping wfc: 42 
lbs, via truck. $227.65 




CLASSlC-36 ... 10, 15 J£ 20 Meters 
Model CL-36 

• 6 Elements 

• 10.1 db Forward Gain (over isotropic 
source) on 15 & 20 meters, 11.1 db on 10 
meters. 

• 20 db Front -to-Back Ratio on all bands. 
The Classic 36, like the smaller Classic 33, 
incorporates both the Mosley Wo rid -Famous 
Trap-Master Traps and the Mosley Classic 
Feed'System. Designed to operate on 10, 15 
& 20 meters^ this multi-band beam Model 
CL-36, employs the high standards of quality 
construction found in aU Mosley products. 
The boom -to -ma St clamping assures stability 
with a time-tested arrangement of mast plat«^ 
cast aluminum clamping blocks and stainless 
steel U-boits. The exclusive "Balanced Capaci- 
tive Matching" system has a feed point 
impedance of 52 ohms at resonance. Wind 
Load — 210.1 lbs. at 80 MPH. Power Rating 
— 2 KW P.E.P. SSB. Recommended mast size 
^2" OD. Approx, shipping weight — 71 lbs, 
via truck. $298.50 




40 METER CONVERSION KIT MODEL TA- 

40KR 

Work 40 meters in addition to 10, 15 & 20 
meters by using a TA-40KR conversion kit on 
the radiator element of the TA-33 and TA-36. 
(Beams with broad band capacitive matching 
may not be convert edl) Convert the TA-33Jr, 
with the MPK-3 (power conversion kit) before 
adding the TA-40KR kit. $88.45 



SIGNAL-MASTER ANTENNA 
Beam Antenna . . . Model S-402 for 40 meters 
For a top signal needed to push through forty 
meter QRM, the Mosley Signal Master S-402 
will do the trick! This 100% rust-proof 
2 -elenient beauty constructed of rugged 
heavy-wall aluminum is designed and engi- 
neered to provide the perforniance you need 
for both DX hunting and relaxing in a QRM 
free rag-chewing session. Beam is fed through 
link coupling, resulting in an excellent match 
over the entire bandwidth. S 25 7. 50 



6 METER BEAMS 




3-S-6-10 ELiMENTS 

Prpvun ijerformanee fifom rugged, iuU ^i?:e, G meter beams. 
Kitsmwu apaciitgfj and Icfl^shave been carefwHy litigineered to 
give best pattem, high fgrifc-ard gain^ food front to back ratio 

an J Lroad. frnsquency resfjonse. 

Booms are .OSfl wall ar»d Cilt>ijients &re 3/4" - S/S" ,049 wall 
seairileE.^ (.-hr^ime tjntsh aluminuin tTiTjlng. The 3 and 5 eLemcnL 
bBEiTiQa })if.v*i 1 'S/S" - t 1/4" booms. ThoSaiitl iGelcmerti heim^j 
have ] 5/6" - 1 i/2"' booms. All braukcts arti hcH'vy gauge 
[ormed alumiuuui. Bright finltjhuad ^liJ.tudiit^Qits:ir(^aiiju&t»bi%!' 
fof uji Lo 1 5/!*" mid I on a and 5 tflemtnt and 2'^ on 6 a-iad iO 
ek'^ineni; tn^iiniBy AH models may be mounted for horizontal or 
vertical poEarizatlon. 

aefw features Include adjustable length elements, kilowatt tteddl 
Match and built" in eo&x fitting lor direct $2 ohm feed. The^e 
b^ama are factory marked i^wA gijpplE*5d with in^tructicing ior 
quick assembly. 



Description 


3c;^emclrt 


5 element 


{> eEement 


itJ element 


r^odei Mq 


A50^3 


A5(V5 


A.M-fi 


ASOlO 


Boofvi Lriytfi 


6' 


12' 


2Q- 


24' 


Longest E'i. 


Ul" 


117" 


117" 


117" 


TuTfl Radptii: 


^m 


7' 6" 


ir 


13' 


Fwd. GaNn 


7.5 dB 


6.5 dB 


ll.SdS 


13dB 


F/fi Ratio 


20 de 


24 dB 


26 dB 


?«dB 


Weight 


7 lbs.. 


11 ibi 


IBItJi. 


?5-lbs 



RINGO 
RANGER 

for FM 



t It 



4.5 dB* - 6 dB 
Omnidirectional 

GAIN 

BASE STATJON 

ANTENNAS 

FOR 

MAXIMUM 

PERFORMAMCE 

AND 

VALUE 



Cush Craft has created another first by makingr the 
world's most popular 2 meier antenna twice as good. 
The new RingnJ Ranjfer js developed from the basic 
AE-2 with three half waves in phase and a one eighth 
wave matching atub. Ringo Rang:er giv^a an exti-eniely 
low angle of radiation for bett&r aiiTAat coverag-e. It is 
tunable ovei' a bi*cad frequency range and perfectly 
matched to 52 ohm coax. 

ARX-2. 137-160 MHz. 4 lbs.. 112'^ 
ARX'^aO, 220-325 MHz, 3 lbs.. 75" 
ARX-450, 43S-4S0 MHz, 3 lbs., 39" 

* Rtf«rene4 H wave dipoie- 

** Ref«rena« M wave whlip uBed as g^n standar^d by maj^y 
mftJlHfacturftra. 

Work full quieting into more repeateis and extend the 
radiu:^ of your direct contacts with the new Ein^fO 
Han^tr. 

You t&ii up date your present AR-2 Ringo with the 
simpEe addition of this extender kit. The kit intlucles 
the phasing network and necessary elemeiit extensions. 
The only modifications required are easy to make saw 
^lits in the top section of your antenna. 

ARX^2K CONVERSION KIT 



2 METER 

ANTENNAS 




Ugn urtUi 1-1 EWH. FM:tarv preasBenibled &nd F»d.d^ U> InsLa]], B ni^ter 
partly (jreaEflembled, all but 4S0 MHz i.akB I ^" mtt^i- Th*f^ m^ mw* lUnE*^ 
in tiBC thun ail otJier FM 4Ani;cEwi^ cOrttfewiitd. 



Mod^E Number 


Ait-S 


Afi-Stfi 


AK^ 


AR-iiQ 


AJt-iOO 


Pruguen-cy MMi 


135. ITS 


155-175 


aa^i 


320-22/; 


llDHfifi 


rower—Hdlif. Watts 


100 


so« 


la^ 


IM 


350 


Wljid ^n!a Kq. ri, 


.21' 


.21- 


37' 


J^O' 


.10- 



B-* POtE Op Ls B ttH Gniu nv^r a Vj w*v« dippl? Overall antmana- Iwyrth 
]4lf MHs — £S' iiO MHs - IS'. 43S MHz - *■. pjitteiTi SBO^ a da gain, 
im" - Jt <1B R-Bin, 82 ohm fe*d tak^si PI^ 239 rrmn^tijir, Prwhaff^^ icn-Judea i 

CDERpl^te dLpOl« flSS£ll)11lieif on lE^iMll^tLlfl^ bG£rJ]l^, Iciirn^ss ?LfUi ^41 h^^rdv^lLr^. 

AFM-iD Hi ' tM MHe, J00& w&tta, wLfmJ arw 2.58 Sq, fl 
AplVt-2'lD 2m^22S Mtif, imo wattB, ivtrul area 1.35 sq. ri_ 
APM'4'U> a:^-4^ mux lOlJQ wa4t9, wind annk 1,1 a sq. ft 

D-PDWEH PACK TliB b% Signal (32 element &«ayi fur :i mcHer FM. tises 

iiAfg AllT'ii yjijris wltti a hoi'iEonUI mokintlnjr boom. MJ^iMlaJ riasmets atirt 
^ hardware. FuirwjiPd ^ujit If dB, l-V'S j'ulant 24 d£i, H (Wiwtr- iM^jLFnwIdth 
4^", dEtnenstims 144'' ?;S0"'k40", Cufn rsdiusi ^'', weight l£ Iba.., 52 ohm leed 
tAkea PL-3a9 Uttint'- 

A147'2:^ 14Q - 149, fiCUz, IDVO Wattfl, Wind arta 2.42 .^. ft. 

D-VAOI S-TACK1NG KITS VFK jnckide^ horkzontjil mauntiii^ bovtil. hjlme^, 
hard^vHT^ rand inFtnjuritioiiiH: for Itw^ vtrtlunHy |)gila±ti*ci I'LijfMi jtfLvea 3 dB gain 
over tl^e aJj^gkc iUjteFtfu. 

A14-VFK. <!<;in3plete 4 eJement iiEochin^ kit 

AH-S'K. 4 element coiu: hanic»« only 

AilT-^VPH. con)))Eete U eletnent stachan^ kit 

Al4"J-aK. 11 oiamenl «Nik Jinrrnar? uitty 

A449-S]i, ^i;4r 1^ etement coax hamess «nly 

E-4-6-!1 EL£UENT VAC 15 The stttEidardl of •cvmpanson in VHF-UHF ciam- 
mimJcatlDiia, novf cut fur FM jitiQ. vtft.lcs\^ poLiiJ-li£^tiuij^. Thit four ^md ^ln; «Jt' 
nj^nl TnOdeU rrin be E-ciwi^r ^ide mciuntcd. All ar« rAt«d at lAOQ watts wJth 
direct i-t O'hm leed aEid I^L^^Q!^ ccjciciect^r'^. 



Model NLiinbeiT 
Boum/Lotijireail el«, 
Wjrht./Tiim rad]UE 
Gain 'r/B fatlc dB 

WiR(3 »!"«& jaq ft, 



A147-]l 

6 ibii.. vr 
4e' 

1.2-1 



A-HTH 

3 ll>a_ 44" 

66 = 
.43 



A^tB-U 

«0'VI3" 
4 Its., ftO" 

4e" 



A44e^« 

3 lbs., 13" 

11/35 

60* 



a2:ed-ii 

Hra'V26" 
6 IbB.. 61" 

ia.2;/2fl 

.00 



fVeqLii>nC3' M3ii U$-14a I^e-HR 410-450 41pW50 2:£D-2ZS 

F.FM TWIST 1^-4 da Gain; 't^n elemeHta borlzcmbal poLarLEat^Q-n C4r tow 
end tflVBTHR-c and ten eiBm.[fntfl vcrtacfil pijli»Ti?atltin for PM t^ov^Hijjt. Foi^ 
ward ^AEEL 1^.4 dB, F 'B nitio S2 dE. b£>otn lenj[;tli 13A", w'^-ight 10 II>j., Ititi^est. 
element W, Mf ohm H*ddl Mabch dnvcn clern^riU tjLfce PV359 cflFunectorfl, 
u^ts two iiepar-^iie F««d llci'e^. 

AJ 41-^07 J'lft- HT MHz, IDDO watta. wind area l.'1,& aq. ft. 



HIGH PERFORMANCE 
VHF YAGIS 




3/4 , I-V4, 2 METER BEAMS 



The staodktd of cynmpiirisoti in amateur VHF/LIHJI' com™ un tea- 
t-lons CuBh Craft ysgis cm? nib in e all out performance and reUn- 
bilily with uplLniUim slzp for eaat: of iiss-embly und rrioiintingf iit 
your git^. 

LtghtweiirhE yet rugged, Uit' antt^nnais hmve 3/tB'* O-'fii: sotld 
aluminum elements with &/16" ctitn«?r sscti^n-g mounted un heavy 
duty Inrmcd brack el h. Uuom.S are \" land T/S" O. D. aluminum 
tuhinff. Mast mrturtls of i/ij"' formed aJMmlnum tiStve udjuuUibtL- 
u-bo!ls for up tfl 1-1/2" (),ll^ timfits. Th«y ■oan be mpunted 
for horiz,ontal or vertJcol pHjlariaatinn. t:omplele instructions 
include data on 2 meter FM rei^ttater cjpc ration, 

N*w ftntiirtB iticludo Q kilcfwatt Hcdd:l M3tch far direct 52 uhm 
COfixlat iin^ with ii isLilntiiird PL-li5SJ fitting, Al! elfimunts are 
4^paced at «2 wavt^iLingtli nnd t^per^ tat improved bundVi'ictth. 



1 



Model No 


A144-7 


C jscritHlorv 


7m 


£iement$ 


7 


Besom Ln^thi. 


90' 


Wl^lCjIlE. 


4 


?\n6. G^in 


1 1 d& 


F/B Ratio 


T^dB 


F^. Lobe la) 




'/z p((WT. pt. 


^. 


SWR ^ Fr*q. 


1 ED T 



AT44 11 


A220 n 


A430 n 


2m 


li^m 


lim 


Tt 


11 


11; i 


144" 


lor 


■sr^' 


E 


4 


:3:- 


13 de 


13 dB 


13 dB 


2SdS 


2Sd0 


^dB 


42- 


4? 


42 


1 10 1 


1 to 1 


1 1o 1 










VHF/UHF BEAMS 
A50-3 $ 32-95 A 144-7 

A 50-5 49.95 A 144-11 

A50^6 69.95 A430-1 1 

A50-10 99.95 

AMATEUR FM ANTENNAS 



A1474 $ 19B5 



A147 n 
A147-20T 
A 147-22 
A220-7 
A220-1 1 
A449-6 
A449-1 1 
AFM^D 
AFM'24D 



29.95 
54.95 
84.95 
21.95 
27.95 
21.95 
27.95 
59 B5 
57.95 



AFIV1'44D 

AR-2 

AR-6 

AR-25 

AR-220 

AR-450 

ARX-2 

ARX-2K 

ARX-220 

ARX-450 




21.95 
32.95 
24.95 



54.95 
21.95 
32.95 
29.95 
21.95 
21.95 
32.95 
1 3.95 
32.95 
32.95 




De»ci'1ptiiQn: 
20 E Icment 

DX-ArFJV 
flying & Harne^bs 

440 ^.1 
Frame ^ Namese 

4eO ELI 
1 -1 52-ohm botLm 
Vtart. Pol. BrecfeBi 

JJDEI.) 



14'»MHe, 

OXK-140 59.95 
PKK-ieCl 1Q0.aS 



£20 MHz. 
Model: Price: 

DX-22D 37.9S 

DXK.-240 64.35 

DXK-?aQ 89-55 



433 M Hi. 
Mffdel: RfiDa' 

DX43l> 32.95 

DXK44a 39,9& 

DXK480 79.35 
DX-4BN 12.95 



OX-VPB 955 DX-VPB ^i*6 DX-VPB 955 




■v\-:'^>Hf.^j^>; 



For all you hams with litUe cars .. 

We've got the perfect mobile rig for you. 





Th9 Alias 21 Ox or Z15^ in&B9ur«s uniy 

BVi' wide X ■9Vi' daep x only 3'^' hieh. yel 
tha.fihM^VS photograph shows how eaaily ihe 
Altaa treiiJScoifVQr ulg intu a compiacl Caf, 
Anri Ih6re''a plenly of roora to iSpafo for 
VHF gear &np. other ncceaBOry eqitipajOiU- 
WLUi the Qxclu&ivB Atlas plug^in design, 
you can slip your Atlns in and ual Of yOuf 
car in ^ mjittor of seconds. All conned tO:aa 
are in^de akiEoinatiicaJlv. 

Birr DONT LET THE SMALL 512E FOOt 
YOU! 

Even thuuith tht; Atlus 21Dx and 21Sx trans- 
ceiver^ Fjinj l^iSH iIlhh linlf the wizb finii 
weight of <nhfl]' HF irtinsiceiwBfS. The Alius 
lA truly a Mi^^' Inp^^rfurmisnc^e^. 

200 WATTS POWER RATtNG! 
This power iavel it? a seven pKiutid Srans- 
coEver is incredible t>ijt true. Atks lrau»- 
t^eivers give voj alt the talk puw^;J' you need 
|q work the wotkl IsQCflfocjt, Signal f^pdrls 



eoiistantJy taflsp( yreat surprisfi ftt Iha sig- 
nal Atr^tigih in relfilion tnthg pc^w^r rE^iiit^. 

FULL 5 SAND COVERAGE 

Th« 210k covers lO^eO melars, while Iha 

21 5x covers 15-160 meters. Adding iha 
Atlas Model lOx Crystal OsRillalar provides 
Ureally increased frequency coverase for 
MAftS and ny]w[]f Ic.Ofhefaticjit, 

NO TH AXSMITTER TUNING OR 
LOADING CONTROLS 
with Alias' lotaJ broddhHiidLni?. With yauc 
Atlas y(Du get Lrtsiani Qf^Y and band dmn^s. 

MOST ADVANCTD STATE OF THE ART 
SOLID STATE OLSfGN 

nol only ac<:Diin1:^ for il& ligtii ^oight, inf\ 
asHurss you years of top psrfsjrnitinc'S ynd 
ttoubltj free Operating pleasure, 

FLUG4N OSCXIT BOARDS 

and modular design provides for ease of 

servicing;, 




T 



T" 



iir 4FV*<Illll^ tn -T^IfKin^ tP'J 
i4ri-Lrri«.' U^flHS^y '^itliDu'l 



FILTEH 4iillJilr4 A>ii] af*,r 
llin^ III in AlUi. triiilCMiih' 

ISI.'PfKlOA TO ANh' (jTHIF 
jflLFbR tJtSMHt TffOwn 



EXCEPT^O^'AL IMMUNITY TO STRONG 
SIGNAL QVBRLOAD AND CROSS MOIh 
ULATION^ The ^Kclu^ivg front and deaigti 
in ihct racfttv^^r ylkiwH yi.i'ii In apt^r^hi iihihii^r 
in. frcquii-ncv Eo EStro-ng i^tQighborin^ ^ij^iUiln 
than ynu have over Qxperioncod b^^rora, U 
VGu have not yel operaind An Adfts trans- 
ceiver in a crowded hiind and compared it 
with any other receiver or troiLsceiver, you 
have a real thrill comirkg. 




A WORLD WIDE DEALER NETWORK TO 
SEKVE YOU. 

Whelher you're driving a HondB in Kansae 

City Or a Mnrcodcs 0enx in Wfisl G^sntiany, 
there's an Atlaa daaler natir you. 



S^jhj^v^^te*"^*^' 



14 Qi 



ALUs 21i}x t!i aiTiK 
Ift'/i^oiEe Blanker . . . 
ACCESSORIES; 
AC Cujiiiulc l\0fT2Q 
PorUMe AC $uppt).' 1 
Piuc-lR MobilE! Kit . 
1 Ux O^c. legits cry^tia.E!j. 
I>igitiil Clihl DD'6B 



V 



. 719.00 

tl47.00 
. 1 1«>.00 
. . 4B.00 

, , 5&,oo; 

. a 29.00 



PHENOMENAL SELECnvrTY 

Th« ext:luBive B pule crystal ladder fitter 
used in Atlas transceivers repreaerUs a 
major brortkihrfm^l] in filter dfieiti^^^ with 
unprflCftdHjrjttiii skirl j^EiJticiiivily iind d1- 
limfile rQjentJOTi. Aa 11]+:^ Jrtljnvii jijraph fihowt;, 
ihia fiilar providos a 5 dl) bandwidth of 
2700 Uerlt, 60 db down of only 4300 ifcrtz. 
and a bandwidth of only ^200 Hertz ai 120 
db down! Li'llimate rejeclion is in excess of 
i^Q db^ greater than ihe nsoo^LLring limits 
of most tesi equipment- 



For camplete details sec your Alle^ d^^aler, 
rnr th-ttp Via a card and we'lE mail you a 
br&f!hij|pe with dealer list. 



4^X ATLAS 

"^S^ RADIO IJSiC. 




mounts -leads -accessories 





BBLTrtM 




STANDARD GAIN 
MOBILES 

Twa Meters 

- 5/ft wflwlernjth — i.4 *ib gain 

' P*wir fsting—ZM wat(* fR^ 

WOOEL iBLT-1** 
47' an^nn^ cjomplste ^u'th Ita^y 
to inslall. no fwica to drill, tfutlfc I8H4HI 
lip meupTt. riTrtpac! sprinff and it 
MJL spec RGrSg-d and PL-ZS*. 
AnEjenha iTimOtflitle from mount. 
Price £33 .7S 
MODEk B6L 144 

-47* anEenna mcKjnt^ on any 1\^\ 

'Mirf#C«. rDol, dack or tensfftf an 

U" (wl«. Inclucfe^a impiite ^rinff. 

17' MIL SPEC RC-Sa-U and FU-SlSf. 

Anti:iriha ^inGva<b)fi Frctn maune 

Pticar $31.fl5 
HUSTLER 
'^BUGK'BUSTER" 

HDOEL SF-^ 

51" t¥ro m*tffr, &,'S waveien^h, 
3,4 db gain ^^ver 1/4 wave mobile. 
Dealftned witti ^"-?4 bijie ?ii fjl 
your mount ur a wlric! H^li^i^ilion 
Of Hustler mobiJfi moirnts, 
^tfloiitn Of ub-le not Ji^cludtd}. 

DELUXE MQStL^ MOUNTS 

Fiirir*a)ym tength. Iqii!< ni^igM fliittmnai *ith 



SUPER GAIN 
Two Meten 



MOBILES 



iP-l 



KFT 



5.2 db jjalTi {j^eFl^^waw mobl'te 
ftnfeinna 

FrflQuefK^ ■MjiiBrefiBh— 14^^1*9 
Mh/ 

5WR at rxraonan^ie— i,l;l lypical 

Pcf*Br tal img-JOQ watts fM 

TWO AND S1K MOERS— 

TflUMK LtP MOUNT 
MODEL HFT 

Four tMtion ts^scDpic a-nienna 
perntit^ ^parate BdiuStment l^t 
^muHar^9i)ii^ feson^ancB On two 
artd Brn meters. Qperatfonnl 
heictiC: 4ir- C^iiip^s with UurM 
lip mount. iT' MH ^PEC RG-53-U- 
and factory alt*iihed PL-2S3. 

Pnct: S22.55 
VHF/UHF ANTtifW*— 

WOPEt UKT-I 

Fl'«ld trimmable radiator for 1/4 
wave DperatFDn on any frequency 
from m to SW MHz.CuitJnffciisii 

in(;1u(iftJ. lyioMrns on any flsl Suf- 
fice, I'ooP. dack, fentter irt li" 
hdle, InDludQs. 15' RG-SE-IJ. 

price: £9.95 



EOT 
.144 



OS 
H4 



UHT-1 



IM 



KiDflTLH 

Trijnh lip nlQU'Vt for 114 
h»5*R instaHaliOn Ofi Stfft 
Of "wige d1 truFiH lid lp»- 
clules I?" f*tS94Ji iDon- 
nA.;^ors aRac!wdL 
Prica:^14.Bi 



UMI 



1^7^' 



MODEL KLM 

C¥lu.«B trimk lip (Kwnl 
-AJth 1^ degree s^i^el 
tu^l for ):i^$i|<Qnir\g t\r\- 
iwm 10 MCftiaii. £«¥ — 
(^ hotes — m&tallafiDn. 

Cdbr^ and conn^tLton 
ittKhKl. PvicaiSIT^O 



EC^M 



A 





TMF 



REKOHATCrn SPftJHC- 
STAINLESS &TEEL 



iJ 



f]0l bij!; signal (jerfaflmance, supe- 
rior recBi/iiiB capabilih^ wFth this 
A^' DoiineBr arttrrm*. EBay fnstal- 
Jatiar\ on &ide or b^J^c of (rt.jnfc lip 
without dTilline — complete with 
t? MIL SPEC ftG-Sa-U und PL^5? 

Prk«LS41.30 



Same cftaracleriitirs as CGT144 
suppllEd ^ith %' -24 base ra fit all 
mo&ile b;tll mounls '.■ Length i^ 
Si~ IVounc ^nd -cable not m- 
C<U[J«1 Price: 535,50 



VttF/UHF ANTEHfiA— 
TRUNK UP MOtltT 
MOPEi THF 

FieJd trimmable radiator permits 
quArfi^r wsMit sp^ratiFun on jit^ 
ir«|u^nc/ IfOrti 140 to -Sffl MHz, 
Cuttinji chaal inducted. ■Con>pleta 
with trunk \ip mftunt, 17' RG-SfrU 
and PL-SI prjcaj S16SS- 



HM 



Ail resonators aje precision wound u'lth 
optimized dissign fot each band. Asscni- 
bl^ Includes 17-7 PH stainless steel 
adjustable tip rod for lowest SWR and 
baiid edge ifnarker. Choose for medium 
or hig]] powei operation. 

STA NO A R D H USTL E R RE SON ATO RS 
Powfir Ratirtg: 400 Watts SSB 

Modol Band Price 

RM-10 10 metiirs $ 6.50 

RM-15 15rTietfir& 6.95 

RM-20 20 meters 7.30 

RM-40 40 meters t3^ 

RM-7S 75 meters 15.50 

RM^O BO meters 15,95 

SUPER HUSTLER RESONATORS 
Power Ratirtg: Legal Limit ^B 
Supers have widsst bandwidth 






4-6tV ' 



i 



RMS 



Mpdel 

RM-10S 
RM-1SS 
RM-2QS 
RM^OS 
RM'75S 
RM^OS 



Band 

10 meters 
15 meters- 
20 meters 
40 meters 
75 meters 
80 meters 



Price 

$11,30 
12.65 
13.00 
15.50 
30.00 
30.40 



: 



For 6-10-1 5-20*40-7 5-80 Meters 



SSH' 




^Q. 



HUSTLED 
MASTS 



The Majority Choice of 

Amateuri 

ttif^ugfiaul the World L 



4J 



STAINLESS STiEL BALL MOUNT 
FOfl OECK, fENDER OR ANY 
fL*.T SURFACE 

MDflEL 5SH-f 



MOQtL GCM-T 

Riin gurttET moui^t fit? 
b1I shapes. ani;t«s ever\ 
lal£fit Irim line £;utte[^. 
Includes l^Q' swivel 
boll. Price-3t0.OO 



Inii-AJlii EjQ^w^fn ^i^ihtlpT rn.ti.-l VTiri 
rBkunxl;igr Alb^prlj? khurh whan .pn. 



iOii' a^iluitl^blv ball 






tipm. 
Wan. 



ErUfiplMlf rinly for V^iy inilghllji- 
1 i 4G 



TfiM^I 



k 



MODEL MM-1 

CdwE rDQunt infiUMj rn 
•f Krtle. Sncludis- 163* 
swivel hall and ^O-^ 
cons^fCtors. 

Mce: sr.eo 



MODEL TCM.1 ii^ 

Trwk gTooMs mount in- 
stalls In Ftiftdrn ^rca of 
rtrw^S und^r trunk lid, 
Muiihiini h^i^dvviJT? in- 
cluded. Pri£6:S3,00 




MODEL C4a 

Ball movni £0mpl!4ie 
with mnmintinR hardws™, 

Pric*: $e.20 




l)6-]<HA 



*liippfrHtT irvy vTTialtv jnpblle iFitannfl. 
iihcfijtf?! cyz^nc ti-i*. ?<e*l Ijn-k-up 

QUICK OISCONN£Ct— 
1M% £TAIHLES$ $TEEL 
MCDEL QD-I 

pritiiflu ^rrng flri* ill pirtl. 1(5^% 
i.+*i»il*i.j. ii*t\ -ki"-?* l;hrs«dQ^ — ••tvbIi 
anK anil, miFi ttt* ctlMr 

Pri£fit$1G^5 
f Ef D LIM£ liOolL \,-U-TM^ 

<^Vt Nni>Viii pkrra-iiniiiL* ih*:iimuin 
4^iel[firVi ifvr nnrninHM-m nili-k* pf::k.Mp 

ui ihif MIL ^i^f. !p ■■nfl.lh i><l ffC-&B.[l 
K«b(c S-vppl'td' wilh •r-Nnrt«v(n»i. *T 
IfrrhrH rijr u^«- ivith birti «r bu'fip*' 

hfltrn-r C<?|inr-ja* fiir Hepejilrr ■jr any 
IlKeU Sialwrl -l>p£rJitic>l', & (TO. i^iili'l 
iDvc-T rj '/V vvqvt lilrpcile' hlJiiimMin 
radlatbtih M lli^ liOnrbhi Shbtt t«d 
wish J>.C Ef'SVridiiTg. R^dM^cif ^ 
w&v? ]uM,Y!r b^cti&ii, '.--J yiAvt ph^&MiiJ, 
^^ w^u^ upppf ^tCtiO-J^. h^tgSit- ] 17" 
^<fffi Hi re^ohnnCR ].2-| or better 
Po*(i*r liU^ 1.000 v^atts FH Wmrt 
^UrMkv^l ICtO MPH tnSrd'K 01^ vCrli 
cal pip* up to l='/t" OIX H0^^^3'j^ 
enaR qfnnftcctnr p^j^^, 5^7.55 



Fcifd onr ma&t for quiok and e»»y 
iriC9r[:tiange of res^naEors or enfering jj 
ftaraij-e. Whsrt sperjling, mjSt is hpid 
vwiicil *ith ShJfiSiiriwP BiwvB diitch. 
&*" nnst iilsa serves as l.M wa«lef»ath 
-6 rrttter antenna ^laitil^^ itt^^l l;^$v 
fia* W4^ Ihrnsd* fp fit mobile bail 
ittowt C|r .bumix-r mcurit 

MODE.L HD-? 

Fw bumprr meuntiiii— fold is at ewjf 

llnft i?" above bftW. PritB: $22.00 ,» 
MODEL MQ^I 

For dfrcitt or tender mounliiHg— fofd is 

.«t E(iof line li" tbo^ but*, price: $33,00 

Cov«ri 10 ' 15 - 20 - 40 Mvtert 
Oilf Huitler Bivfli OntSilttni tti 






^ 



MO-I 



Mo-r ▼ 



MOD£li. f-DTV 

' LiJ*Wt SWP^PLUS, 
■ Bandwrdlh it hts bfoade^r! $WR 
1.& tci 1 or better at band «d^5. 

< Hutfllir tJiclu^lva Irap zOvtn 
■"Sprit" eitrudod to othirHi^ un- 
attainabla cbs? tvls ranees assur- 
ir^ accurate and permflnant tr^p 
rescirtanc» 

• Saiid one inch libcrgljss f rap f onini 
Tpr Dplimum e^eot^ical and me- 
<rnsnrcal sfaisklhty. 

r Extrd hi*^vy dut^ atuminurn miiyii't 
Ing: b'^CMt witn nni io$t — hl^ 

- At! MCtiont 11*4' h*3^ wall, hiitti 

Ltftgth; 2V 5' 
MODEi ^BTV 



ifrength d4ujFiirium. 

■ StainSess steel oramps pcfmlftins 
KJlUStitieni: wjtnagt ?(&rriJ4ii to the 
ffluminum tubi^, 

' tiuafanle«d Ig tie eiflsiesr ^ihtmtiiy 
Qi tf\f rriulti'tuf^ vertical 

ArvKnna ha ^'-^4 stud jt top to 
ftTriigt HM-?5 or flW 7>S 'i-iustier 
resoTia-tor lor ?5 mefeei operBtkm 
wrhrn deiired 
' Tod toadiinE on T5 meters for broad- 
er tkartdAidth and higtier radiation 
effiCkenc^l 

■ Feed wilh any length SO fltirn CM^- 

■ PKM^r capat^ilit>— hjM le|»l limit 
ftfi SSB at CW. 

' M^unfina: Gniund mount wrlft oi 
miihVrut r^dials, ch f^iOt mdunt willi 
radi^ls. 

weight: i± lbs. 

Pfice: S9935 



Super Amp 



from 




Match everything front 16 o to lo 
with the new 160-10 MAT 




MEIM'. Tht MonrljQf Turm^ wm db^t^pied far 

w Hhy w«n»d i 3 hilcN^tt tvicT WfCh « 
ttaMt-ln wattTTiet«t, a front panel dnienra 
HlatlDf lof ccHJi, baliDCKt ba# and randorn 
wif«^ So iM <Tigiii — juj tfi* tSO-lOm MonitcM 
Tunar. tfi a lifvtuTK m w ^Li i i git n $2^.5<X 



$Z99*50 



Jf tht iiniiiUfiiir you'fe thinking af buying doesn't dniivnr At l&oit 10<>0 to 1200 watu Dutput, 
to Ihs sniAnni, you'rn buy my iha wrcng amplifier, 

Qur New Supar Anip It iwtscping the cQuntry becttuii hami ^dvn renlized that the Den Iran 
Amiptifior Will dnlkvAf to the anlenne, j output powiar), what q^thtr Fnntiulaqtui-iirf tate as input 
poiAwr. 

The Sypef Arnp runi a full 2000 warts P.E.P, inpuT on SSB. md 1000 wara DC on CW. RTTY 
or SSTV 160 10 malttrf, the maxirnum iegal power. 

Tha Supar Amip it ootnpAcT, lov prolite. Has a niid ont piao* cafalinst anurtn^ ifiajuraum TVI 

Hw heart of aor mpilfiaF^ Oik power supply, is a oDnunuiHu duty, lall cantainBd itipphv built 

W« maunt*d Tha 4 $72B''«, Incruft7ifl4 mO*'khOf Mi Eulsiim. tfl a CCt^inQ chaiTil:vir fe^Wring 1h0 
an-damand v^iifeilt cooling isyttem. 

The h^Bi M DtnTtoo pttiie tt^fmi^vm on qu^iftty vfOri:.. l|id «• it^T to hMp pnon down. TliM'i 
■ihv tfl* thrnatnK GtenTron Unaar Ampfifet Iwats tham di 





SuperTutter 



5574. 50 

Th€ 60-10 Sfc^^matcher 

Hm't an inttnfii tttn^ tvr BD ihrchj^ TO matan, bartdi*« 500 «r P. E^.P, and maicties your 
52 ohm Iramcfliivr la a random wira ^teni% 





• Continuouf tuning 3^ ■ 30 mc 

• "L" rwlworft 

- Cffamic 12poiition fDtBfv iwttch 

• SO -239 rtc^fsriiOnrtr tD tr^nstnitter 

• Rbndarn wire Euner 

' 3000 volt capscitor ipactng 

■ TappiKJ Induc^ior 

» OarNniic tinteiin^ t^d thru 

- 7" W. 5" H. 6" D., Weiflhi: Q Ibi. 



559.50 



Rtfflil forward 
and reflected 

watts at the 
same time 



Tif^ «f ^xftunt iMitizhinji and guftLSiMvk? 

E:iary lavkout Him koOMn Ik' moit fcad txith torvratd «nd itHAM wntt,!^ Nmultanaomiy 

tor thai parf aci maidi. So uii^rade Midi llw DKiTron W-2 Dual m Itna Wattmalar. 



S99'50 



Tbt OanTron Supar Tuner tunet vwiyiNtrigi Iram fSO-iO rnatHn. VMh«tiwr volt hava 
batwioe^ hn«^ coax c«ible. rjinG^oiTi> or long wtrt, iht Supci Tunflr will match tha tmtvnni 
impvd'^rioA ra your tiansffutnar All OlfiTton tunvii giv? you rn^ximum pQiM«f [r,arll1ar 
fr^m Your trvifiTurter to your animna. mid isn't that t^fiarv it raaily counti? 



1 KW MOOCL 



S1Z9'S0 



3KWMCX>EL 



5229.50 



The Shy 
Openers 



1 



StCVMASTETf 

A imtiw m — Ifipjrt and triad ZT 
m&ntmi Jit iMM M ttrtfi mu« Id. 1& TflL 
misao M«npv bw^t uia^otyv on* d«Hrtir 
i^^nd hbvi Irap- A tiia t f^ '^w*m wManna 
en 30 iPKttn. Cofstnietad of ficct'v wa w* 
litn aiunufiuiii iwtli i factn'v tunad ■id 
iMlKt HiQ Tr^ii. SKVIAASTEfl ■ m^Om 
t0 tftfl u«] HiifttEuub «nndi u|i la B mph. 
Hdn^H ? KW p«iwMf l«v«l *nd u M 
ytttintf, *(wl t}r mwtr meunciitB. Rvdnltt 
inc!iid«d m our law pncv «f 




nm 



564.50 



THIM TEJMNA 

tlw inpnaw i yom I HJ i # i lOH «dl tSH. 

OcnTfon Tnni-Tafww «ndi 30 
iMTBrti^ d r^i^iniil for Hm ifciu iM*jtWii 
•Fniiwt ■A4' «4ini fflHiHtie pr f pf n u it M 
fa Mj piMJi uiiiiMnliBy jHMjkn^twiwi. Hf^ 
naRy l^ibtfl Uj^ fronT th«t*'i * 1 3 taaC 
f men riiHcSBr wlh ppKHion Mv-Cl Ultair 
A04 7 iHt tMjhnnd ii • 16 fool rirt«««' 
■iartiKin lid dtiKltv Hitl) 9^ simt Adii 
tb4 trim TEnnA ■UUllll ■flfilv tnd hAM 
a dHf vrnfl tn WEhk-<*ir part tirrTwn^ b» 
tHMtn 1^* TtitthTtiiM ind thir il»EHlt, 
lenf WTi or h^e^Ted V«« vchj'yl tHUn 
4 A e Fa^wfid Citin 0«*r Dipohl, 



Alio SO rn ■'sian^^cr few lap mDunling on 
aKVIWASTEH, 



529.50 



5129.50 




II 



SKVCLAW 

A tun»U« ntonobind hifh pertOrfmifiu 
««rtkcil ij^tenru. d«iigrHd foi 40, €C. ISO 
PFHi'i oip«r*l!i (rn. SKY CLAW |mi you 

m* t^UtJwii^g t[^gCThiin tfptttm^. 

4M«t*n1 ikHti 




t 



40 

Itaatf and 

dfrt* dMB liW» mM iiTPBitijii 



hfd 



579.50 



ALL BAND DOUBLET 
flA AJl Band PtM4ilflt v unvFUd Trp< 
ttt Viiv 10 nMtw HM 
of 130 hvt ItA pi mm^Nf 
rl ^Hwi^ it RHv b* nwii Mnrtif 
It MMaiatiT Th4 i3iMd f>a^riat n vrin* 
ten fwi 0f 450 oiHfii rvc 

riHifiiwuiwi liiw flu 
H eanfW-eti Add rept 1v Ita 

«fldt Mid ^tK Ll$l IflCD ffWtlOfl TlifK 

t^th em D*flTp«fi Stifat ftMH! and 





pMllJ|!|"*i ■! 



EM1 

Tlw OanTrat EX-t 

for Cliv' i^afTiviiHiKa iP4ddad 
thcEX-laahdl 
% mn. ;n', laH WIBPBftiai 
l a i iim Tha EJ(-1 ■ tm idadl ^miQII 



524.50 




559.50 



Den^OTL. 






DRAKE TVI FILTERS High Paiis Filters for TV Sets 

provide more thikti 40 dB attenuittion at 52 MHz and lower. 
Protect the TV set Erom amateur transmitters 6-1 SD meters. 



Drake TV-300-HP 

Model No. 1603 

For 300 ohm twin lead 

Price: $10.60 



DRAKE TV-a3(M)-LP 

]00D watts maK. below 30 
Mli;^,. Altenuatioti better than 
80 dB above 41 MHz. Hiflps 
TV i*f interference, as well as 
TV front-tnd problems- Price: 
$26.60 Model No. 160S 





Drake TV*7541P 

Model No, 1610 
For 75 ohm TV coaxtaJ 
cable; TV lyp« 
conne-etors installed 
Pnce: »ia,25 




LOW PASS FILTERS FOR TRANSMITTERS 

have four pi sections for sharp cut off below channel 2, and to 
attenuate transmitter harmonics falling in any TV channel and 
fm band. b2 ohm. SO-^39 connectots built in. 

DRAKE TV-5200-LP 

200 watts to 52 MHz. Ideal 
for six meters. For operation 
below six meters, use 
TV-3300-LP or TV-42-LP. 

Model No. 1609 Price: 926.60 

DRAKE TV-42-LrP Model No, 1605 

is m four section filter designed wilh 43.2 MHz cut-off and 

ejttremely high attenuation In all TV channels for transmitters 

opera tin i£ at 30 MHz and lower. Rated 100 watts input. Price: 

$14.60 




WORK ALL REPEATERS WITH OUR NEW SYNTHESIZER II 



^ 





The Synthesizer II is a two meter frequency synthe- 
sizer* Frequency is adjustable in 5 kHz steps from 
140.00 MHz to 149.9 95 MHz with its digital readout 
thumb wheel switching. Transmit offsets are digitally 
programmed on a diode matrix, and can range from 
10 kHz to 10 MH2. No additional components are 
nei-essary! 
Kit $169.95 Wired and tested$239,96 





KK2HV 
kX40t Kil 

HJcsmwn 

HXi44<. Kil . 

KXl44t W/I 
IIX32(H Kit, 

kX4j>t Kif 

TXSO - . . 

TXSOW/T 
TX144B Ki( - , 
TXl-i4B wyt . 
TX2306 Kit. . 



PA3S0IH Kit 



PA250-LH W/T. 
PA4OI0H Kil . 

PA40i OH W/T, 
PA SO/2 S Kit . 

PASO/2* Wn". 
PA 144/1 S Kit. 



FA144/2S Kil. 
PAJ2Q/l^ Kil 
PA4ia/iO KJI . 

PA140/10 W/T 
PA140/J0 W/T 



PS ISC Kit . 



PStSfW/T . . 
PS3Sf Kit . . . 



HS25C W/T . . 
PS2 5M Kit. . . 
PS2SM W/T . . 



RPTSOKit, . . 

HPTSO 

l<P'n44 K\t . . 

RI*T230 Kit . . 

kPT4J2 Kit - 

HPT 1 44 W/T . 
KP1220W/T . 

KP14J2 w/^r . 

DPLA5Q , . , , 
TRXSO Kil . . 



TkM44KM 
TRX120 Kil 
TRX433 Kit 

TRDl . . . 
TRC2 , . - 

SYN II Kit, 



SVN II W/T 
MO- J Kil, . 

TO t Kit , . 



HT 144 B Kjt 

HICJAD « ■ • . 
&C12 . . , . 
Rubber Duck 



I 



1 



I 



jeJf MH/ I VI r«i:eivifr uiiii 2 
piik J 0,7 MH/ crysial filter . . . -S 
\ami 4i jhiivr-\%lr^ij & (i.^ti:tj I 

HtttO UM/ ri.vr w/2 piilc I 0.7 
MH^ kf>^iii] litief . - . . .... 

^nitf d\ dhnvc-tvtrrii & lirstrd . . I 
(4*>. I 7W \tHf rcvr vvj2 pole 
10 1 h%\ff i^Ti^ytiil filler. ..*--. 
*. t*iic n jhnvc wired &. tei^Tc^d 

Ml 240 MH/ rwvr ^rt^/2 pnli? 
10.7 MH^ttysial filler . 
lariic j%. jhiive wired & its^tcd 
432 MHjf KMt %%^{2 pMlf t^ 7 

trjiri[t.mittcr encitisr, I waEt.6TnET. 

iransmitrcT caeiter-1 wait -2 mtrf 
umt IS abuvc'ivir^d & tested- - ^ 
tnnimttlcr eKCiter- 1 wan -220 
MHt . , _ , 

3 TTitT p^ower Aiiii fcit iw in— ISw 
out with 4.iilid \iiti: ^wtichtng^ 

c«i«. crtntictttws - . 

lime a:l dhuive- wired & [fiitted ■ - 
2 mtr power amp* iOw t[i-40w 
out— relay switching ^ . 

s^ine fti J t?uv«- wired & tested - - 
6 mtf prtvver amp. 1 w in. 25w oui^ 
tesi case, cdnneftari £ switch in is . 
ttmn as ttbnvir. wired St. tested- ^ ■ 
2 mtr power imp - | w in- I Sw 
ei>ut-le^ case* t^on nee tors and 
»wi(chtD| .,.,,**.,*_*., 
ijmc IS PA 144/15 Itit but 3Sw , . 



D4.'«>5 
04. 15 

I4.VS 

6 •*.<»?* 
14.95 

24.95 

39.95 
59,95 
29,QS 
49.95 

29.95 



S9.95 
74.95 

59.95 
74.95 

49.95 
69.95 



RECEIVERS 



ilmtltr tti Pa i 44/1 5 far 220 MH^ 
power amp-similur to PAl44/i5 
f^. ']M lOw and 432 MHz , . . . . 
luvt iii-l40wout-2 mir !tmp . . 
iOw in - I40w out-2 mtr jmp , . 



J9.9S 

49. 9S 
39.95 

49.95 
179-95 
IS9.95 



ISamp Itviitt regutaled power &up. 

ifig and 4iv«rvoha^u prc't^i^tjon . . 79.95 
somiii 4» sbfjvi; wired & tested . . 94.95 
2^ amp - I 2 voir rt^gLiiutcd puwi^r mp- 
ply w/ca^e, w /fold -back furreni limit 

bfl Jind nvp I 2 9.95 

jiiinit; jis ubuv^ -wired & le^ittid . . J49,**5 
lanitf an ?S2$C with meters . . . . 149^95 
srmit? as iih((ve- wired <it itsitiid . - 169.95 



rcptater— 6 meter * » ^ 46S.9S 

repeater-6 meter, wired St- testt^d 6QS.95 
repeater- 2 m tr - 1 s w - ci tm pie tc 

(lii?^$ i;ry&taUy 4fiS.95 

repeiter- 2 20 MH/- l Sw-compleie 

(leiis iryvialh) ........... 465. 9S 

rtfpeaiuf- lOwaii -412 MHi 

tie^s crystals) 5JS.9S 

repealer- I S watt -2 tntr. ..... 695,95 

repca^cr^ J S wfltt-220 MH/. 69595 

repcjler- lOwatt-432 MHi. . . . 749,95 

ermlr cliiM; ipjii^ed duplexer . . , . 575,00 

Complete 6 mtr hM trarii,i:eivi!r kit, 
30w out» iO chantiel scan vi^ttK Cnsc 
(lesi mike and crysials.). ...,,, 249.95 

same as abtjve , but 2 mtr & 1 5w om 219.95 
tame ai above except foi 220 MH; 2 19.9^ 
iAme ai ibove except 10 watt and 
4l2MHl ....-*......... 254.95 

lrmnitf«|vems« oiUy ......,, 19.95 

lr«iitceiver case and accessories . . 39 95 

2 mtr tynltieiizer. iransmitt offsets 
WDicrammatfle from 100 KHi-iOMHa, 
(Man £>ff»ets Vrilh optionaJ 
■daplenl ............. 169,95 

ume «& above wired & tested . . 239.95 
Ma»/cap offiei npctontt «...,, 2.50 
It^ MHl upUuiial iripler ....,»- 2.50 



2 mtr, 2w, 4 channel, hancl held receiver 
^11 h cry flail for 14^.52 simpler . 129.95 
t»a(ler> pad. tZ VDC. V^amp. . . 29.95 
ballery chatfef fur above , . . . , 5,95 
2 mtr, mib male BNC connector . S.95 




TRANSMITTERS 




POWER AMPLillERS 




POWER SUPPLIES 



REPEATERS 




TRANSCEIVERS 




SYNTHESIZERS 




WALKIE-TALKIES 




RXCP . . . 

RF2«Kii . . 
RF50 Kil . . 

Ri-i^an Kit 
K1'22DL) Kn. 

RP412 Kit. . 

IF 10, 7F Kit 

FM455 Kil, , 
AS2 Ktt . . . 

TX220BW/T 
TX432B Kit. 
TX4J2B W/T 
TXISO Kit. . 

rxisaw/T . 

Blue Line 



Mo4e] 

BLB 3/150 
BLt 1 0/70 
BLC 2/70 
BLC lO/lSO 
RLC SO/1 50 
BLD 2/frO 
BLD 10/60 
BLD L0/t20 
BLE 10/40 
BLt 2/40 
BLE 30/80 
BLE lO/BO 




0,VJ'. . . 
PS3A Kil . 
PSJ0I2 W/T 



15 P LA 144 , 

DPLA220 . 

DPLA4J2 . 
OSL'U . . . 

USCN . . . 



accessor If filter fotr above re cover kits 

)£tvei 70 dB sdjaceni ctiannel 

rej^clton ... 8-50 

10 mir RE front end 10.7 MHz out 12.50 

6 mtr RF front end tO.7 MHi out 12,50 

2 mu RP from end 10.7 Ufii out 17.50 
220 MHi RK frufit end 10,7 MHi 

out 17.50 

432 HHi Rf" ffiint end 107 MHi 

out . . , . , . * . 27.50 

to. 7 MHz IF module inctyil«s J 

pole crystal filter ..,,....,. 27,50 

4S5 KHi IE stage plus EM detectof 17.50 

audio jjid S4|uelcli lioard . - 1 5.00 

vame 34 abo'^e-i^ired ik teifed 49.95 

iratiimittcr exciter 43Z MHj 39,95 

^me as stvove-wifijii ^ leii^d 59,95 

30D milliwatt, 2 mtr transmiUei 19 95 

mmti as above -wired & tested 29.95 



. R E power amp. v%trcd 
CW-EM'SSB/.^M 

Power 
Krequencv Input 

45' 5SMHZ 3W 

140-1 60MH£ low 

140-I60MHE 2W 

140^1 AOMHx 10W 

140't60MH7 30W 

22O'230MHz 2W 

2 20-2 30 MHt I OW 

220-230MHZ I OW 

420-470 MHz lOW 

420-470MHZ 2W 

4 2 0-4 70 MHz JOW 

42D-470MH7 1 OW 



Jt te s led « emission - 



Power 
Ouiput 
I SOW 
70W^ 
70W 

tsow 

ISOW 
60W 

&0W 

120W 

40W 

40W 

SOW 

aow^ 



TBA 
I J9.95 

I59.9S 
259,95 
239.93 
t59.9S 
I 39.95 
259.95 
139.95 
159,95 
259 95 
2«9,9S 



add^i nvi?r voltage protection to your 
power supplies, 1 S VDC main .. 9,*)5 
I 2 volt "power stippty regulator tard 
wilh fijjtl-hack current tirnitiniJt , . 8,95 
nt?w ci>mm4,'fcial duty JO amp 12 VDC 
reiulattid power supply w/case^ 
vv/f old-back current liniitlng und 
ov^rvoltajje proteciiyn 239.95 



2 mtr, 600 KHy spaced duple xi^ft 

wired jud tuned to frtfi^uenty . , . 379.95 

220 MH;? dupleXtJi:, wired and 

tuned to frequency ,......,_ 379.95 

rack mount duple xer . ....... 319.95 

double sihif^ldifd duple^ier cables 

with PL2Sy cimnectors (p.) . h 25.00 

samt' a» above with type N 

connectors (pr.) .,....,.,. 25.00 



OTHER PRODUCTS BY VHF ENGINEERING 



cut Kit , 
Cil2Kit . 

4*113 Kit . 

iOH2 Kil 
StlKit . 

Cryitiilfi . 
fWiU Kit 



Mk I 

ISl W/1 . 

TSr W/T. . 

nijKit 
ii>3wn 

HL 144 W/T 

HL220W/T 
HL432 W/l 



to trhannel receive xial deck 

w/diode switcbing. , . . . % 6.95 

ID cliannel liir^iit deck vs/s\%tti:h 

and irnnmers ,,,,,.,.,.. 14,95 

t^HE veruun of iT>| deuk. nredeJ 

loT 4 32 multi-Lh;inr)tf| ^iptrutiork I 2.9S 

i:arTi*i npe^uted reU> . I9.9S 

to channel j^uni-scan adapter 

fiif K.X with priority . . 1^.95 

we ^Iih;^ most repejier and ^jmplei^ 

pairs from t4t>.0-l4^.0 Ti^acb} 5. 00 

159 bil. Field pfop-am nibble, code ii|ei»- 

tlFier i\iiti built-in j;.i.|u.elcb tail ;iiid 

in timefS ...,..,., , ^NP.-/5 

wired ^nd tested* rtut pn^anini^d ^4.'45 

wired vnj tested . pro^juinied . 59.95 

*.iKMl iihm dytiDLiiitc mike with 

I" 1.1 jnd cull vord I 2:95 

itMie !M4iJeiL-h iltriLiiidtfr fi^ 95 

iii^LiUed ill ii^pi±;Att;r. iiil lading 

inicrfjctf ^iLccs&tjric-s h^j.94 

1 (lime decirdc-r 24.9 5 

sjnif i\ ntHt\i:—\\iTitil ^ t^r?ktird 39 95 
4 pi4e helicjl re&iPfia^(*ir, ^ired ^ tested. 

$v%i.>pi milled t*i 144 \1H/ hjii 24 ^^ 

unte as.:ihi»ii'tr iiinc'd tii 220 MH/ h^it 24,9 5 

5i3iitii;a:s.thtjve ruried it»432 Mtl^ h,iii 24 95 




1i# cntf ncM-ina 

THE WORLD S MOST COMPLETE LINE OF VHp-FM KtfS AND EOUEPMENT 





Now It^ Crystal Clear 



Yei. now ICOM help* you steer cleai of ^U the h&i^e^ of cKannel cryftalK. Th* iww 
IC-22S ii ihe mjtic ^r|msing t Adta i^ou'v? come (o know and love Ai the IC-22A. 
mccpt Ihai it i& lotjUlv ctystAl independczii- Z*r4 crii«ttlfl« SoEid fitate engirheeririg 
ntablri ^ou lo program 23 channt^U of your chDlcC' nithcMti uriLitirig. ^k^w the 
itCQM p^ormancr youVe defnahded comes u'llh the cociveTiience you've u^aiUvd^ 
with ycMu EKu f C-liS. 



Hold it! 



Take htild uf SSB with thefle 
tw.0 loweftsi twins ICDM^ nev, portJiNp IC-dOS and lC-502 piit jt HitJiin 
your i%ji£h wJierevei- _j.'4>u aire. Yoii can Liik« tt with yoa lo the bill tcp, ihe 
higbwfiyt, or the beach. TKre* portabk waiu PEP on iwq mdos oraix! 

UtUof UXI The ICOM quiUity ami excel lent mrcrivEr chiimcteristics ofthM 
pair make bullky comtrleni axid low band rigs uiinecij««ar>' (or geUinj; 
Atart^ m SSB-VHF You jtlst add your liniriir omp, if you wUK, cunneet w 
the antmnii. and UXl With the 20i you mfty talk thr£*u«h OSCAR Vr and 
VII! Even trun^eive weth »ii "up" recti ivmg converterf Thtr IC'502, simi- 
larl>', mdkuK ^J^^t' pfsix mi^i^rB in ways that yt>u would hdVPiilwjiya liked but 
cfiuJd nevt'r JiHVe before, in fact, there are fiti m&iiy thinifii lu try, it's like 
opening u new band. 

Tmkt hold of Single Side Bund. Take hold of nnme ^KciiemenV Take twu. 



I 

ij 

II 



VXD 1^^mq-Tfy^ tH2 




IC 



SdB'11 












IC-245 Transceiver 

The VFO Revolution goes mobile with the unique, ICOM developed 
LSI syrithesizer with 4 digit LED readout. The IC 245 offers the 
moft for mobile on the market* The ea^v to use tuning knob moves, 
accurately over 50 detent steps and assures excellent control as 
easily es steering the vehicle. With its optional adapter, the IC-245 
puts you into all mode operation on 12V DC power with a compact 
da«4\-rnountecl transceiver. fr\ FM, the synthesizer command fre 
quency is displayed in 5 kHz steps from 146 to 148 MHz, and with 
The fide band adapter the step rate drops to 100 Hi from 144 to 
146 MH^. For maximum repeater flexibility, the transmit and 
receive freciaencies are independeAtIv programmable on any sepera- 
tfOft^ The IC-245 even comes equipped with a muftipJe pin MoIeK 
connector for remote control. The 10-245 is a product of the 
revdlutiofi En VFO design, from tts n^ew style front panel, to Its 
excellent mechanical rigidity and Large Scale Integrated Circuitry. 
Your IC'245 will give you the most for mobJIe. $499.00 




THE NEW ICOM 4 MEG, MULTI-MODE, 2 METER RADIO - IC 
211 

ICOM introduces the first of a great new^ wave of amateur radios, 
wrth new styling, new versatility, new integration of functions. 
You'we never before laid eyes on a radio like the IC'211, but youMI 
recognize wh«t you'%« got when ypu first turn the single-knob 
frequency control on this compact new n^odeL The lC-21 T is fully 
synthesized in 100 Hz or S kHz steps, with dual tracking, optically 
coupled VFOs dispUyed by seven -segment LEO readouts, providing 
any apiit. The IC-2Tt rolls through 4 rnegahert^ as easily as e 
breeker through the surf. With its unique ICOM developed LSI 
synthesizer, the IC-211 is now the best "do everything" radio for 2 
meters, with FM, USB, LSB and CW operation. $749.00 



I 

-ft 

« 



Now ICOM Introduces 1 5 Channels of FM to Go! 

The New 10-215: the FM Grabber 

T>tit It ICO^Ti fifSi FM (KjrtAbl^. and U jhh» ^j&orf times tm thr ^ 
Changf ttdNfetc^ W9ib ittrough the fmik, ciimb m hilL Jind ICOM qimtify 
FM comfnunlctfloRS ^ n^hr alnng iL-ish vpj, Ldng Ixsf tng jnfrn»*i 
bArt«'n<n TTtmkit ppffAbJ^ FM f^'iJIy poctaiii^r. ^hiU a<rc:es&it>W f»^urn 
OQ^ke <:i»ivi«4km to extcnuJ pqi*tt and AfUcfuia tsM mx^ ^av/. 

Gtal* ff»t HftililOty ypHh the m^ f€-Z15 FM portable. 



■- f TCini ntounicd contToU mfvd fop 
* l£c3unfidi(l2Dfldl«i/3|»iloritv) 




^- 



r4t4ilV M 

■ UshttdtAal 
and nidiit 



bi#i 400 in* \am^ 



'•••x^*. 



"iMtSflWlA 



o-o 



* ^ * ■* ■ 



ftxe: s^mao 



I'lMii fmm iC-tllft tiwmn m iHi^ tt < 



, ItkMlitfW itK , ipHi 



I* ilwij hh C h^ 





EH ICOM 






model 333 
dummy load 

wattmeter 

Fiworitt LifhtwBight Portabl*-2&0 WATT RATING- 
Air CoDled 

Idftal field service unit for triobile 2'Way radio-CB, marine, 
ba5ines5 band. Best for QRP amaiaur use. CB^ with ^tero to 
5 watt& full scale low isDwer range. 
■ ip«dtiGationii 



SA*j>fitfi| W*^ht 
Pfi«ii 



DC ID 300 MHE 

Lva thin 1^:t i« 330 MHi 

ISO wfltti intitfniiifrrtT 

e-s. o^-fio. o-i», o-aso 

SO.Z39 

4" ■ r * ■ r ■ 





^fnod«t 374 dumfny k>4d wattmatsf 

Top of Utia Lirti-l&OO WATT RATJNG-Oil Cool*d 

Our htgrkosi power combinanon umt. Rated to 1600 watts 
input { inter mitr&ni). Meter rang^ gre individually 
calibrated for highest accuracv, 
i specfficationi 



Wattm*i*f niPNtm 
Input CanrNk^9f 



DC to sen MHz 

L VB than 1 3: t ia 210 M Hi 



l&DOi Mirttt DC inl»fmitlin|, 

0-16. 0-50. 0-300, 0- 1500 
5Q-239 ^hwmsticiirv Muladl 
*2f*" mS" I to- 1/4" 

eis^oo 



BW 



BARKER & WILLIAMSON, INC. 





P4 

'•if 





VI 



Ewoomy High Power Load- 1500 WATT RATING 

Oil Coaled 

mod* I 3&t dummv Joad 

For hhgh povwer when all you need is the load. 



<• ipflcifiaiiofli 
FFsquancy Hmn^m 

vswn 

Conn»cl4ir 
Si» 

Shipping W*iglii 
Ptim 



PC 10 300 MHl 

Lxtihan IJn ia 230 MHi 

1500 wttfi inttrmltiinl. 
Warning lighli* ilymlA 
iTiajiiniun> h««t limbic 

SQ-23V ibtfinvtiHily uilfdl 

4-3/r'Mr' itio-m" 

12ibi. 
SMJO 




Hi(|h Powtr-1000 WATT RAHNG-OiJ Coolid 
__fiiod«l 334A duimny lo*d wattmeter. 

Our most popular cOfrtb' nation \jfni Handlsi full atrial Htjr 

power . Meter ranges indivkdualty t^librated. Can be panel 

mounted. 

■ ipiGlfit»tioni 

Ffiquwicy Rinft* DC Id 300 WHz 

VSWfl L™ thin 1 ,3 ; 1 to 230 MH J 

Powar Ran^t 1 000 wir ts CW I ntar m i ttf nt , 

Warntng hgiht* figna^s 
tniKimurri hui limii. 



Wmmitar Rangaa 
■ nOut ComrMctor 
Si fa 
5tlippJfmW»i4pll;t 



0_?Q, 0^100. D-300, 0-1000 

SOZ39 IhBtmetkeallY HWlvdl 

«-3;/<" Mt" It 10-1 M- 

12 ItaA. 
*174J» 



LITTLE DIPPER 




modi! 331 A 

irinititot dip m«l«r_ 

Portable RF single generator, slgri^i monitor, Of ahsorptron 
wawemeter. Ltgl^i weight {\ pounds 6 ounces wit n all coHs), 
battery -powered unrt is ^deal for fieJd gs0 in testing 
irangcei^^efs, tuning antennas, etc. Can also t>e used to 
measure caps city, inductance, ci regit Q, and other factors. 
Indispensable for experimenters, it i$ easily Ihe rnosi 
versaiilK instru)Tier>t in the shop, Contihuous coverage Irom 
2 MHi ID 230 MH/ in seven ranges 

Uf>ii consuls of a transiston/ed Hf dtp osiidlaiar and 
100-rTiicroampef€ meter circuir. Meter circuit uses a 
siAglE' transistor DC amfslifier with a potentiometer m \he 
emittef circuii to comroi meter seniiiiwjtv A S-oo^ition 
ilide swtic+i connects Xtie meter orci^it to ifi^PKillator for 
dip tneasurements, to a dfode fpr absorption Mdvemeter 
peak irteasurements. oi provibe& audio modutjitiiZkn of trve 
flF ngn^l, 

Fr«qiiencv d>ai hss> a calibrdied r^fererKa point foe U and 
bmcfwrifiti mtasurema^ts. Each coil has. m own trMiuencv 
d^tfi il%ere's no cofifusion with multiple ma«kiiig» ot smaU; 
hard-UMvad fCila near the renter of lh« ct^^ 



I a tp«cifiai1iprTS 
FrVQAMncy 



farlf** faV F't^ i« ?0*l iwwmtl^Pfiij 
2 MHi - 4 MHw^ 4 MHi-fl MHj , 
8MHiw1iMHt^ tftMHi-33MHf, 
32 MHi^«4 WHt, SO M*U-T 10 MH*. 
T10MH£^23OMHe 



Accitricy 


^3« 


lUlu4ul«lPon 


T000Hi,»1Cio4O% 


Powaf 


g^Qift trinmtor iHiiirv. 




Burq«9 2Ufi Of aquivalanl 


Siia 


7"K2-tM" xai/2" 


Ehipptng Wapght 


1 lb.. B PI. 


Priaa 


$120.00 



WIDE RANGE ATTENUATOR 



.t****-^ 



^^^ ••'*'"■' 




Mi»di1 371-1 

Protect your ^eceiiffr o* convener Ifotti o'ydoacl. o* ijri>- 
vid« jtsQ a{t€fiuatiof> of laM4eve1 RF sigrvals from nfn^ 
9ene*'3to*f. prsijmplifiers. or ton^rfcn Sew«n rixker 
!wtTGh«» provide an^itumion fforT> 1 di lo 61 dB io 1-d& 
it^»f. Swiiches are marked m dB. 1 -2 3-5- 10-20-20 Sum at 
actuated Mitches \iH posirion) gives attenuation Wrth at( 
swiiches m OUT posiiion, there *% UO insertion toss- 
Aitfiffiyator jns.ralls in coaxial liFie ys^rvgi UHF cofir>eciors. 



tOflcificaiionf 
Powtr Cipacily 
VSWR 
lmp»danc« 
Accuracy 

GKippirkg Watglht 



1/4 Viatf 

l^tl mtMlmum, be 10 335 MHt 

50 phim 

1 dB/dS/DC ID BQMHZ 

O.t dB/dB -0 5 d^. DC to leO MHi 

0.1 d8/dB 1 di, [>C to 22S mil 

8-1/2" »1.1/T' a 11/4" 
1-1/3 lln, 
54a .50 



I 

t 



-C - LINE AMATEUR EQUIPMENT 




DRAKE 



COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVERS 




Drake R-4C 



Solid State Linear permeability-tuned VFO with 1 
kHz diaf divfsions. Gear driven dual circulardials. 
High median icalt electrical and temperature sta- 
bility. 

Covers ham bands with crystals furnished. 
Covers all of 80. 40. 20 and 15 meters, ar>d 26. 5> 
29.0 MHz of 10 meters. 

Covers ISO meters with accessory crystal. In 
addition to the ham bands, tunes any fifteen 500 
kHz ranges between 1 .5 and 30 MHz. 5.0 to GO 
MHz not recommerKJed. Can be used for MABS, 
WWV, CB. Manne and Shortwave broadcasts 

Superior setectivity: 2.4 kHz 8-pole filter pro- 
vided in ssb positions. S.O kHz, 6 pole selectivity 
for a^m. Optional B-pole filters of .25, 5. 15 and 
6.0 kHz bandwidths available. 

Tunable notch filter attenuates carriers withm 
passband. 

Smooth and precise passband tuning. 

Trans ceive capability; may be used to trans- 
ceive with the T-4X. T-^XB or T-4XC Transmitters. 
Illummated dial shows which PTO is in use. 

Usb. tsb. a-m and cw on atl tiands. 

Age With fast attack and two rel^se times for 
ssb and a-m or fast release for break-In cw. Age 
also may be switched oft 

New high efficiency accessory noise blanker 
that operates in all modes. 

Crystal lattice filter In first i-f prevents cross- 
modulation anddesensitlzdtion due to strong ad^ 
jaceni channel signais. 

Excellent overload and intermodufatlon char- 
actensiics 

25 kHz Calibrator permits working closer to 
t^and edgos and segrnents. 

Scratch resistant epoxy paint finish. 
Price; $599 XK) 




Drake T-4XC 



Solid State Linear permeability-tuned VFO wjth 1 
kHz dlai divisions. Gear driven dual circular dials. 
High mechanical, electrical and temperature 
stability. 

Covers ham bar^ds with crystals furnished. 
Covers all of 80. 40. 20 and 15 meters, and 28.5- 
29.0 MH2 of 1 meters, 

Covers 1 ^meters with accessory crystal. Four 
500 kHz ranges in addition to the ham bands plus 
one fixed-frequency range can be switch- 
sef acted from the front pandL 

Two 8-pole crystal lattice filters for sideband 
selection. 

Transcelves with the R-4. R-4A. R-4B, R-4C and 
SPR-4 Receivers Switch on the T^4XC selects 
frequency control by receiver or transmitter PTO 
or independently. Ilfupiinated dial shows which 
PTO IS in use. 

Usb, Isb, a-m and cw on all bands, 

Controlled-carrrer mgduiation for a-m is com: 
patible wirh ssb linear ampfifiers^ 

Automatic transmit' receive swttchtnQ. Sepa- 
rate VOX lime-delay adjustments for phone and 
cw. VOX gam is independent of microphone gain. 

Choice of VOX or PTT= VOX can tre disabled by 
front panel switch. 

Adjustable pi network output^ 

Transmitting age prevents flat-topping. 

Meter reads relative output or plate current 
with switch on load control. 

Built-in cw sidetone. 

Spotting function for easy zero-beating. 

Easily adaptable to RTTY, either fsk or afsk. 

Compact size, rugged construction. Scratch 
resistant epoxy paint finish. 

Price: SS99-00 



Power Supplies 

Power Supplies for 7-4, T-4X. T-4XB or T-4MC fThe AC'4 
can be housed in an MS'4 speaker cabinet). 

Model No. 1 501 Drake AC-4 $t 20,00 
Model No. 1S06 Drake DC^ $135.00 



Accessories 




Drake M5-4 



^tmkm IAS-4 Matching Sp«ak«f for use with Fl-4 fl-4A. 
^-4B and H-4C Rec^fvers iHds space re house AC-3 
ind AC-4 Power Supplies^ PriiCe: S24.BB 



DRAKE MICROPHONES 

Wirtd Tor UB« with Drsk« Irir^smUtiers and IrintoctyBrs, for 
VEtNar push-ro-tsik or VOX Typ« ol oparation a dal«rfnin«d |?y 
in* VOX control sstlifi^ at th« IfArmmittsr. 

Deek Typ« MQ<lel Ho 7075 

• Tjfp*: Hssvy OuTjr Cm*mK Dmk 
Top * 0*bl«: Four F&ot, 1^ 
Cofidtrctof. Ortft Shiald • Output 
Ltfwtt: Minu» Si 00 (0 AB -= 1 
vol^'niicrotiai) * FirM|u«nc|i R*- 
p«eiM: SO-7000 Hz • Swttchinf : 
Adi^Jti to wthiT pui;h-io-iaJk or 

^J^- Price: S39.00 

H«nd*Held Typ» Model Mo. 7072 

> TVp*: Gfrrarnlc, hand hald • Cabit: 
11" R»trictwl, &' flxtundnO, PVC 3 
Cord. 1 ihl^FdiSid, Coll Cord • Cllt; 
Cycolic • fifilvh: Gr«y * Outpvt 
Imvm: Arftnuf e^dSiO dS • 1 tfOlU 
mJcrotowll • Frvqutffcy Natpon**: 
300-3000 Hz • Swtlcliing: Adapi* la 
^thv pifsn-to-taik or VOX 

Price: $19.00 






Drake SPR-4 - S629-00 

• Programmable to meet specific 
requirements: SWL, Amateur, 
Laboratory, Broadcast, Marine Radio, 
etc, 

• Direct frequency dialing; 150-500 kHz 
plus any 23 500 kHz ranges, J to 30 
MHz 

• FET circuitry, all solid slate 

• Linear dial, 1 kHz readout 

• Band-widths for cw^ ssb, a-m with 
buifNnLC filter 

« Crystals supplied for LW, seven SW, 

and be bands 

• Notch filter 

• Built-in speaker 





Drake DSR 2 " $2950,00 

• Contfnuous Coverage 
10 kHz to 30 MHz 

• Digital Synthesizer 
Frequency Control 

• Frequency Displayed 
to 100 Hz 

• AJI So ITd State 

• A-m, Ssb, C*, RTTY, fsb 

• Series Balanced Gate 
Noise Blanker 

• Front End Protection 

• Optional Features Available 
on Special Order 





Drake FS-4 

Digital Synthesizer - S250.00 

Tt>e n#w aoild state Drake FS-4 Syr^thesize^ opens tt>e 
door to a new wond of oontinuous-tuningi short wavi^f 
Combin^asfnlhesized general coverage fle^tibiiity wUh 
the selectivity, stability, frequ^-ncy readout and r^liebiJ- 
Ity of the Dreke R-4C or SPft-4 Receivers. 

• IntsrfBcei with all R'4 «*H«« receivers &r\d T-4X leritia Irans- 
mlttwe: fR-4. R'4A. R-4B. n-4C, SPH-4, 7-4. T-4X T.4XB *nd 
T-4IXC}, wittiaut modification « MHz rmngv iiftvt on fS'4. with 
lcH2 raadout taMen from rmaaiMmr diil < Complet* gen«fil 
co^nrag* — no rwiQflcrvstisle to buy *t-4/T-4X i»fi« tiansmH- 
tar* tran^eiiv* or^ ariy FS^ frAquantry. wti«ii ut«^ ^tti 8-4 
••rt«i rwemlfl/mn • ReiAtioul 1 MH; with Dtalu FTO- 

Price: S250i)0 






ALL NEW 
3-BAND, \ 
2 ELEMENT 
HY-QUAD 



MiLkri ill itthtt (|iud& vb»^i4rrir! 

■ MlvH ilrtMigrlh. luw uiuid InaiJ 

Hf*\t U't tilt uiti> ijuiifl thtit u ir<Mn]}iFii? thvrw In iii;ilil4il| nriDrt lit ili{i(>1ijr 
Mt huy. 

UMtln'klf'bl? [eaiiHCR inbrrcnt in quitlii 

I hr yJI iluitiinum tiructuft '^ty* uip' TUv utiii^r irni 4liir jikI Liu-mund vJtii|>e 

tiiFi|iLiEii'] lev J hih: tuuuia^ 

Mv'f^iin'i all mrm H)r -QuMii wtU wut4u »U yllirf 4|iiiiU Wi:»ut« 11 't fihiHirrrt-d 

|i> 4ii iv0i ihit Thr H^-QuimJ b iwm ll'i •u|irtl(n, U « cMiUfibli U'tlhc liisl 

qiDPfl lu luvr ftiryiJimK 'iftrtj^r* ire bii>|ttii u|i »1 HtritmiL' t'lrLituil piiiii]i 

■ Mh iiMilir inviliiiin i tnluni] 1 I'lEiniani i:uii4riitLt44iH Mllh iiHlhkidkullir 
rrmflHtlril i^trmmlv mr^h m mlB-Aflion ' IIv-4J4e>J rii^^g^pfti aal f attt l-rrd lltK 
luf *U Unci: h«*4a / kidiiuIuAil ; lui^d JvniBt* tn4ilcll»4HI Mt^ tund ^ii.h 

firuiift raiprd n^kmrnhmm luUiti ai^ Ja ibKim^ ipmfcii rij^bcnai ftanipt / 

■r vllf tini'Tf: ihilT «ai*a ul lb>niii lu-^ud ilttt^fi lll«J lllli' «nd Mainvlt un lai 

Ordcv tte 244 f>m $3Tfl J^ 



SPECfFfplTlWtS 




V^.- , ■ r^i- 



^ 'i«i.««d«il |Q&t*i«#v 






ueo^ 






The Versatite Model 18V iot 80 thru 10 Meters 

Thr .M<»dvl IHV ■> ii, liiw-citil tui^.ti!'^ irlifk-)*|tl wI-Ti •-■-- i -:h i^ I' .11 ''^' 

lun*d til jiH> band W thru lE( »in'*ii'f» ^> w =-. , . ,, i.wn v i\ Ih^ 
Ti!?*^ fmmt an Ihr malLtiLn^ Imbt induutur TM wWh hi rihrn eont, Ihi* l;S|i 
n ndialQr it uma^intily irHiiir'tiffit fm FIX nr Iricnl «cirUuci ('(iniil; nirlcd nl 

lik'u^-v ifHugi' ulunnninn tutunit. Uht-MekIi^I tH<V may tw i nHlAUHJ uii ji *hi»ii 
1% iTKh m4ktil ilitVfEL jnitt t)ii^ i;ri.iuiiii ti in iilrti» N(l,i|;iiJii|jLr' M n.Hil' mi- mwi'^t 
iiwjkliniirm llii:hlv puriwli?*'. ihi' Mijdi'l JHV vati he ijj u h' kly k rH n"!* nJ rj'uwn i-ii 
nn i?vPTn1l 4r<n4;lh uf 2 ft and t^Ai^lly rir-ii'i4)M^tnhk'vl fi^r jirltl At.\vn und cjimpinn; 
IrLiM SJipu W« , rt Sti;: 




WIDE BAND VERTICAL 
for 80 1 Metsrs 
Hv-Gam^s18 AVT/WB 

Take the wide band, mmu-dii%ctkmtt1 peribrtnancc 
ui Hy Gain t famous 14AVQ/WB, add flO m«»teT 
capability pitis extra-heavy duly ooristrUftion — and 
you have the unrivalled new iBAYTfWB In crtiitr 
wonEs, you have c^tiite an aniennft, 

■ AutjQmatic switching, five band ctipability is &c~ 
complished thjt}Ugh the Km^ odhrttt^ beefed- up 
Hy-Q traps (featuring Large diameter coils that 
develop an excepiinnally favorabk^ tJC ration. 

• Top loading coiL 

' Across-the~band performance with jtust one fur- 
nished setting for each band nO through 40). 

* True 1/4 wave r^g^natice tin aH bands^ 

* SWH of 2:1 or less at band edges. 

• Radiation pattern has an outstandingly lou 
ungle whether roof top or ground mounted^ 



CONSTRLTCTION . of extra-heavy 
duty tapered swagisd Beamiest alumi- 
num tubing with Full c ire urn ft* re nee, 
corroaion rei^ieitant compreasion 
clamps at slotted luhing jointa..Ja so 
nigged and rigid that, although the 
antenna is, 25' in height* it can be 
tnoodLed without guy wires, using a 
12" ddublfc? grip nmii bracket, with 
recesiied coax connecter 

Order No. 386 Price: S97.0O 




For 10, 15^ and 20 Met^s 
New Hy-Gain Model 12 AVQ 



Completely self -supporting, the Model 12AVQ features Hy-Q traps... 12" double- 
grip mast bracket... taper swaged seamless aluminum constmction with full cir- 
cumference compression clamps at tubing joints. It delivers outstanding low angle 
radiation, SWR is 2:1 or less on all bands. Overall height is 13 6'\ Shipping weight 
7.2 lbs. Price: S47.00 Order No, 384 

^Bw, impfoved suc^sssor to the vuorld's most popufar vertical! 
Hy-Gain Modal 14 AVQ/WB for 40-10 Meters. 

*Wide band performance wrth one setting {optimum settvissfor top pserformanoe furnished) 
^ New Hy-Q Traps * New 1 2" Double-Grip Mast Bracks * Tap^r Swagged Seamless 
Aluminum Construction 

The Model 14AVQ;WB, new improved successor to the world fatnous Model HAVQ»iia Belf-^upporitng, 
ay to ma tic band s} witching vertical that dehvcr^ omni-dtreclional performance on 40 through 10 miriers. 
Three saeparutu Hy-Q itup^ feiituring Uirgi.^ diameter coils that develop an excepilanalty favorable L/C 
ratio hnd a very high Q, provide peak perlbrmunce by effectively isolating gcctiontu of the unlenna so 
thsit u ime 1/4 wave resonance exists on dll htinds (JuLftundingly low angle radiation put tern makes 
DX and other long htiul contacts, eas^y. Superior mechanical features include ^oltd aluminum housing 
tor IrBps u.4ir)j nir dielectric capacitor... heavy g^uge taper i^ waged seamless aluminurn radiator.,. full 
circuniftinuntv t:on\preysitm damped at tubingjuiiilM thiil are reaiatant to LorroHion jjnd wear-.-^rid a 12" 
double-grip mnHL bracket that insures maixamum rigidity whether roof-top i,ir ground; mounted, The 
Mode] 14AVQ/VVB alnu delivtirs excellent pertarmance on H(.> meters using Hy-(j*iiri Modul IX'-B^JQ 
Loading t oil Overall height i& 1ft feet Shippinij wi^gbL y,2 lbs, Unsurpassed purtnbiliiy...outt$tUhd- 
ittg for permanent inslallniionij, Price: $67,00 Order No, 385 

TVPICAL HAVO/WB VSWR CURVES 



4 )& 

10 



^^^^^^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^ I I 1 »" ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

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147 



Digital Bargain Hunting 



- - tips on surplus computer goodies 



Louts S. Macknik WBKBC 
45A Scon Circle 
Bedford MA 01730 



The computer hobbyist 
hardware market has 
been movirig very rapidly, 
with new products being 
introduced nearly every day. 
If you are like me, you want 
to have most of them, too! 
No budget can stretch that 



far, if at alL Balancing the 
endless list of necessary 
peripherals against a dwin- 
dling level in your checkbook 
is a lot easier to do if you can 
lake advantage of the used 
electronics market, I would 
love to have one of those new 




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Photo L The RCA 70/752 Video Data Terminal hm a hidden door to the right of the screen 
concealing controls for the display and alignment of the character generator. The keyboard can 
be moved up to one foot away from the display. 



$900 dumb terminals, but in 
many ways it makes more 
sense to shop for a $300 used 
one, repair it if necessary^ 
modify it to be just as dumb, 
and put the remaining $600 
(?) into more memory, a disk, 
or good software. 

Rest assured, a surplus 
computer equipment world 
does exist My impression is 
that it is merging with the 
surplus market that hams 
have ravaged for years, just as 
ham radio and the computer 
hobby seem to be merging. 
To introduce you to what 
may be available surplus, Til 
give you a few suggestions to 
get started, and then describe 
one of my more profitable 
adventures. 

Preparation 

First, you must convince 
yourself that digital equip- 
ment is not forbidden fruit 
into which you must not 
byte. I am reminded of the 
ham home brew enthusiast 
who for years builds test 
equipment, antennas, and 
transmitters of unending 
complexity, yet never 
touches his receiver or builds 
one because a receiver is too 
tough to handle! If you have 
an electronics hardware back- 
groundj you have a head start 
and should not be intimi- 
dated. If you are a software 
expert trying to assemble 
your own system for the first 
time, there are a lot of people 
in computer clubs, ham clubs, 
and elsewhere who can help 
you. In any case, the best 
way to gain an appreciation 
for a new disci pi ine, hardware 
or software, is to get your 
hands not only on it, but into 
It as welL 

The second thing you 
must do is use common sense 
to g^in an eye for the bargain. 
I've been burned a few limes 
and wenl home with nothing 
more than a fancy boat 
anchor, but never for any 
great sum of money. After 
all, the higher the price, the 
more careful you automati- 
cally become. This field is 
moving so rapidly thji a piece 
of gear which creates nausea 
in a state of the art hobbyist 



148 



could very well be only two 
or three years old and provide 
a lifetime of service at a 
fraction of the original cost 
Look for equipment being 
offered with spare parts, or 
gear which uses the type of 
components youVe seen 
advertised in the back pages 
of magazines. You should 
also look at each item with an 
alternative project in mind 
just in case you do goof 
{caueai emptor). For 
exampfe^ you boy a floating 
point box to do hardware 
arithmetic and then discover 
that it was the victim of a 
slight overvoltage. The box of 
card rack it came in is prob- 
ably worth the cost and can 
be used later (I know^ I can't 
get my car in the garage, 
either). An operations or 
maintenance manual sold 
with the equipment can be 
worth its weight in gold, but 
don't be fanatical about it. 
Many times you can recon- 
struct all you need to know 
by studying the equipment 
itsetf. After all, one goal of 
most hobbyists is to replace 
hard cash with personal time 
spent pursuing the hobby. 

You should also know the 
market if you are to take 
advantage of it. Find out 
where the surplus houses are, 
what their specially seems to 
be, and get on the mailing list 
for any Flyers. Have a general 
knowledge of what a bargain 
price is so that you can make 
an intelligent decision when 
you come across that 400 
pound transformer you 
desperately need to beef up 
your power supply. Read the 
ads in the back pages of 
magazines and have a feel for 
the current prices on used or 
surplus prime components. 

Interested? Well, let me 
use one of my experiences to 
illustrate and at the same 
time describe one of the bar- 
gains available. For those of 
you who would like to have a 
used CRT terminal, but are 
not sure such things can be 
used by hobbyists, the fol- 
lowing is a description of the 
RCA 70/752 Video Data Ter- 
minal, shown in Photo 1 , and 
how I put it to use. For those 



of you who recognized it as ^i 
bargain and have one in your 
garage, drag it out, because 
the modifications 111 describe 
can be completed in minutes. 

The Bargain 

One day while watching 
my home brew 8008 system 
blink its LEDs magically, the 
mail brought me a flyer 
advertising the RCA 70/752 
VDT (Video Data Terminal} 
with spare parts for $200. 
Smelling a bargain^ 1 rushed 
to the store to examine it. ft 
was a complete terminal with 
a 12-inch display of 20 lines 
of 54 characters (1080 total) 
and a detachable matching 
keyboard. It used a 1200 
baud RS-232 interface and 
had internal memory. The 
keyboard was mechanical 
(IBM style) but was missing 
parts. The keyboard en- 
closure had extra function 
keys for cursor control and 
for editing, including single 
character erase, single line 
erase, full screen erase, and a 
mode for inserting data such 
as letters left out of words. 
There seemed to be many 
circuit boards inside with 
discrete components that had 
easily identifiable markings 
(2N3904, .01 uF, etc.). That 






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Fig. h Summary of modifications. Circuits for mode decoding 
and Screen Erase are shown before and after ciianges. 



was important, because it 
told me that replacement 
parts for those boards would 
not be hard to find, and the 
type numbers indicated that 
the equipment was not very 
old. A card rack holding up 
to six cards was found inside 
the rear cover^ but two cards 
were missing- That could 
present a problem, I thought, 
because the cards that were 
there had up to 48 ICs on 
them and none of the ICs had 
recognizable numbers. There 



were two muffin fans, a 
sturdy cabinet, and a healthy 
looking power supply. The 
spare parts turned out to be 
an extra matching cabinet 
(for a vector graphics display 
later??), a spare CRT and 
yoke (new), most: of the 
power supply parts, and 
several spare boards (non- 
logic). A quality control tag 
inside the cabinet indicated 
^^embly only three years 
previously! Encouraged, I 
dragged the thing to an ac 



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Plioto 2 Th§ mecfTanicai keyboard was repiaced by an electronic i^ey board. Tfie cursor and 
editing controfs are on the riglitside of the controt console. 



149 



outlet, plugged it in, and, 
with fear in the salesman's 
eyes, turned it on* After what 
seemed like hours, lOSO char- 
acters appeared on the screen 
. , . all garbage . » * but did 
light up and draw current, so 
1 bought it 

During the following 
weeks, I must have disassem- 
bled and reassembled the 
thing four or five times, 
trying to uncover its secrets, I 
learned that it used a mono- 
scope for character genera- 
tiori {good ^ief!]. Imagine 
uang 3 second special CRT to 
generate character video 
when a handful of tCs will do 
the same job! It also em- 
ployed a magneto-sirictive 
delay line memory (definilely 
not Altair bus compatible), 
which was no more than a 
long wire coiled up in a box. I 
had visions of trying to toad 
it up on 80 meters as a 
compact antenna for my ham 
activities! The keyboard 
generated a 64 character 
ASCII subset with special 
characters for multiply (x), 
divide t^^), and ETX (end of 
text)* It looked great but 



wouldn't work with two of 
the boards missing and the 
motor gpne from the key- 
board. I recognized my lack 
of mechanical aptitude and 
scrapped the old keyboard, 
building an electronic one to 
replace it* ! used a keyboard 
that js widely advertised for 
around $20 and a KR-2376 
keyboard ROM (see Photo 2). 
Since 1 didn't know which 
family of ICs I was dealing 
with in the terminal, I buf- 
fered the keyboard ROM 
with TTL, hooked it to the 
terminal, and applied the 
standard tests. No smoke, 
voltage levels okay, but no 
other response. After talking 
ii up with many people, I 
located someone who had a 
752 VDT working and bor- 
rowed his logic boards. It 
worked to some extent, but 
the characters were badly 
distorted. After replacing the 
video driver board with the 
new one from my spare parts, 
it worked perfectly! 

I soon learned that the 
VDT operated only in the 
Screen Read mode. That is, 
the operator creates a mes- 



sage by pushing the Write key 
and typing the desired data. 
The ETX key must be the last 
character typed in. Editing 
can be done, as if off-line, 
using the editing keys I men- 
tioned earlier* When finished, 
the XMT key must be pushed 
to transmit the data to the 
computer. Everything on the 
screen is transmitted, up to 
and including the ETX char- 
acter. The VDT automatically 
inserts an STX (start of text) 
character at the beginning of 
the transmission. When trans- 
mission at 1 200 baud is cc»m- 
pleted, the VDT switches to 
the receive mode, with the 
keyboard and function keys 
disabled The computer may 
then reply, but must bracket 
its message between the STX 
and ETX characters also. 
When the VDT receives the 
ETX, it reverts to the Write 
mode, with the computer's 
reply on the screen and every* 
thing else erased. 

At this point I was reason- 
ably happy • After alt, the 
only thing left to do was find 
my own logic boards to re- 
place the ones I had bor- 




Photo 3. Rear view of the Video Data Terminal showing the logic card rack, RS-232 connector^ 
and menTory on the left, f^wer supply with integral fan is on the ri0it. 



rowed and must return- I had 
considered the insane idea of 
duplicating the boards, but 
double-sided boards are tough 
enough without considering 
four layered boards (as these 
were). However, I reasoned, if 
I could decipher the logic 
family, I could simply wire* 
wrap the two boards I 
needed. After several itera- 
tions of sort and compare, I 
almost settled on DTL as the 
probable family. Vcc 
appeared always on pin 14 
and ground on pin 7 (could 
be TTL). Vcc was set at +4.5 
volts, a little low for TTL, 
Then^ while trying to repair a 
bad connection I had created,, 
I noticed that someone had 
mercifully installed an 
MC851 P one-shot on the A21 
filter board, DTL it isl To 
make a long story shorter^ I 
succeeded in wire-wrapping 
the two boards using Motoro- 
la MC830/930 or equivalent 
ICs. The new boards just fit 
in the rack after trimming the 
wire-wrap pins on the 
sockets. My bargain terminal 
was working on its own for 
^n investment of $250 and a 
lot of my time. 

Compatibility 

Or was it? Yes, in part, but 
a working component does 
not make a working system* 
Having all data bracketed by 
STX and ETX became a sore 
point for me. Many of my 
progams required three char- 
acters from the VDT (STX, 
desired character, ETX). 
Also, the VDT always seemed 
to be in the wrong mode. 
There were two possible solu- 
tions to this problem: soft- 
ware adaptation or hardware 
modification. Software 
adaptation is cheaper for the 
hobbyist, so I tried that firsL 
My input routine was written 
to grab at least two characters 
from the VDT before return- 
ing to the calling program, 
each time checking to see if 
an ETX had been received, tf 
it was received, the progj'am 
sent an STX to the terminal 
to put it into the receive 
mode. If ETX had not yet 
been received, more data was 
forthcoming from the ter- 



liO 



minaL I found it best to never 
send ETX to the VDT, since 
that would switch it to the 
Write mode, and the possi- 
bility of losing the next com- 
puter output was very real. 
This scheme worl<s very well 
and served me for some time. 
At least two weeks or more. 
Not willing to leave well 
enough alone, I favored a 
hardware modification to the 
752 to allow full duplex oper- 
ation without having to deal 
with the STX and ETX char- 
acters. The criteria were that 
the VDT should always be 
ready to receive at 1200 
baud, the cursor controls 
should always be enabled^ the 
keyboard should provide 
parallel data directly to the 
computer, and there should 
M m requirement for the 
program to echo the key- 
board to the display. In addi- 
tion, I wanted the Screen 
Erase and Cursor Home func- 
tions to be under software 
control. It sounded like quite 
a task, but turned out to be a 
very simple modification. 

Modifications 

The logic cards are num- 
bered Al through A6 from 
left to right when facing the 
fear of the cabinet (see Photo 
3). Remove A2, second from 
the left, and position it with 

the component side up and 
the edge connector to the 

right (Number the IC posi- 
tions starting at the upper 
left. Positions with no ICs 
inserted are also numbered. 
You should end up with the 
ICs along the edge connector 
numbered as 4, 8, 12, etc., 
from top to bottom (see 
Photo 4). Now carefully 
remove IC14, IC15, IC16, 
iCn, IC18, IC19, and IC20. 1 
found a solder sucker to be 
valuable here. If you too have 
wire -wrapped boards^ simply 
unplug the ICs. These tCs 
decode which mode the ter- 
minal is in, and with them 
removed, it is in no mode at 
alL Next, solder a jumper 
wire between the holes where 
IC19 pin 6 and IC19 pin 7 
wer e inserte d. This grounds 
the Mode 1 3 line and puts the 
terminal in the basic receive 



mode. You are done if you 
don*t care about the other 
criteria I established. To 
enable the cursor controls 
and allow fqr direct keyboard 
entry to the display, remove 
the wire- wrap wire from pin 3 
of the A2 connector (on the 
chassis) and connect it to 
ground. This modification 
enables the Write mode (with 
the Receive mode still active). 
Parallel data is taken directly 
from the keyboard, or from 
where the keyboard connects 
inside the VDT, on the A21 
filter board. If you are using 
the mechanical keyboard, 
you wil! be able to bring out 
the Keyboard Strobe signal 
from the A3 board. Pin 44 is 
active low and pin 46 is active 
high. 

ff you want software con- 
trol of the Screen Erase and 
Cursor Home functions, a less 
elegant modification can be 
made. Remove !C39 from the 
A2 board and bend pin 8 of 
the IC up so that it will no 
longer make contact with the 
board. Put the IC back into 
position 39 where it was. Run 
a jumper wire from pin 8 of 
IC39 (the one just bent) over 



to either pin 2 or pin 8 of 
IC34 on the A4 board. Use a 
Connector of some sort so 
that the two boards may be 
easily separated later. This 
change creates a wire-ored 
connection between the 
Screen Erase function and the 
ETX detector. Now each time 
' ETX is received by the ter- 
minal, the screen will be 
erased and the cursor will 
home to the upper left-hand 
corner. The VDT accom- 
plishes this by zeroing the 
delay line memory. This takes 
one frame time, or 16.7 milli- 
seconds. A software delay 
must be provided to prevent 
the computer from sending 
more data during the erase 
time. These modifications are 
summarized in Fig. 1. 

Improvements 

The modifications just 
described will prohibit Screen 
Read operation. To retain 
that feature, a more elaborate 
scheme could be used which 
gates the decoding ICs on the 
A2 board using a single 
switch to choose the type of 
operation you want. A UART 
could be added to the key- 



board to provide serial trans- 
mission in both directions. 

Conclusion 

The RCA 752, although 
ancient by today's standards 
and techniques, comes avail- 
able to the hobbyist for just 
that reason. Yet it can pro- 
vide a low cost terminal with 
features that demand a very 
high premium if purchased 
new. If you come across one, 
you might also look for some 
of the other options available 
with it (and similar surplus 
terminals). Those options 
include the capability of plug- 
ging in a printer for hard 
copy direct from the screen, 
and a variable screen format 
which provides for almost 
any combination of lines and 
characters/line which total 
1080 characters. 

My thanks to Kurt Lessor 
and Andy Demi and for their 
help in the rejuvenation of 
my terminaL Incidentally, I 
found a Z-80 Digital Group 
system under the Christmas 
tree this year. It uses a TV- 
based philosophy and I saw a 
very nice commercial monitor 
at the surplus store . . . ■ 



mm^^. 




Photo 4. A typical logic board. ICs are numbered starting at the upper left 



151 



Circuit board with components. fC-22S plug, dip switch, and diodes are ail the parts required. 
Circuit board design layout before reduction can be seen beneath parts. 



I 



Bill RichAtz WA4VAF 
4124 Colebrook Road 
CharlaUM NC 2B215 




More Channels for the IC-22S 



-- using dip switches 




Interior view of IC-22S showing wires added to matrix board and soldered to accessory socket 
Note wires are kept close to edge and taped together for a neat installation. 

152 



I corn's introduction of the 
22S has ended the day of 
waiting for the mailman to 
bring those crystals for a 
pai^cular frequency - that 
is, if you happen to own one 
of these little marvels. 

The very same day I pur- 
chased my rig from the local 
dealer, I had completely pro- 
grammed the matrix board 
for 22 channels by nightfall. 
For those of you thai have 
not seen, heard, or owned the 
22S, let me explain. Switch- 
ing diodes are soldered to a 
very small matrix board 
which is plugged into the 
transceiver, A chart in the 
instruction manual indicates 
placement of the diodes for 
128 frequency combinations^ 
with 15 kHz spacing. A chan- 
nel switch allows you to 
select one of 23 programmed 



Fig. h Matrix board of 10225. 



n 



t2S 



£4 



U 



?^ 



04 



e 



02 

4 



2 



DO 

t 



frequencies. I will not go into 
detail how this works; the 
important thing is, one need 
newer purchase another 
crystal. 

This brings us to the reason 
for this article. With 22 chan- 
nels already programmed, I 
had only room left for one 
channel, which I had decided 
to add at some future date* I 
began looking at additional 
frequencies that ! could pro- 
gram into the 22S, and 
discovered there were quite a 
few. Once I picked ihc final 
un programmed frequency 
and soldered in the diodes, I 
was finished. I would really 
be in worse shape than a 
crystal rig owner* He could 
change frequencies just by 
pulling a crystal out and 
plugging another in. To 
change a frequency in the 
22S entailed the removal of a 
diode or two, and adding 
others into their proper posi- 
tions. ! found, while soldering 
the diodes to the board, that 
to make a mistake and have 
to remove o^ required three 
hands. The board itself would 
not take this type of abuse 
too many times. 

At this point 1 decided 
there should be some way to 
switch those diodes in and 
out externally. After all, 
there are 128 selections av«7^ 
able, and I might as well be 
able to take advantage of 
their use. One reason I had 
not programmed channel 23 
was the deletion of a wire 
from the channel selector 
switch to the 23rd position 



Matrix Board 


128 


Diode Po'sition 


D7 


or 




Dip Switch On 


8 


146.34 MHz 


X 


147.18 MHz 


X 



64 



32 



De D5 



6 



16 



D4 



8 



O3 



on the matrix board. For 
some unknown reason, Icom 
overlooked this. There was a 
blank lug on the channel 
selector switch, so I ran a 
smalt stranded wire, similar to 
the others, from the blank lug 
to the 23rd position on the 
board. Channel 23 became 
the first white dot after chan- 
nel 22. This was also to be 
the channel I would be able 
to program externally, by 



X X 

some type of switching ar- 
rangement 

By careful inspection of 
the matrix board and the 
schematic, I had a working 
idea of the design. The anode 
of each diode on a specific 
channel has 9 votts applied to 
it by selection of the channel 
switch. Their anodes are also 
common to each other- The 
cathodes of the diodes are 
soldered into selected holes 



Di 


Do 


2 


1 


X 




X 





marked Dq to D7, By simple 
mathematics, I concluded it 
would take 9 wires to run 
from the board to a switching 
arrangement The accessory 
socket just happens to have 9 
lugs to run the 9 wires. One 
of these lugs has a blue wire 
soldered to it, which ts a 
metering point for the dis- 
criminator. Another lug is 
grounded with a ,01 capacitor 
soldered between the blue 




® 



Fig. 3. Foil side of PC board shown actual size. 




Fig, 4. Parts piacement. Parts side of PC board with switches. Note pin 6 is the common anode 
fug, while the other lugs have the wires on accessory socket going to the matrix board soldered 
to them to allow the board to be positioned parallel to the 22S. The prototype protruded 
downward in a precarious position. Also note that the plug is soldered onto the foil side of the 

board. 



153 



■■ 



Tl 




Prototype board plugged into accessory socket of fC-22S. The author stif I uses this original on 
trips. The new board is a snugger fit, but the accessory socket had to be wired differently since 
the board was rotated to the left by 90 degrees. 



wire and the ground lug* 
These were removed from the 
socket* The blue wire was 
rolled up and taped aside, 
while the capacitor was saved 
and the ground connection 
rennoved from the other tug. 
This allowed me to return the 
rfg to the original condition 
at any time* 

Ai this stage 1 ran a wire 
from the common anode 
connection of channel 23 of 
the matrix board to pin 6 on 
the accessory socket. At each 
diode position where the 
cathodes were normally con- 
nected (numbered DQp Di, 
D2 on to D7; see Fig, 1)^ I 
soldered a small wire and ran 
these to the socket and 
soldered them to lugs 1 to 8. 



Now all I needed was external 

switching that would permit 
me to switch each diode in or 
out of the circuit I ruled out 
some sort of minibox with 
toggle switches as being too 
bulky and also distracting 
from the clean-cut looking 
design of the 22S, 

Sometime back, while 
thumbing through 73 looking 
over the ads in the I/O sec- 
tion, I came across a 16 pin 
mini-dip rocker switch. I 
decided this would be my 
switching device. Can't get 
much smaller than that. Since 
I had to plug the accessory 
plug into the rear socket, I 
proceeded to design a PC 
board which would be 
soldered directly to the pins 



f- 



I 2 



3 
1" 
I 4 



i^ 



1 1 






PLUG SOLDERED 
TO PX. QOMC) 



1 



n 



■• 04 



-• OS 



±± 



I > 



fl 



■• m 



■* or 



22-S MATRIX Q04.PfD 



. 7 I 

> i 



- COHMW ANODE 
4 00 



> 



a 



t 



>^ 



■« 01 



-* DZ 



^ J 



9- PIN ^tcesgoflv 

SOCKET 



Fig. 5. Connections from 9 pin accessory socket to channel 23 
on 225 matrix board. 



on the rear of the plug- Just 
unscrew the cap on the plug 

and discard. I came up with a 
very small board which, when 
soldered to the plug along 
with the mini*dip rocker 
switch and 8 diodeSj made a 
neat package that allowed me 
to plug the whole thing into 
the tC-22S, 

The mini-dip rocker switch 
interconnects the plug and 
the 8 diodes. All the anodes 
run directly to pin 6, The 
cathodes can be switched in 
or out, or off and on, as the 
rocker switches read - thus, 
instant programming at the 
flip of a dip switch, just look 
up the frequency on the chart 
in the instruction manual^ 
and push the switches on or 
off with the tip of a ballpoint 
pen. The scheme works as if 
they were soldered to the 
matrix board itself, and I 
have found no undesired 
effects. 

One word of caution: 
Don't try to do this while 
driving on the freeway, I 
usually throw the thing into 
the glove compartment for 
trips out of town or a vaca- 
tion* The night before^ I 
check my road map along 
with the 73 Repeater Atlas. If 
3 set of strange repeater fre- 
quencies come up Pd like to 



be able to work, out comes 
the little board. With the aid 
of the programming manual, 
in less than a minute I'm 
read^' for that heretofore un- 
accessible repeater. The dip 
switch is numbered 1 to 8. I 
knew I'd have to remember 
the program is Dq to D7, or 
relabel the program D] to 
Dg. This is what I did; I had 
it reduced about Ya the size of 
the orignal and then lam- 
inated. 

What do you do if you 
lose your programming chart 
or forget it? Here is a simple 
formula that wilt give you the 
diode placement or switching 
input for the minl-dip switch: 



N = (f-l 46.010) + 108 



where N = Number, f - 
quency desired in MHz» 

Example: frequency 
sired (f)^ 146.34, 



" fre- 



de- 



N = (146.34 14€.QtO) + 108 



.015 



N = .33 + 1 OS 



.015 



ISJ = 22 + 1 08 



N = 130 



The programming table 
refers to this number under 
total ^'N". If you look at 130 
in your manual, you will see 
it is indeed 14634. But how 
does this number help in 
positioning of the diodes or, 
in our case, the switching of 
the external programmer? If 
you will notice the matrix 
board to which the diodes are 
soldered, you will see the 
numbers below each diode 
position. Starting with D7, 
the number below it is 128, 
while Dg is 64 and D5 is 32. 
We can see at once each 
number is halved. You should 
be able to remember this; if 
not, make a chart as shown in 
Fig. 2f used for the example 
above. 

Recall that earlier we 
received an answer of 1 30 for 
the frequency of 14634. To 
obtain the position of each 
switch, simply find the largest 
number on the chart that will 
divide into our number of 



154 



130 (128 in this case). Put an 
X under D7 or switch 8 
depending on how you make 
up your chart. We now find 
that we have a remainder of 
2, Find the next highest 
number on the chan: that will 
divide into 2. Position D-j or 
switch 2 will be found under 
the number of 2, wUh no 
remainder. Put an X at this 
position. When you have 
divided the remainder by the 
largest number each time, and 
finally have no remainder, 
you have completed the pro- 
gram. Be sure to mark an X in 
each position you used that 
number. Let's take a more 
complex example to see what 
happens when the number is 
too small to be divided by 
one of the 8 numbers on ihe 
chart* 

Example: frequency do* 
sired {!] = 147.180 MHz, 

H ^ (147.180 ^ 1 46-01 OJ + 108 
N = t.170+ ICm 



.015 



N- 78+ T08 



H ^ 186 



Therefore: 186^128=1 
with a remainder of 58 (X at 
Position D7). 58 cannot be 
divided by 64 50 leave posi* 
tion Dg blank. 58 can be 
divided by 32, so put an X at 
position D5, We now have a 
remainder of 26. 26 can be 
divided by 16, so put an X at 
D4. The remainder is now 10, 
which can be divided by 8. 
Put an X at position D3. 4 
will not divide into our 




Externa! frequency programming boards on IC-22S. Board on right is prototype. Board at left is 
the new design which fits rear of the 22S a bit snugger. Note plug is soldered to foil side of 
boards^ 



remainder of 2, so leave D2 
blank. We do put an X at 
position Di, since 2 will 
divide by 2, Since we have no 
remainder. Do is also left 
blank, and that completes the 
program for this particular 
frequency. All that's left to 
do now is switch the mini-dip 
rocker switches to the on 
position under the numbers 
where you have placed an X. 
I carry a copy of this 
formula in my billfold and, 
after several moments of cal- 
culation, I have the correct 
switching inputs. This can be 
explained in computer 
terminology, but this method 
keeps it simple and allows the 
average ham with no back- 
ground of this type to find 



the switch positions without 
cluttering his mind with com- 
puter logic. That's what the 
I/O section is for. 

Back to the external 
switching board. Very few 
parts are required. The acces- 
sory plug comes with the 
22s, as well as the diodes; 
just remember to save 8 of 
them. If you need more, 3 
diode such as the tN914 can 
be found From several mail- 
order houses in 73 at real 
bargains. The same goes for 
the mini-dip switch too, 
although I picked several of 
these up at a local hamfest at 
a buck apiece. Parts place- 
ment is shown in Fig. 4- This 
final layout of the board 
allowed a closer fit to the rig. 



You can outboard the thing 
into a box as I mentioned 
earlier, but for a compact 
neat switching circuit, you 
will probably want to make a 
board, 

I've been using the proto- 
type board \ made for several 
months now. It certainly 
beats carrying a soldering iron 
around with you, and it's like 
having a crystal pack with 
128 crystals at your disposal. 
When I want to change fre- 
quencies, all I do is "flip my 
dip/'" 

Note: A drilled board o^mplete 
with instructions can be obtained 
front the author or from Bn^ant 
Electronics^ 1915 E. Indepen- 
dence Blvd., Charioitfi MC 28205, 
for $4 ppd. 




MULTJ-BAND ANTENNA TRAPS 

H«viriq irauble rmdiaq aL'^p^n fcr ui fiO mcluT dipole?' 
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PACE TRAPS 

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PIS 



(S) 



Bearcat fp/u Scanner 




$289. 

The Bearcat 210 super synthestzed receiver 
scans am searches 32-50, 146-174 & 
416^512 MHr withoLil e>f pensive crysUJs 
Order now on oyr 24 fiour toll-free credit 
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I 




COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONICS 
P.O. BOX 1002 DEPT.2D 
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48106 





csj 



155 



Rick Ferrami WA6NCX/1 
1 4 Divmitf Ave. # J 7 
Harvard University 
Cambridge MA 02 J 3S 



Try a 
Scandie -Talkie 



-- build a scanning HT 



One of the most all-time 
popular and universally 
Utilized amateur radio trans* 
clivers is the two meter FM 
handie-talkie. Proudly dis- 
played by their owners, they 



appear at hamfests, flea mar- 
kctSj walkathonSp parades, 
and other public service 
events as the easiesl, most 
reliable form of quick com- 
munication. More and more 




Photo h Scandle-talkie and obviousfy gfeeful author m dorm 
room ham shack. 



156 



mobile ops use them so they 

can take their rigs along from 
their cars, preventing theft of 
a car-mounted FM trans- 
ceiver. Dangling one from 
your belt has the added 
advantage of imbuing you 
with instant high-class ham 
radio social status* Anyway^ 
they're great fun. But the 
problem for the uniniliatcd 
has always been trying to gel 
one of your own for some- 
thing less than the minor 
fortune required for most of 
these gems. 

This article explains how 
easy it is to home brew/kit- 
bash your own HT, with 
features of no other talkie 
available any where , and at a 
tow cost. Its features are: 

Four channel scanning 
receiver, one channel (easily 
expanded) transmitter. The 
scanning feature lets you 
monitor several repeaters at 
once, or a mix of repeater 
and simplex channels. Don't 
miss a call from a friend 
because you couldn't listen to 
more than one frequency; 
now you can *'time*share*' 
your channel snooping! Of 
course, you can always swilch 
to the manual mode or lock 
out channels you don't want 
to scan at any time. 



FIrst'Class performance, 
with highly selective sensitive 
receiver and 1 Watt trans- 
miller- The receiver section is 
the most important pari of 
any rig, and this one has big 
advantages over using a 
cheapie tunable police band 
monitor as the receive section 
of the HT. Two rf stages, 
double conversion, two 
ceramic i-f filtcrSj and crys- 
tal-contrallcd. No mickey- 
mouse compromises, 

Easy-to-get main parts; the 
receiver is ready-made, the 
transmitter is an easily built 
kit 

Lower cost than the least 
expensive commercial HT! 
Even if you bought every- 
thing new, it would only 
come to about $135 (and 
don't forget this one scans). 
If youVc not too impatient 
and like to attend flea mar- 
kets or auctions, you can 
build it for about $50-75. 

Hand-held designed so that 
the receiver alone can be 
removed in seconds, its ovvn 
battery pack snapped in, and 
used as a pocket scanning 
monitor. 

External mike built in; no 
need to go to extra expense 
since everyone uses one 
anyway. Push-to-talk, of 
course. 

The Receiver Section 

The receiver I used for my 
scan die-talkie is a Radio 
Shack Realistic (registered 
trademark) PRO-5 UHF 
pocket scanner, which I con- 
verted to two meters. Radio 
Shack also manufactures a 
PRO^A VHF-high band only 
pocket scanner, as well as a 
PRO-6 VHF-high/low band 
model. Other pocket receivers 
are made by Pace, Johnson, 
and several scanner manufac- 
turers. Alternately^ Tempo 
makes a new tiny pocket 
scanning receiver, and a 12 
channel fixed receiver which 
could be used* Ail are excel* 
lent receivers, and when 
tuned up as outlined below, 
compare with the best com- 
mercial HT receiver. Their 
selectivity alone makes it 
worth the nominal extra cost 
over a tunable public service 




Photo 2 Note classy poster backdrop, a /so coffapsibfe whip 
antenna stuck into antenna /ack of HT. 



band receiver — a PSB rig just 
won't cut it unless there's 
only one very strong local 
repeater and you don't like 
simplex operation! 

I bought my well-used 
scanner for $15. I've seen 
them go for $30^5 al flea 
markets and auctions, if you 
want to wait for one* You II 
save a gpod deal of cash if 
you do wait — particularly if 
you can bargain person-to- 
person at a flea market table 
and not gel stuck bidding 
away your savings in an 
auction. Of course, you can 
buy a brand new shiny one at 
Radio Shack almost any- 
where. The modifications 1 
describe here won't lower the 
resale value in any way, nor 
destroy the rig's appearance. 
All can be restored to the 
original. 

If you get a PR0-4A, 5, or 
6, the Rrst step is to remove 
the batteries in their little 
snap«in case. Save this case 
because you can use it when 
you want separate monitor- 
6nly operation. Remove the 
two screws at the bottom of 
the case, squeeze the sides of 
the case half (with the 
speaker grill on it) near the 
crystal socket cover, and pull 
the bottom of the case back 
and away. There's a screw in 
the middle of the PC board, 
and when you remove it, you 
can separate the other half of 



the case from the board. 

Look at Photo 5 and 
notice the small PC board 
mounted on top of the larger 
one. That smaller board has 
the front-end and mixer 
which determines the band 
for which the receiver was 
designed. The larger PC board 
has the i-fs, filters, oscillators, 
and scanning/audio/squelch 
circuits — they're essentially 
the same for all three models. 

Of course, the VHF-high 
and VHF-high/low band 
models, the PR0-4Aand the 
PRO'6, don*l need conver- 
sion, only tuning to optimize 
their t\vo meter performance- 
More on this later. To convert 
the UHF PRO-5 receiver to 
two meters, all you have to 
do is make some air-wound 
coils to replace the three 
UHF hairpin coils on the 
front-end /mixer board- You 
can see the ones I made in the 
photo, on the small board. 
They are 6 turns, #22 solid 
tinned wire, 5/16'' long and 
Va* in diameter each. To 
replace the originals with 
these, use a solder sucker and 
schlumpf up the solder on the 
pins which hold the small 
board to the larger one. 
Gently pry the two boards 
apart Now use the solder 
sucker to remove the solder 
from the ends of the three 
UHF coifs, and also from the 
tap wires where they connect 



COM 
MO 



co«i 

no 



-m to TO RtCEJVEH rXTTRNUL ANTENN4 JACK INP1 T 



T& ANTeNNA JACK 
■*TO TRANSMITTER OOTPUT 



I30A 



■*»(2V&C TO 



IZVOC 




TO Wf CeiVE H 
• AATTEftr 



fJV SATTE^ff PtktM 



Fig, L Hand-held wiring schematic, showing relay hookups 
and receiver 6 V regulator wiring. 



to the coiISp Leave the tap 
wires in the board. Now 
solder in the new coils, and 
put the taps at about the 
same relative position on 
these coils as on the UHF 
ones (e.g., if the UHF tap was 
about V4 of the way op from 
one end of the total winding, 
the VHF tap position would 
also be Va way up the total 
winding). Save the UHF coils 
in case you ever want to put 
the receiver back on that 
band. Clean, remount, and 
solder the front-end/mixer 
board back on the main PC 
board, and youVe finished 
with this simple conversion. 
Once youVe got the VHF 
coils in place, tuning up the 
receiver is just like tuning up 
the VHF^igh and YHF-high/ 
low models — tweaking three 
trimmers and two coil slugs. 
Tuning all three models is 
strongly recommended for 
maximum performance on 
two meters, since all these 
radios come from the factory 
stagger-tuned for a broad 
response from the 148-170 
MHz. This leads to poor sensi- 



tivity on 146 MHz and some- 
times severe image and cross- 
talk problems. If you 
maximize the front-end 
response for on a frequency 
near midband in the FM 
segment of two meters, all 
those bad responses disappear 
and the sensitivity is much 
enhanced. 

I tuned my receiver by 
inserting a 2 meter crystal, 
listening to a weak signal, and 
peaking the three trimmers 
on the front-end board for 
maximum response. Use an 
insulated tool for this! Then I 
touched up the i-f input coil, 
shown on the photo next to 
the front-end board. With the 
weak signal input removed, 
adjust the oscillator coil (near 
the crystals) for maximum 
noise. Repeat the procedure a 
few times — be sure to keep 
the input signal well below 
full noise quieting — and 
optimize the front-end 
trimmers as a last step. Now 
youVe got a first-quality 
selective scanner with a sensi- 
tivity of about 0.5 u V. By the 
way, Radio Shack has avail- 




Photo 3. Close-up of talkie with author's other ham gonk. 
Rubber dually installed; microphone on its bracket. 



157 





TOfi CLAUP € VrVS/QllfS (ifiCti£Sf 




^ 



(m€H£Si 




Fig, 2. Alummiim cme, cfamp dimensions^ and fold fines* 



able on order service manuals 
for the PRO series; these are 
about $2 each* The one for 
lhePRO^5is#20-169. 

Hint: A good weak-signal 
source is a cheapie tunable 
VHF-hIgh band police re- 
ceiver. Tune it to about 157 
MHz and listen for its oscil- 
lator (at about 146 MHz) on 
the scanner. Orient the two 
for the signal level needed- Be 



sure ID tune the police radio 
carefully — these pocket 
scanners are very selective 
and you might swish the 
oscillator right through their 
passl^ajid. 

Since you It need crystals 
for this gem, Radio Shack can 
supply them {fast!) for $6 a 
throw. If they're not in stock 
at the store for ihe fre- 
quencies you want, they will 





cyr OUT FOR 

JACK IND 

SWITCH 

^LEAliAhCE 



CAnoaoARO smemth 

-NOT TO SCfiLE- 




B*TTEHir 



Fig, 3. Cardboard sheath dimensions and fofding guick. 



Photo 4, Another view showing belt dip^ jacks^ and power 
switch. 



have them sent within a 
week. However, regular moni- 
tor crystals work fine (3rd 
overtonei approximately 45 

MHz output) and are usually 
cheaper. Tufts Radio carries 
this type for $4.50. I have an 
I com IC-22A and alas! its 
receiver crystals don't work. 
The 22 A uses 1 5 MHz funda- 
mental crystals and they will 
oscillate in the scanner, but in 
a third-overtone mode» about 
30 to 60 kHz off their 
marked frequency! Oh, well, 
monitor crystals are cheap 
and easy to get . . . 

The Transmitter 

The model TX-144 trans- 
mitter can be purchased in kit 
form from VHF Engineering, 
320 Water Street, Bingham- 
ton, New York 13092. It is 
well designed, easy to build, 
costs only $29.95, and puts 
out a peppy, well-modulated 
1 Watt signal- Mine is 
mounted with brass brackets 
that hold it about 1/16" off 
the HT case, soldered to each 
end of the PC board. The 
transmitter will take any 
low-impedance (500 Ohms) 
microphone, including a 
carbon mike, which is what I 
used. Follow the directions 
with the kit to sec how to 
hook up any variety of micro- 
phone you may have handy - 

By the way, the carbon 
mike you see in the photos is 
a Telex TE 1-660 noise-can* 
celling affair, the classy kind 
you see private pilots using. 
Mine, in fact, did come from 
a well-worn aircraft It's ideal 
for a handie-talkie because it 
tends to reject wind, street, 



or other noises normally 
present in portable opera- 
tions. It*s also quite light- 

weight. 

Crystalling up the trans- 
mitter is a bit more simple 
than the receiver. Icom 
crystals work, as do any 
crystal in the 18 MHz range. 
These are available nearly 
anywhere. You may find, as 1 
did, that the capacitor in 
parallel with the TX-144's 
crystal trimmer is a bit too 
targe. I changed it to a 12 pF 
ceramic irimmer (it was 22 
pF fixed silver mica), and 
now all the crystals tune in 
on frequency when the main 
trimmer is at half-mesh. 

I have used this single- 
channel version for months 
now, but shoutd you want 
more transmit channel capa- 
bility (you already have 4 
receive channels), it's a simple 
matter to add a few more 
crystal sockets. Mount a 
micro "PC board" size rotary 
switch on the case under- 
neath the mike jack. There is 
plenty of room, as you can 
see in Photo 6. 

Wiring and Switching 

Fig. 1 gives the wiring 
schematic for the trans- 
mitter-receiver. The relay 
performs two functions - 
switches the antenna from 
the receiver to the trans- 
mitter, and similarly switches 
the -1-12 V dc line between 
the two. This relay is a tiny 
little 12 V affair I found at a 
flea market, Potter and 
Brumfield HP4038. Most any 
kind of small 12 volt DPDT 
relay should work. It should 



168 



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F/(?. 4, Assembly sketches. 



be mounted as close to the 
antenna jack and transmitter 
power output port as pos- 
sible. Short leads minimize 
losses! The receiver signal is 
routed through a short length 
of RG-174/U subminiature 
coax to a mini phone plug 
which connects into the 
external antenna jack of the 
scanner. It goes through a 
grommet where it passes 
through the metal case. The 
photo^: reveal alL 

The scanning receiver uses 
6 V dc while the transmitter 
runs on 12 V. Rather than 
having awkward p!ug3 stick- 
ing out all over the thing, or 
running the receiver off its 
own batteries and having to 
use a complicated relay, I 
made a 6 V regulator built 
around two insulated mint 
ahigator clips. The clips go on 
the receiver's battery contacts 
and the zener diode and resis- 
tor fit neatly in the vacant 
battery compartment. Now 
everything in the HT runs off 
1 2 V. Then, if you ever want 
to use the receiver separately, 
you just unclip the regulator 
and snap in the original bat- 
tery pack. Versatility! 

Don't forget to include the 
charging jack for the hand- 
held 's batteries. It's switched 
in when you turn the rig off, 
and also provides direct 
access to the 12 V supply at 
that jack so you can run 
other projects off the bat- 
teries without taking them 
out of the case. 



The Case — Boxing It Up 

The case is made from a 
sheet of aluminum 1/16'* 
thick. Fig. 2 shows the 
dimensions and folding lines. 
It's not too difficult to bend 
with a bench vise and a good 
supply of hardwood blocks. 
Use a mallet and cloth to 
avoid hammermarks and vise 
teethmarks. 

The top lip is drilled and 
filed out to accept the 
SO-239 antenna jack* Or, you 
can mount a BNC jack there 
instead, Don*t forget a hole 
for the receiver's antenna 
coax, big enough so a 
grommet will fit there. The 
tittle clamp-bracket shown 
slips over the case and holds 
the receiver's top section in 
place, the bottom of the 
receiver being held by thie 
case's battery holder lip. 

Looking down the case, 
the charge /1 2 V jack is on the 
left side at the top rear, then 
the power /charge switch, and 
finally the microphone jack. 
The microphone holder 
bracket is mounted at the 
lower front of the left side. 
Be sure you saved the belt 
clip from the pocket scanner 
— mount this at the rear of 
the case so you can hang the 
rig from your belt or any- 
where else you care to clip it. 

Figs, 3 and 4 and Photo 9 
show the way the whole thing 
is put together. The batteries 
are at the bottom; jacks, 
wiring and transmitter are 
mounted at the back of the 




>- ■-■ : V-W*HCi 



Photo 5, Inside PROS receiver^ showing new front-end colls 
and main PC board alignment points. 



case; and then the whole 
thing is covered with a card- 
board sheath so the receiver 
can set on top. Works great, 
Make a hole in the cardboard 
to get access to the transmit 
trimmer and crystal, and slip 
another thin sheet of card- 
stock over it so the receiver's 
regulator wiring doesn't get 
into the transmitter through 



the hole. The receiver is 
pressed into the case with 
heavy felt placed at either 
side of its cabinet, then the 
top clamp is slipped over the 
whole works. The top clamp 
also has some felt at its inside 
front, so that the receiver is 
firmly cradled into place with 
the thick felt. The result is a 
rugged m ar-f ree com pact 




Photo & Cardboard sheath removed^ looking down Into 
battery compartment. Notice the 6 V regulator zener and 
resistor clipped Inside receiver. 



159 





Photo 7. Close-up of the business end of the HT^ showing the Photo 8, Case, sheath, clamp, receiver, and feli ready to go 
relay wiring. together. 



uniL 

Batteries 

The battery choice is 
pretty much left to the 
builder, but I strongly recom- 
mend using nicads instead of 
carbon-ztncs. The design 
leaves room for the TO nicads 
I've lashed togpther with 
cable ties, as shown in the 
photos and figures. The car* 



board sheath for the rest of 

the transmitter/power circuits 
also extends to cover the top 
of the batteries so their 
power connectors (made 
fronn the tops of old 9 V 
batteries) won't short out 
against the metal case. 

Results and Conclusion 

This HT is no toy, nor 
does it involve any com- 



promises. Its performance 
emphasizes this over and over 
again- It hears 'em all and 
talks up there with the higher 
power rigs. 

I've had many hams ask 
me if the scan die- talkie was 
commercially built, U always 
gets much interest wherever I 
go, particularly with the 
pretty red blinking LEDs 
scanning across the top 



attracting attention- IVe had 
a great deaf of fun using It for 
quick and reliable portable 
communications. ! never miss 
a call with that scanner going! 
Build this HT and join the 
fun of portable operation 
with a professional looking, 
sounding, and performing rig. 
And this two meter talkie 
does what no other hand-held 
does — it scans! ■ 





Photo 9. Nearly assembled . . < 



Photo JO^ Presto! A super HT! 



160 





♦ 




♦ 



ELECTRONICS COMPANY, INC, 



*'One of the finest names in the industry 



// 



SPECULISTS IN 

High-Power RF transistor components, CMOS integrated 
circuits & associated components. 



WISHES TO ANNOUNCE 



A complete line of amateur KF. and V.II.F. equipment including the best 
names in the business. 

Liberal discounts to licensed amateurs, has been, and still is, our policy — 
trade-ins accepted. 

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Write ox CaJJ 






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2417 WELSH ROAD 
PHILADELPHIA PA 19114 
PHONE: (215)464-1880 



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RX4J2C Kit, 

KX4 3aC W/T 



2S-3S MHz FM reeeivtjr with 2 
pole 10^7 ftp^Hz crystEil nittir . - 
same as above -wired & tested 
30-60 MHz revr w/2 pole 10,7 

MH? crystal filter. ..,,... 
samii as above -wired St tested 
140-170 MH?: rcvr w/2 p< 
10.7 MHz crystal filter . 

same as above— wirfrd & 
210-240 MHi^ rcvr w/2 pi 
10*7 MHz crystal firter 
!f;ame as above- wired & tested 
432 MHif rcvr w/2 pole liO.|; 
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gives 70 dB adjacent channel 

rejection B.SO 

10 mtr RF front end 10,7 WHz out 12.50 
e mtr KF front end 10.7 UHz out 12. SO 
2 mtr RF front end l0.7 MH? out 17. SO 
MHz RF front end 10.7 MHz 



MHz RF front end 10.7 MHi 



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AS 2 Kit. 



.7 MHz IF module include$ 2 

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55 KHi [F stage plu^ FM detector 17.50 

liudio and liquekh board. ..... 15.00 



I j\. ^ *l3 ■ -1 ■ !1 

TX5t)W/T. . 
TX144B Kit. 
TXl44ti W/T 
TX220B Kit . 



transmitter exciter, 1 wattjS6 mtr 
same as above —wired & tested . 
transmitter exciter— 1 watt^^^ mtrs 
same as above— wired & tesl^d- . 
transmitter exciter- Iwatt^fSO 
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TX43|BWn". 
TX154 Kit i: 



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transmitter exciter 432 MHz . . . 39,95 

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300 milliwatt, 2 mtr transmitter - 19,95 

same as above— wired & tested . * 29,95 



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PA2S01H W/T, 
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FA50/25 W/T . 
PA 144/ 15 Kit . 



PA 1 44/2 5 Kit . 
PA220/1S Kit . 
PA432/10 Kit. 

PA 140/10 W/T 
P.A. 1 40/30 W/T 



2 mtt power amp-kit Iwin — 25w 
out with solid state switchings 

ca$e, cgnri(?etor5 . . . 

same as above— wired &, tested . , 
2 mtr power amp-IOw in— 4Qw 

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power amp— similar t?fe^PAl44/15 

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l{)w in-l40w out-2;:fr]tr am 

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CW-FM-SSB/AM 

Power 



tested, emission- 




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45' 5SMHz 
40-1 60MH?. 
40-l60MHi 
40-1&0MHZ 

^^20-2 30MHz 
*^20-230MHz 
|p20'230MHi 
f4 20-4 70 MHz 
420-470MHZ 
420-4 70 Mkz 
^^30'470MHz 



Input 

3W 

lOW 

2W 

lOW 

30W 

2W 

lOW 

low 
low 

2W 
30W 

low 



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Output 

ISOW 

70W 

7 0W 

ISOW 

150W 

60W 

60W 

120W 

40W 

40W 

SOW 

SOW 



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139.95 
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PSlSC W/T 
Pb2SC Kit . 



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PB25M W/T 






15 amp--l2 volt regulated power sup- 
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25 amp — 12 volt regulated power sup- 
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same as above— wired iSt tested , . 149.95 
sa m e as P S 2 5 C with m etjefl ^^^ * * 149,95^ 
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RPTSO Kit. . 
KPT50 , . . . 
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RPT220 Kit . 

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RPT144 W/T 
RPT220 W/T 
RPT432 W/T 
DPLA5 . . . 



in, . 



repeater -6 meter v, 
repeater- 6 meter,^ wireC& tested 
re pea ter ^2 mtr— 1. 5 w — ^;s^rii pi e t C- 
(less crystals) ., ',, ; . . |f . . . . 1- 
repeater— 220 MHz-lSif- com|Sjj: 
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repeater — 1 watt— 432 ^Hz 
(less crystals) . , . . , p", , , . ,_ 
repeater — IS watt— 2 mfC . ^ . T' 
repeater-15 watt-220:MH7. . . 
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6 mtr close spaced duple^-x^r;.^ ;-.:.: ' 



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TRX144 Kit 
TRX220 Kit 
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Complete 6 mtr FM transceiver kit, 
20'W out» 10 channel scan with ease 
(less mike and crystals) > ...... 249, 

same as above^ but 2 mtr &l5w out 2 1 9. 
same as above except for 220 MHz 219 
same as 3bove except 10 watt and 
432 MH2 

transceiv^ case only M . ^™^. * . ' l'^'. 
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2 rntr syfithesize^, transHftltt offsets 
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adapt^iis) . ,t:/ h*| + . . |U , ^ ^.^ 169, 
same H abcjve^wired &. tinted 1% 239, 
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^ IWz optional ttipler . ^^ . . S 2 



HT 1 



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BC12 

Rubber Duck . 



'2 Ti?fi^,^5WiW'^h a n n ^f M^l^^li el d 
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battery pack, 12 VI>C, ^amp. . 
battery charger for above . . . , 
2 mtr* vvitb male BNC connector 




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CDl Kit . . , 

CD2 Kit . . , 

CD 3 Kit . . , 

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S||3 Kit . ^ 



'ID Kiti 



<1|VID . i. . 




TSl W/Il. i 
TSI W/i, . 



] i>J Kit . . . 
TD3W/T . . 
HL144 W/T . 

HL22f^W/T . 
HI 432 W/T . 




10 channel receive Ktal deck 

w/diode switching. $ 

10 channel xmit deck w/svvitch 
and trimmers ........... 

UM fe' iWfi^io n of t"^ O 1 deck, n ^#d*d 
fe 43 2 TTLi!^tli- channel ope|ilftbn. 
carrier operated relay . .f$'. . . . 
10 channel aut^can afSapter 
l"<5r,. k;)t.^^ith prii|rity . = •. . . , -.,...•' 
wsf^s^ioefe.most re^tjntef and si^ipiex 
Pp-s froll 146,0-147.0 (cacl# . 
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© timer^^:- - . - - :^.'-^ . ; . . . . ;> , ^, 
^*|re d a n j^;. t e St e d , ;jfi o.t- pr ogr am m^ 
%vired anp tested ^;:|?rc!jgramm^ 
2,C^Q. i'jiii'ni dyriatnic imike wii-f 
PJ'.Ti'and cnil^jrd '^ . 
tone squelch dljif^oder . ^.j. , , . 
metalled in i^pt«tter, in^^t^ing 
%in:terface a^^^ssories . .' "" 
2 tOnc dt! coder , . . . . 
same as above -wired 4 tested . 
4 pole helical rt»sofiatof, wired ^ tes 
swept tuned to T44 MHz ban , . 
same as above tuned to 220 MH?, ban 
same as above tuned to 432 MHz ban 




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VHF ENGINEERING 

DIVISION OF BROWNIAN ELECTRONICS CORP. 

Box S / 320 Water Street / Binghamton, N.Y. 13901 / Phone 607-723.9574 

Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. Export prices are slightiy higher. 




WALKIE-TALKIE KIT 
HT-144B TWO METER F.M. PORTABLE 

• 2 Watts Minimum 

• 4 Channels 

• ,35 mV for 20dB of quieting 

• Low baiiery drain . . . less than 10 Ma 

• Now you can build a commercial quality walkie talkie at home at half the price. 

• Designed with the ham in mind. Average assembly time, just 10 hours, 

• Small and handy, yel large enough to be assembled with conventional tools. 

• Attraclive, scratch resistant textured finish, 

• Lii^ht weight, sturdy aluminum case. 



KIT * . .— includes crystals for 52 simplex (less batteries). 



WALKIE-TALKIE SPECIFICATIONS 

HT-144B 



Black textured case M/2 x 2-1/2 x 9-1/4 

All tunable coils are prewound 

Transceiver is on one G-10 pred rilled board 

Parts layout silk-screened on boards for easy construction 

Crystal deck is separate pred rilled board 

Weight less batteries — approximately 15 o2. 

Batlery-case is AA size — accepts alkaline or nicad 

External battery charging/power supply jack furnished 

1 dual gate mosFct 2 LC.*s 15 transistors 7 diodes 

Antenna —collapsible 17" whip 

Covers any 2 Mhz segment between 140 and 170 Mhz 

Plenty of room in case for add ons (PL and tone) 




HT-144 TRANSMITTER SPECIFICATIONS: OUTPUT 2 watts miniumum. 3 DB BANDWIDTH 2 
Mhz typical. STABILITY _002 typical (depends on crystal}. SPURIOUS outputs down 30db or belter. 
MODULATION true FM with varactor in crystal circuit. NETTING separate trimmers for each 
channcL DEVIATION adjustable to 7 Khz. AUDIO limiter and active low pass filter. MICROPHONE 
speaker type. CRYSTAL 18 Mhz parallel at 20 pf. MULTfPLICATION FACTOR frequency limes 8. 
CURRENT DRAIN 500 ma lypicaL 

HT-144 RECEIVER SPECIFICATIONS: SENSITIVITY belter than 35uV for 20db quieting, 
SQUELCH THRESHOLD better than .25uV. STABILITY .002 typical (depends on crystal). 
AD1ACENT CHANNEL REJECTION 60 db, SPURIOUS RESPONSES down 70db. FIRST IF 10.7 
Mhz SECOND IF 455 Khz. FILTER 4 pole monolithic 10,7 Mhz crystal. DISCRIMINATOR pretuned 
ceramic 455 Khz. BANDWIDTH 15 Khz at 3db points. CRYSTAL 45 Mb/ parallel at 20pf. CRYSTAL 
FORMULA receive frequency minus 10.7 divided by 3. AUDIO OUTPUT ,5w typical. CURRENT 
DRAIN 10 ma squelched, 100 ma on voice peaks* 

ACCESSORIES: "Rubber Duckie" Antenna (Including BNC Connectors and Adaptor) 

Nicad BaUery Charger _.._..,,..... 

Sealed 1 2V Nkad Battery Pack .....*., 



■ t » » 




ensineering 



320 WATER ST. . BINGHAMTQN, N.V. 11901 Phone #»07'723-9574 



TX-50. TX-144B and TX-220B TRANSMITTER KITS 




MEASURES ONLY 2" X 6" X 1 



tl 



A one watt exciter using four RF transistors, two diodes, and one integraled circuit. The RF transistors are 
operating well below their ratings allowing long keying periods wiihoul damage. The exciter may be used alone 
as a transmitter or with our PA Series amplifiers for a 15 or 25 watt station. Some of the features are: 



Nominal oulput \^A walls 

Deviation adjuslcd to lOKH^ 

IC audio with clipping and active filler 

All spurious outputs down 3Ckib or more 

Tempcraiure compcnsalton crystal trimmer 

Zener regulated oscillator 

Uses readily available 12, 13 or 18 MH^ crystals (13MH2 

for 50, 18MH?for220) 



All tuning coils prewound 

Predrilled and tinned G-10 Circuit board 

Easily buifi and tuned in one evening 

Mulit-channcl option available with addition of CD-2 

crystal deck 

Will easily drive our 15 and 25 watt amplifiers to full 

oulpul 



TX-432 TRANSMITTER KIT 




MEASURES ONLY 2" X 8" X 1' 



A one watt exciter using five RF transistors, two diodes, and one integrated circuit. The RF transistors are operating well 
below their ratings allowing long keying periods without damage. The exciter may be used alone as a transmitter or with our 
PA432/10 amplifier for a 10 watt station. Some of the features arc: 



Nominal output 1 watt 

Deviation adjustable to ±10 KHz 

IC audio with clipping and active filler 

All spurious outputs down 30db or more 

Temperature compensation crystal trimmer 

Zener regulated oscillator 

Uses readily available 18MHz crystals 



Alt tuning coils prewound 

Predrilled and tinned G-iO Circuit board 

Easily built and tuned in one evening 

Multi-channel option available with addition of CD-2 

crystal deck 

Will easily drive our 10 watt amplifier to full output 




ensineerina 



320 WATER ST. ; BINCHAMTON. N.Y. B90I Phone ft07-723 9574 



RECEIVER KITS RX-28C, RX-50C, RX-144C, RX-220C 



W-*^ 



RX-432C 

INEXPENSIVE AND UNIQUE MODULAR CONCEPT 

• Performance equal to commercial equipment 
t • Monitor receivers 

• Repeaters: using our transmitter, 15 or 25 watt amplifier 
and COR modules 

• 10 channel auto-scan receivers: using our SC-1 scanner kit 
and CD-I crystal deck 

• Tranceivers using our transmitter module 

All Receiver kits are dual conversion with squelch and COR output. They may be tuned to any 4 Mhz seg- 
ment between 30 and 230 Mhz, (Coil data is supplied for 30-50, 144-170 and 220-230 Mhz bands,) 

RX 144C SPECIFICATIONS: SENSITIVITY 3uV for 2Ddb quieting, SQUELCH THRESHOLD JuV. 
AUDIO OUTPUT 2 watts, STABILITY better than ±002, IMAGE RE)ECT10N 60db. SPURIOUS RE- 
JECTION greater than 60db. IF REJECTION 80db, FIRST IF 10.7 Mhz, SECOND IF 455 Khz. BAND- 
WIDTH 15 Khz at 3db, 60 Khz at 30db (40 Khz with optional 4 pole fitter). CRYSTAL 45 Mhz parallel at 
20pf(HC/25U holder). 




RX 144C SCHEMATIC 



RP 1440, 



y^2S0D 



AS 2 




*i44r> 



■fl 



. -* 



-t*4 *i>- 



nt :: El 



-tCiiH 



RX50 


RX144C 


60 DB 


60 D8 


40 DB 

* 


40 DB 

* 



IMAGE REJECTION 
AD) AGENT CHANNEL RE|ECTI0N 
AT 30 KHZ 



*NOTE; RX5 & RX I44C will give adjacent channel rejection of 70 
DB whH ihQ optional 4 pole filter RXCF 

RF50C 

A high gain low noise front end lising a J FET RF stage 
and dual gate zener protected MCS FET nriixer. The coils 
tune 40-60 MHz with the Capacitors normally supplied, 
30-45 MHz coverage is avilable on request. The RF 50 
tnakes an excellent low band converter (See our Model C-50) 

RF.144A/F 
RF^220A/F 

A high gam low noise front end using dual gate zener 
protected MOS-Fets. Nominal 40DB gain, (slightly less on 
220) Makes an CAcellent converter (see our models C-144 
and C-220). 



IF 10JF 

A ]0.7 MHz amplifier and 455 KHz converter using two 
IC^s* A crystal filter insures excellent image rejection. 
Over-all gain ts belter than 50DB. The 11.155 MHzcrysial 
is supplied with the kit. 

FM455A 

A 455 KHz IF amplifier, limiter, FM detector, and audio 
preamplifier using two IC's. Double IF cans insure a sharp 
IF response. Audio limiting starts at 20 microvolts and a 5 
KHz deviation signal will provide over 1 volt output 
Includes a level detection diode for signal strength test 
point or tuning indicator. 

AS 2 

An IC audio amplifier with squelch. An input of A volts 
will drive a 4-8 ohm speaker to two watts. The noise 
operated squelch circuit gates the audio amplifier to 

provide positive squelch action. 

Each module measures 1^4 X 4, The overall dimensions 
are 4X6* 




enaineerins 



J20UAT£RST. ^ BINCMAVfTON. %.V. IJVOI Plioftv 607 72MS74 



REPEATERS 
RPT-50, RPT-144B, RPT-220B and RPT-432B 





Why make do with a converted Mark II Gizwachi when you can get a complete repealer designed for Hams 
by Hams. AT A PRiCE YOU CAN AFFORD. The RPT 144B, RPT 2208 and RPT 432 are self-contained - 
all solid state machines. Conservatively rated, high quality, components deliver EXCELLENT RELIABIL- 
ITY. Careful consideration has been given to both interfacing and control flexibility. 

The Models RPT-50, RPT-144B, RPT-220B and RPT-432B are supplied as complete repeater systems. The 
receiver, transmitter, control circuitry, C. W. Identifier & 1 15/230 Volt AC power supply are all contained on 
a standard relay-rack panel and chassis unit. For most installations a user supplies AC power and suitable 
antennas with 50 OHM coaxial feed (PL 259 fittings). External connections for aulopaich, tone control, etc. 
are provided. Built-in identifier programmed with up to 159 bits. Automatic emergency battery power 
changeover capability, 

CIRCUITRY: All Solid State 

NUMBER OF CHANNELS: 1 

INPUT VOLTAGE: n5/230V AC 50-60HZ or 

12-14V DC 
CIRCUIT PROTECTION: 5 AMP Fuse 
DIMENSIONS: Panel - Standard 19" x 7" Rack 

Depth behind panel 11%" 
WEIGHT: 21 pounds 
SHIPPING WEIGHT; 24 pounds 



MODEL 

RPT-50 , 
RPT.144B 
RPT-220B 
RPT-432B 



• * ^ » 



***-**• 



FREQUENCY 
RANGE 

45MHz- 55MHz 

140 MHz -170 MHz 

210MHz -240MHz 

430MHz -470 MHz 



TRANSMITTER 

POWER OUTPUT: 

RPT50 - 20 Watts (into 50 OHMS) 
RPT1448 - 15 Watts (into 50 OHMS) 
RPT432B - 10 Watts (into 50 OHMS) 

a) All harmonics down 40DB 

b) Other spurious, outputs down by more than 
50DB 

MODULATION: Audio processing with pre-clipping 
pre-emphasis 

a) Audio clipping: 6DB per octave 
roll off above 3 KHZ 

b) Deviation: Adjustable up to 7KHZ 
Factory preset to 5 KHZ 

c) True FM 

FREQUENCY STABILITY: .0005%with commer- 
cial spec, crystals (supplied only in wired & tested 
units) 



RECEIVER 

SENSITIVITY: .3uv for 20DB quieting 
Squelch sensitivity (threshold) .25uv 
SQUELCH TYPE: Noise 

MODULATION ACCEPTANCE bandwidth: ± 

7y2KHZ 

SELECTIVITY; 70DB adjacent channel rejection 
(30KHZ) 

AUDIO POWER OUTPUT: 2 Watts (minimum) to 
panel speaker 

FREQUENCY STABILITY: ,0005% with commer- 
cial spec, crystals (supplied only in wired & 
tested units) 



Standard on both Kits and Wired Repeaters Helical Resonator, (No Helical Reasonator with RPT-50), PTT 
Dynamic Microphone, 4 Pole Crystal Filter, Power Supply includes fold back current limiting and over 
voltage protection as well as 1 1 0V/220V AC input. 




ensineering 



J20 WATER ST. / BINCHAMTON, N.Y, IJ*^0I Phone *v07 72i-<#S74 



REPEATER ACCESSORIES 

(SUPPLIED IN REPEATER KITS AND WIRED AND TESTED UNITS) 



C0R2 






2" V^ K 4" L X 1.25" H 



CWID 



2.76" W X 6. 75" L » V H 



THE COR2 IS A COMPLETE CONTROL MODULE DESIGNED FOR USE 
WITH THE RX SERIES OF RECEIVERS FOR REPEATER CONTROL. THE 
COR2 REQUIRES LOGIC O OR GROUND THE P.T.T. LINE. THERE IS AN 
ADJUSTABLE SQULLCH TAIL TIMER . I TO 5 SECONDS. ALSO INCLUDED 
IS A TIME OUT CIRCUIT WHICH IS FIELD CHANGEABLE FROM /i TO 3 
MINUTES. 

THE CWID IS A 158 BIT FIELD PROGRAMMABLE CODE IDENTIFIER 
WITH BUILT-IN ADJUSTABLE TIMER, TONE, VOLUME, AND SPEED 
CONTROLS. THE TIMER 158 BIT DIODE MATRIX MAY BE PROGRAMMED 
WITH TWO SEPARATE MESSAGES. REQUIRES 5 VOLTS AT 200 mA. 



OPTIONAL REPEATER ACCESSORIES 

(MAV BE ADDED TO KITS AND WIRED AND TESTED UNITS* 




i5 



TD-3 



The TD-3 is a phase lock loop, two function 
remote switching decoder with latch, (t is fulty 
compatible with standard Touch Tone input or 
may be easily adjusted to non-standard or to 
two-tone sequential operation* 

The TD-3 has both TTL and open collector 
output. This allows interfacing with the RPT series 
of repealers or to drive an external relay. 

Complimentary outputs are available from the 
latch to simplify interfacing. The TD-3 operates on 
5 VDC. Dimensions are 2 1/2'^ x 3 3/4" x 5/8" 
high. 




The TS-1 is a microminiature continuous tone 
squelch encoder-decoder. It is available in standard 
tones from 67.0 Hz - 203.5 Hz. Included on the 
board is a high-pass lone rejection filter. Decoder 
sensitivity is better than lOmV RMS, bandwidth^ 
±2 Hz max limited. Frequency accuracy is±:25 Hz, 
frequency stability ±J Hz, 

The TS-1 encodes continuously and simultane- 
ously during decoding, independent of mike hang- 
up, and the TS-i is totally immune to RF, 

The TS-1 is L25" x 2.0** x .65" high and 
operates on 6-16 VDC| unregulated at 3-9 ma. 




enaineerins 



320 HATER ST. . BJNCHAMTON. N.V. 13901 Phone 607-723-9574 



PA SERIES POWER AMPLIFIERS 





Power boosters for 2 meters or 220 M Hz. Solid state Class C using balanced emitter transistors for 
long life and high SWR protection. For FM mobile or fixed operation. 

PA 144/15 and PA220/15 WATT POWER AMPLIFIERS 

SPrCII It A! IONS: POWER CAIN; 12 db nominjl, INPUT POWER; 2 watrs max., tNPUT 
VOLTAt»Li 12 in 14 vulis DC nL^a!ivc ground, INPUT CURRENT; 4 amps max., STANDBY 
CURRI-NT; viity.illyinMcnifkaplJNSlRTION LOSS; less than 1 db on receive. DUTY CYCLE; 

50 - '>r le^is. 

Kii Lonsists nf lit filed t^la^s PC Bi>jid, hcJi sink and M tumponenls. 

PA 2501 H (Kit or wired and tested) PA144/25 (Kit) 25 WATT AMPLIFIERS 

SPiXll ICATIONS: POVVi R CAIN; 15 db nommal, INPUT POWER; 4 uaus max,, INPUT 
CURRFNT; 7 amps max, Cumpleic Kit consisls of drilled glab^ PC Board, heat sink, all cum- 
punenls, case, njnneLiur^ dud ^^uWii siale aulumalic switching. 

PA4010H (Kit or wired and tested) 40 WATT AMPLIFIERS 

A uric slai;c 2 Meier ampliTicr with 6 db ^ain. 10 Watts input - 40 Watis output. Relay 
switthing. Case intludud (same as PA 1 50 IH) 

HIGH POWER RF AMPLIFIERS 

Power boosters tor 2 meters, Class C using balanced emiller transistors 
for long life and high SWR protection. For FM mobile or fixed operation. 




UP TO 150 WATTS 
OUTPUT 



• All solid State 

• strip line design 



Broad band 
High efficiency 



PA140/10 5-15 watts in for 100-150 watts out @ 13.6 volts 
Typically 140 watts for 10 watts in 

PA140/30 1540wattbin for 100-150 watts out @ 13.6 volts 
Typtcallv 140 watts for 30 watts in 



POWER GAIN: PA 140/10. . , .1208 PA 140/30. , . .7DB 

INPUT POWER: PA 140/10. . 5 to 15 watts PA 140/30. J 5 to 40 watts 
INPUT VOLTAGE: 12 to 14 volts DC negative ground 
NOMINAL INPUT CURRENT: PA 140/10. .22 Amps 

PA 140/30 ., 18 Amps 

STANDBY CURRENT: Virtually insignificant 
INSERTtON LOSS: Less than 1 D8 on receive 
DUTY CYCLE: 50% or less 
RF sensing relay switched 
DIMENSIONS: 7" x 10-1/2" x 2-7/8" 
WEIGHT: 4 lbs. 




cnaineering 



i20 WATER ST, . BINCHAMTON, NY, 11901 Phone 607 72J-9574 



BLUE LINE HIGH POWER RF AMPLIFIERS 




Don't sacrifice maximum power output 
and high efficiency for linearazation. The 
BLUE LINE offers you the best of both 
designs. The BLUE LINE amplifiers are 
engineered using the latest state of the 
art stripiine technology. This design tech- 
nology means efficient broad band output 
with a very high degree of mechanical 
stability. 



VE7 



ffUjiiirTrillg is the only name 
you have to remember when it comes to 
VHP or UHF amplifiers, just look at the 
variety available. 



FEATURES 

High efficiency nneans low current 

drain. 

Broad band design {no tuning). 

Dfrect 12 volt DC operation, 

indicator lamps for On/Off and 

FM/SSB. 

Relay switching [allows you to 

put amplifier in or out of circuit 

at the flip of a switch). 

Insertion loss of less than 1 dB. 

One year limited warranty on 

parts and labor* 









POWER 


POWER 


MODEL 


FREQUENCY 


EMISSION 


INPUT 


OUTPUT 


BLB 3/150 


45- 55MH2 


CW-FM'SSB/AM 


3W 


150W 


BLC 10/70 


140-160MHZ 


CW'FM SSB/AM 


low 


70W 


BLC 2/70 


140-160MHZ 


CW-FM'SSB/AM 


2W 


7 0W 


BLC 10/150 


140-160MH2 


CW-FM-SSB/AM 


low 


150W 


BLC 30/150 


140'160MH2 


CW-FM-SSB/AM 


sow 


150W 


BLD 2/60 


220-230MHZ 


CW-FMSSB/AM 


2W 


60W 


BLD 10/60 


220-230MHZ 


CW-FM-SSB/AM 


10W 


60W 


BLD 10/120 


220-230MH? 


CW-FM-SS3/AM 


low 


120W 


BLE 10/40 


420-470MHZ 


CW-FM-SSB/AIVI 


low 


40W 


BLE 2/40 


42 0-470MHZ 


CW-FM-SSB/AM 


2W 


40W 


BLE 30/80 


420-470 


CW-FM-SSB/AM 


30W 


SOW 


BLE 10/80 


420^470 


CW FM-SSB/AM 


10W 


SOW ' 




ena'ncering 



J20 WATER ST. / BiNGHAMTON.N/V. 13901 Phon^ 607-723-9574 



SYNTHESIZER II 
A 2 METER FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER 




The Synlhcsi/ei II is a two meter frequency 
synlhesi/er. 

Frequency is adjustable in 5 KHz steps from 
140.00 MHz to 149.995 MHz with its digital 
lejdoLJi thumb wheel switching. Transmit off- 
sets die digitally pr*-))jrdmmed on a diode matrix, 
and iidn range from lOU KHz to 10 MHz. No ad- 
ditional cumponenis arc necessary! 



FEATURES 

• T^L Logic 

m Maximum off^t versatility— easily programmed to any 
IF and transmitter offset between 100 KHz and 'iOMHi 
in even lOOKHz increments (simple MARS modification 
availaDie). 

• Simple jumper wire change enables use on rigs wltfl 6-8 
or 1 2 MH^ transmit crystals. 

• All frequencies locked to one master crystal oscillator. 

• 2 pole output filter on receive line. 

• Virtually no measurable difference In spurious outputs 
between crystal or SYN IL 

• Lockup lime typically 150 milliseconds. 

• Easily interfaced to most rigs. 



6 S OR 12 MHZ 
TK OUT* ^ 




^^ ^ 3 
OR 



c _ ^ 



~1 



Rx Out 

4S MHZ 



I POLE 
FILTER 



^0-K_H 



OPt RX OUT •- 
II on Z2 MH2 



PTT IN 



SPECIFICATIONS 

• Frequency: 140.000 149.995 MH/ 

• Transmit offsets: Simplex. +600KH£. 600KH/ 
plus 3 additional Held programmable offsets. 

• Output! 3 volts to a SO'^ load 

• tnpui voltage: I I 1SVDC ^t .900 amps 

• Size: 8" long x SVi" wide % 2W" high 

20.32CM X 13S7CM x 5.7t5CM 

• Complete kit including all electronics, crystal, thumb 

wheel swtich, c^ibinel, etc* 



THUMB WHEEL SWITCH 



VCO 
MHZ 



5 



^ 



i 



N 








> 



5 



16 BIT COMPA RATOR 



5 



SIMPLEX 



RECEIVE k TRANSMIT 
OFFSET yATftlX 



^Ififl 



;t£fi 



i 



PL 



Su 



WTES l^VWORKS ON ANY UF. BETWEEN 100 KHZ 
AND 30 MHZ^ 



fl33.533 HZ 



■f 12,2 68 



T 



* Interface sheets available for most transceivers. 




cnsineerins 



JJOV^ATERST. BUNCHAMTON.N*Y- IJ90i Phone fc07 723-9574 



TRANSCEIVER AND ACCESSORIES 




^ 



i 




1.25" W X 4" L « 2" H 




l;50** WV K 4" L K T' H 




2**W K 3,25" L K 1 50" H 




7,75'' ^V K 11 L M 3' H 




TRX-50 
TRX-144 
TRX-220 
TRX-432 



A COMPLETE TO CHANNEL SCANNING TRANSCEIVER. 

(Less mike and crystdis) 

SC3 SCANNER 

THE SC3 10 CHANNEL SCANNER WITH PRIORITY CHANNEL IS 
DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH OUR CD! OR CD3 (UHF) CRYSTAL DECK. 
IT MAY ALSO BE USED WITH ANY RECEIVER IN WHICH ONE SIDE OF 

THE CRYSTAL IS AT RF GROUND. OTHER CIRCUIT CONFIGURATIONS 
WILL REQUIRE MODIFICATION OF THE OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT IN 
ORDER TO ACHIEVE PROPER OPIRATION OF THE SCANNER. THE SC3 
REQUIRES A LOGIC TO STOP THE SCANNING FUNCTION. 

CDl 

THE CDl IS A 10 CHANNEL RECEIVE CRYSTAL DECK WHICH IS DIODE 
SWITCHED. IT WAS DESIGNED TO INTERFACE WITH THE CD2 BY ITSELF 
OR IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE SC3. 

CD2 

THE CD2 CRYSTAL DECK IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE MULTICHANNEL 
OPERATION FOR THE TX SERIES TRANSMITTERS. IT FEATURES AN 
EXTRA SET OF CONTACTS THAT MAY BE WIRED TO THE CD! OR CD3 
CRYSTAL DECK FOR 10 CHANNEL TRANSCLIVE. THE EXTRA POSITION 
MAY ALSO BE USED TO SWITCH L.E.D. INDICATORS. THE SWITCH HAS 
11 POSITIONS. THE ELEVENTH POSITION IS PROVIDED TO ACTIVATE 
THE SC3 AUTO SCAN MODULE. EACH CRYSTAL HAS A TRIMMER FOR 
NETTING. 

CD3 

THE CD3 IS THE SAME AS THE CDl EXCEPT IT USES LOW LOSS PIN 
DIODES- THIS DECK IS NEEDED FOR 432MHZ EQUIPMENT. 

TRCl 

PRE DRILLED & PUNCHED CASE ONLY 

TRC2 

THE TRC2 IS A PREDRILLED AND PUNCHED CASE TO BE USED IN 
CONJUNCTION WITH OUR TX, RX, CDl, CD2, SC3, AND PA MODULES. 
THE TRC2 INCLUDES ALL ACCESSORIES NECESSARY TO INTERFACE 
THE MODULES. VOLUME AND SQUELCH CONTROLS, KNOBS, SPEAKERS, 
GRILL CLOTH, ANTENNA CONNECTORS, TR RELAY, 10 L.E.D.'S, 
PULL-UP RESISTORS, MOUNTING ILARDWARE. AND BASIC PLANS. 

MICROPHONE 

2,000 OHM DYNAMIC MIKE WITH P.T.T. AND COIL CORD. 




enflinecring 



32t> WATER ST. ' BrNGHAMTON. N.Y. 13901 Thom^ 607-723-9574 



PS-15C, PS-25C and PS-25M POWER SUPPLIES 



PROTECT YOUR EQUIPMENT. Full voltage and over current protec- 
tion! Now our best selting high current amateur power supplies arc even 
belter. The PS-15C and PS*25C are well filtered and regulated power 
supplies. Top quality components insure optimum reliability. LOOK AT 
THESE FEATURES: 



The PS-25M is the same as PS-25C with added output voltage 
and current meters. 



PS-15C SPECIFICATIONS 

Voltdge Output: 

adjuitible between 12'14V 
Load Regulation; 

2% from no load to 10 amps 
Current Output: 

t5 amps intermittent (50% duty cycle) 

10 amps continuouii 

PS^25C SPECIF J CAT IONS 
Voltdge Output: 

adjustable between 10- 15V 
Load Regulation: 

2% from no load to 20 amps 
Current Output: 

25 amps intermittent (50% duty cycle) 

20 amps continuous 



Rippfc: 

SO mV At I U amps 
Weight: 

13 pounds 
Si^e: 

lM/4'^ X 5-1/2" X 4-3/4" 




Ripple: 

50 mV at 20 amps 
Weight: 

22-1/2 pounds 
Size: 

12-1/4'* X 6-3/4" X 7 1/2" 



FS25C 



PS ISC 



Look at these features; 

• Over-voltage protection crowbar, 

• Elecirostiitic shield for added transient surge 
protection, 

• A foidback output limtter operates for loads 
outside of the operating range, 

• I so I a lion from gfOLimi. The circuit is isolated 
from the case and ground. 

• 1 15/220 volt input - 50/60 cycle, 

• Units are factory v^ired for 1 10 volt AC, 50/60 
cycle power. A simple jumper will reconfigure 
the input for 220 volt AC, 50/60 cycles, 

• Temperature range - operating: 0^ to +55^ C. 

• Black anodized aluminum finish. 



PS-3012 POWER SUPPLY 



A commercial version of the PS-25C with twin heat sinks for heavier duty and higher ambient 
operation. 




SPECIFICATIONS 



OUTPUT VOLTAGE 
OUTPUT CURRENT 
REGULATION 
OUTPUT RIPPLE 
TEMPERATURE RANGE 
OVERVOLTAGE 

PROTECTION 
OVERCURRENT 

PROTECTION 
SHORT CIRCUIT 

CURRENT 
INPUT VOLTAGE 

SIZE 

WEIGHT 

FINISH 



Adjustable, 11-1 5 VDC 
30 amps maximum 
Better than 2 percent 
50MV pk-pk maximum 
0°-6(PC operating 
Buill in OVP crowbar 

Foidback current limiting ai 

30 amps 
2 amps maximum 

105-120 or 208-230 at 
50-60HZ 

13'/4"LX7 1/8"WX6 5/8"H 

25 lbs. 

Black anodiifed aluminum 




enaineerins 



JlOvvATEilST. / BINCHAMTOKN.V. 13901 ' Phone 607 723^5 74 



ORDER FORM 





PART # 




PRICE 


EXTENStON 
























































• 















































NAME 



TOTAL 



ADDRESS 



SH[PPING{see below) 



CITY 



NYS RESIDENTS-SALES TAX 



STATE 



ZIP 



TOTAL ENCLOSED 



MASTER CHARGE OR 
BANKAMERICARD NO 



BANK NO. 



EXPIRATION DATE 



SHIPPING INFORMATION: All shipments are F.O.B. Binghamton, N.Y. 13901, Shipments will be made 
by the most convenient nnethod. Please include sufficient funds to cover shipping and handling. Allow 
$1.00 for COD charge. Figure shipping charges on a minimum weight of 2 pounds per unit wfth the 
exception of the following: 

PS 15C-13 lbs. 

PS 250^25 lbs. 

PS 3012 -30 lbs. 

Repeaters — 25 lbs* 

TRX 144, 220, 450-6 lbs* 

DPLX 144, 220 - Shipped freight collect. 



MINIMUM ORDER: $5.00 

TERMS: C.O.D.^ cash or check with order. We also accept BankAmericard and Master Charge. 

CLAIMS: Notify VHFa/7i3^ the carrier of damage within seven (7) days of receipt of shipment. 

RETURNS: Obtain authorization from VHF before returning any merchandise, 

PRICES AND SPEC! FICATIONS: Subject to change without notice. 

EXPORT PRICES: Slightly higher, 

Wnff engineering Box S / 320 water street / Binghamton, N.Y. 13901 / Phone 607-723-9574 



V5 



Current-Saver 



Counter Display 



-- multiplex those LEDsl 



individual display digits, Hts 
circuit is shown in Fig. L A 
7492 binary counter {or a 
7490 decade counter with no 
feedback) connected as a 
divide by 10 counter is 
continuously clocked by a 1 
kHz signal from his counter 
lime base. Each of the 10 
counter stales is decoded by a 
7442 1 of 10 decoder and 
used to turn on a PNP switch 
transistor connected in series 
with the anode of each 7 
segment LED digji. This 
results in each digit being 
turned on for 10 per cent of 
the time at a 100 Hz rate. 
Notice that there are no 
dropping resistors in the 
circuit. The only limits to 
current flow are the switching 
transistors, the driver IC, and 
the LEDs themselves. This 
allows most of the supply 
voltage to be dropped across 
the LED resulting in excellent 
efficiency. 

Well, all this is good^ but 
as far as Tm concemed it 
doesn't go quite far enough. 
If the LED display is the 
most power hungry compo- 
nent in a counter, its drivers 
(7447) come in a good se- 
cond. Each one of those little 
beasts consumes at least 265 
mW. (in comparison, a fully 
lighted 7 segment display 
dissipates around 420 mW, a 
7490 about 160 mW, and a 
7475 approximately 160 
mW.) With eight 7447s driv- 
ing eight digits (as in the 
WAIUFE counter) that's a 
total of at least 2 J Watts 



Bob Hart K 7YGP 
622 West 4th St. 
Medford OR 97501 



Probably one of the 
greatest difficulties in 
building a counter or any- 
thing else that has a digital 
display is provicfing the large 
amount of current necessary 
to run the display and drivers. 
The easiest way to minimize 
this problem is to turn on 
only one digit at a time in a 
sequential fashion at a rate 
fast enough to eliminate flick- 
er. If the duty cycle is low 
enough (ON time small in 
relatioo to OFF time)^ no 



current limiting resistors are 
needed in series with the digit 
segments. Without series resis- 
tors, there is less power 
wasted in heat^ so power 
requirements are less. 

Back in the December, 
1976, 73 (p. 140), WAIUFE 
wrote an article describing 
(among other things) how he 
reduced the total current 
requirements of the LED 
display in his counter by 
sequeniiallv strobing the 



1000 >i 
Kt IN ^TT 




|__ _ ^ ^**^'*_ _ _ 



TO T«T1 LAIOI O^fTPUT? 



B 



l: 



7*4? 



V(X 



u 

u 



7 4AI0DE 



.£D DlfitTIAt 

{■.ommm moim 



ifi 



Fig. h WA J UFE disp fay strobe. 



174 



(424 mA at 5 V}. That turns 
out to be a Fairly targe contri- 
bution toward healing your 
shack (at least for a solid 
state device!). 

So what can be done 
about it? There has to be 
some way to tell the LED 
which segments to display for 
which numeral Ah -ha! he 
says. Since, when strobing, 
only one digit is on at a lime^ 
why not decode the 7 
seg^ient drive one digt at a 
time? This way you can be rid 
of the power load of all but 
one decoder /driver. Again, in 
the case of the WAIUFE 
counter, this would reduce 
the driver power require- 
ments by a factor of 8- Fol- 
io vim ng are two ways this 
could be done. The first is for 
the person who has already 
constructed a display system 
and doesn't feel like tearing it 
down and starting over. The 
second is for new designs and 
has the added advantage of 
being less expensive — only 
one 7447 is needed for the 
entire display. 

The system for the exist- 
ing display is merely a modifi- 
cation of display strobing. 
When a digit has been turned 
off by the strobe circuitry 
(which is 90 per cent of the 
lime), its driver is just silling 
there twiddling its open cot- 
lector outputs. So why not 
lurn it off too? This can be 
done by switching the 7447 
Vcc in the same manner as 
was done for the LED anodes 
(see Fig. 2). If you are al- 
ready strobing your digits, 
the driver as well as the digit 
can be strobed by reconnect- 
ing the PNP switching iransis* 
tors to the individual 7447 
Vcc pins. The LED anodes 
are then connected directly 
to the 5 volt bus. If you feel 
the display is too bright, an 
easy way to halve the bright- 
ness is to connect pin 4 of the 
7447 (blanking input - called 
the BI/RBO node in the 
literature) to the 1 kHz signal 
that drives the strobe coun- 
ter. Whenever this signal is 
low (and it*S low half the 
lime that any digit is on) the 
7447 output is blanked^ re- 
sulting in a 5 per cent (rather 



than 10 per cent) duty cycle. 
As shown in the schematic, 
the line driving the blanking 
inputs should be buffered by 
7404 inverters since the 
Bi/RBO node represents a 
load three times that of a 
normal TTL input (now why 
did they go and do that?). 
One inverter should be capa- 
ble of driving three blanking 
inputs. Three buffers 
(inverters) are needed to drive 
the eight digits of the coun- 
ter. Using this circuit with a 
MAN 1 display, the average 
segment current is about 8 
mA (5 per cent duty cycle) 
giving brightness sufficient 
for a brightly lit room* With 
no signal driving the blanking 
input, segment current is 16 
mA average and results in a 
very bright display* 



OUT ^ 



OUT 2 



1000 

Hi IN 



f 



QPTkONAL 
DUTY 

CYCLE __* 
LtWfcT "^ 
<S£E TEXT) 



7492^7445 

SCANNER 
15 £E FlO I) 



ETC 



2.2K 



470ii 
— '^ ^- 



ZN3906 



I r 



I 



47Cta 



Zi«330S 



TO T4ir3 L*1C« OUTPUTS 



'^«- 



7447 




^744 7 MO Z 



A 



>fce 



a 



i£ 



i* 



if 



*5V 



4. 

TO ALL 
EHJTTERS 



lAANia 



i I 
I I 



L£0 meiT Na I 

[COMWOff ANODE! 



/IF 



Fig. 2 Dlspiay and driimr strobe. 



Starting from Scratch 

This section is not re- 
quired reading unless a) you 

enjoy modifying projects that 
are already working fine, b) 
you think it's time to start a 
new design, c) you wonder 
when the heck I'm going to 
say something about multi- 
piexingj or d) you want to 
put off taking out the garbage 
for a few more minutes, A 
little thought about the last 
described circuit shows that 
since only one 7447 is used at 
a time^ only one should be 



necessary For the entire sys- 
tem! All thai is needed is a 
way to switch the 7447 to 
each BCD -jutput and each 7 
segment LED in sequence. 
This switching system (called 
a multiplexer!) is not as 
difficult to accomplish as it 
sounds. The PNP switches 
that were used in the original 
strobe system are now recon- 
nected to the digit anodes 
and all of the like segment 
cathodes are connected in 
parallel (a to a, b to b, etc) 
to the outputs of the 7447. 
This effectively connects one 
digit at a time to the 7447 
driver. 

In order to sv^/itch the 



BCD inputs from the 7475 
latches, I will resort to a trick 
that will undoubtedly cause a 
few designers to cringe. It 
does not follow the leaching 
according to Texas Instru- 
ments, but it does work. 
Anyway, each BCD coded 
signal is applied to the inputs 
of a 7400 quad NAND and 
all the like outputs of the 
several 7400s are wired toge- 
ther. Data switching is accom- 
plished by turning on the Vcc 
to the desired 7400. The 
complete multiplexed display 
system is shown in Fig. 3. 

Unfortunately, this circuit 
will not work for all displays. 
The problem is that the out- 



Fig, 3, Multiplexer for common anode LEDs. AH transistors 
2N3906 or equii/afent Note — inputs to F40Q muttiptex 
switches are inverted data. 



lOQOHt IN 4 




»LI*I* 



TO 
L4TCt4 ( 



TO OTH£« 



175 



put of the 7447 can only sink 
20 mA per segment. This 
means thai if you have 8 
digits the average current per 
segment cannot exceed 2*5 
mA. The resistors (sorry) in 
the segment lines serve this 
current limiting purpose. This 
would probably work fine for 
the smaller displays or possi* 
biy the newer high efficiency 
types (HP 5082-7650 - I 
don't know where to get 
them). For complete flexibiU 
ity, the segment driver 
should be able to sink a 
maximum of 200 mA. That 
would allow ten digits at 20 
mA per segment. The obvious 
way to do this is to add 
external transistors to the 
se^enl driver lines. An 
additional disadvantage to 
this is that this circuit will 
only drive common anode 
LED displays. Take a look at 
the ads in the back of this 73 
and you will find that the 
inexpensive displays that 



were originally designed for 
calculators, clocks, and multi- 
plexed operation are almost 
all common cathode types. 

Since we are starting from 
scratch in this section, we 
might as well design the final 
display driver for common 
cathode displays. It should 
also be capable of driving up 
to 10 digits at 20 mA per 
segment (look at Fig, 4), One 
additional feature is a one 
shot (74122) tied to the 
blanking input of the 7447. 
This allows variable display 
intensity by changing the 
amount of time the digits are 
strobed on. Duty cycle of 
each digit can be varied from 
1 per cent (full blast) to less 
than 1 per cent (almost off). 
If you don't want alt this 
versatility, then leave out the 
741 22 and connect the blank- 
ing input to the 1 kHz clock 
as previously described. The 
rest of the circuit is just an 
expansion of the previous 



Fig, 4, Multiplexer for common cathode LEDs, See text for 
transistor types. Inputs to F400 multiplex switches are 
Inverted data. 



circuits. A 7490/7442 1 of 10 
multiplex driver is used to 
strobe the display digit ca~ 
thodes (through 01 1 Q3. 05, 
etc*} and at the same time 
turn on the required 7400 
multiplex gate (through Q2, 
Q4, Q6, etc*)* An important 
point is that the 7400 g^te 
inputs are connected to the Q 
outputs of the 7475 where 
normally data is taken from 
the outputs. This is done 
because the 7400 inverts 
signals applied to its inputs. If 
no inversion can be tolerated, 
use a 7408 (same pinout but 
is an AND gate rather than a 
NAND gate) as the multiplex 
pte. It will work the same as 
the 7400 except that the data 
will not be inverted* 

Because we are using 
common cathode digits, the 
outputs of the 7447 are 
polarity inverted by Qa^ Qb, 
Qc, etc. Transistors Qa, Ab, 
etc., and Ql ^ 03, etc., should 
all be capable of conducting 
200 mA continuously (to be 
on the safe side). For the PNP 
(Qa, Qb) a Sylvania 



ECG 159 or a Motorola HEP 
would work welL An ECG 
123 or HEP S0002 are ideal 
transistors to use in the 01, 
03, etc., slots. 02, 04, etc., 
can be any silicon PNP tran- 
sistor. Actually, you could 
probably use any silicon tran- 
sistors of the proper polarity 
you happen to have for any 
of the devices. Give them a 
try — if they get too hot to 
touch, try something else. 

The End 

There are a few more ways 
to li^t a display besides just 
connecting a 7 segment LED 
to the tail end of a 7447. 
While the other methods 
make things a bit more 
complex, some of those help 
control your electric bill and 
others can reduce your parts 
bilL So use one of these 
systems in your next (what 
the heck - rip thai new 
counter apart) profect. If 
anyone asks, you'll be in a 
position to bore them at 
length about the marvels of 
multiplexing, ■ 



4 TO Qltitn 
EMITTERS 



TO LATCH *ia i I 



to LATCH NQ 2 




ta DTt^n 

7#&0 miTPUTS 






176 



Chaz Cone W4GKF 
53 Old Stone Mill Road 
Marietta GA S0067 



Instant QSO Recall 

System 



- - gaining peer respect 



N 



otice the choice of the 
word ''gain/' rather 
than "earn'' in the title of 
this piece. What I'm going to 
tell you about will dazzle and 
amaze your friends — and 
hams all over the world. The 
technique is easy to imple- 
ment, costs very little, and 
satisfies a craving deep within 
some of us to continually be 
"one up" on everyone within 
earshot {or receiver-shot). 

I've been a radio amateur 
for nearly 25 years^ and I can 
tell you the name, QTH, and 
other interesting information 
about anyone I've ever 
QSOed — and I can find the 
information in about four 
seconds or less. 

Now, I work with com- 
puters every day, and l*ve 
been interested in micro- 
processors ever since I saw 
the first MITS ad - but if 
you're thinking of a QSO file 
application, I can beat any 
affordable machine technique 
for under $15,00. 

Before I tell you this 
deceptively simple procedure, 
let me examine with you why 
someone would want to do 
this. Why would you want to 
store away and retrieve 
quickly information about 
radio contacts? 

The reason / do it is that I 



get a boot out of coming 
back to a call with the caller's 
name, like: '*Hi, Brad. How 
are things in Omaha?" It 
blows his mind, usually, and 
we end up discussing the 
system (and my phenomenal 
"memory"). And, of course, 
after 20+ years of doing this I 
just can't stop! 

Most of us who care about 
such things have tried QSO 
filing systems and abandoned 
them. If you filled out a 3 x 5 
card on every contact, you 
would soon have too many 
cards to warehouse, much less 
use to enable finding any 
particular contact quickly. 
And using a whole card is a 
waste of space and material 
{in addition to being ecologi- 
cally unwhoieseome). So 
what*s the system? 

My system, and I don't 
claim originality, requires 
that you purchase 676 file 
cards. I use 4 x 6 cards; you 
might want 3 x 5 or even 
bigger ones. You'll also need 
a box in which to put them 
and some alphabetic dividers, 
I bought all three items in a 
stationery store (at today's 
prices the total bill is about 
$14.00). Try to get dividers 
with mylar-reinforced tabs, 
and index cards with lines on 
at least one side. 



a 



11 



With a pen or pencil 
(here's your chance to be 
creative) write '*AA'' in the 
upper right (or left) corner of 
a card. Make the letters com- 
fortably large, since they 
should last a lifetime and 
your eyesight will not always 
be as keen as it is today — 3/8 
to J4 inch high should do 
nicely. In the same way, put 
AB" on the second card, 
AC" on the thirds and so 
forth. By the time you're 
through, the last card will be 
lettered "ZZ" and your 
writing hand will be i/ery 
tired. I actually had my wife 
do this lettering; it kept her 
busy for a couple of hours 
and she didn't spend a dime 
during that period — maybe 
Tve got something here after 
alL 

Take a breaks solder all 
connections to this point, and 
relax. Admire your handi- 
work (or your wife's)* Insert 
the dividers into the deck of 
cards in front of each group, 
so that there are 26 cards 
behind each divider. See how 
symmetrical it ail is? Psychol- 
ogists say that symmetry is 
gratifying. 

There's your instant-access 
QSO file. It will hold more 
than 20,000 QSOs, and you'll 



be able to find any one of 
them in less than four 
seconds. Andf it will never 
dccupy more space than it 
does right now. 

I put one QSO per line on 
each card as I work a new 
station* I record callsign, 
name, QTH, date, band and 
whether a QSL was sent/ 
received (a checkmark for a 
QSL sent, a circle if one is 
received). There is additional 
room for other info if you 
wish, and, if there is a lot you 
want to write about a specific 
contact, you can put an 
asterisk on the line and write 
paragraphs on the back of the 
card. 

Hold it\ Which card does a 
QSO go on? 1 put the contact 
on the card that matches the 
last two letters of the callsign, 
I chose the last two instead of 
the first two^ because this 
gives a more normal distribu- 
tion; in many DX countries 
you will find callsigns 
grouped heavily toward the 
front of the alphabet- See 
how it works? As an example, 
my "KF" card has everyone 
on it that I've ever worked 
whose call ends in "KF": 
W7GKF, EA3RKF, 
WB6NKF, and so forth. I 
would be on your '*KF" card, 

That*s all there is to it. 
When I hear a CQ (or call 
one), I can locate the right 
card as soon as I hear his 
caltsign, determine if we've 
talked before, and come back 
with his name in practically 
no time. If it's a first contact, 
t fill out his line during the 
QSO. You've got room on a 4 
>^ 6 card to put comments 
like: ^^photography," "cars,*' 
*'DX," and so forth on the 
line, so that you can recall his 
special interests on your next 
QSO, If you are into Ten-X 
hunting, county hunting, DX 
chasing, or other sub interests, 
you can tell instantly whether 
this contact is a new one or 

not. 

It's not much trouble to 
maintain (really!), and it's a 
great memory substitute. 

Get yourself a box^ 676 4 
x 6 cards, and a set of alpha- 
betic dividers, and snow your 
friends! ■ 



t77 



V/. J. Prudhomme WBSDEP 
1405 Rjch/and Ave. 
Metairfe LA 70001 



New PC Techn 




Unveiled ! 



- - dig out your old chemicals 



Regardless of how you go 
about ii, etching 
printed circuit boards can be 
a chore unless you happen to 
be making them commer- 
cially on a continual basis. 
After all, when the artwork is 
complete for the first board, 
making additional boards is 
not ail that difficult. The 
same is true for any other 
type of printing process - the 
first page is always the most 
expensive* 

However, if you are like 
most hobby ists^ you are not 
interested in making 50 to 
100 identical PC boards. 
Usually, you are interested in 
building one circuit at a time. 
This leads us to the basic 
problem faced by all hobby- 
ists today - it takes as much 
effort to make that one PC 
board for your favorite pro- 
ject as it does for a manufac- 
turer to make fifty* 

For this reason, printed 
circuit boards for the casual 



builder of electronic projects 
have become both a solution 
and a problem. They are a 
solution to reducing the time 
it takes to wire a circuit c/fter 
the board is etched. They are 
a problem due to the time 
that it takes to etch the board 
in the first place. They are a 
solution to minimizing wiring 
errors — after the boards are 
etched. They are a problem in 
that an error in the artwork 
wilt be duplicated in all 
boards etched from the orig- 
inal artwork. In this case a 
small error in the beginning is 
multipiied by the number of 
boards etched. 

In this article, we will 
review some advantages and 
disadvantages of PC boards, 
various techniques available 
today, a few application 
guidelines, and the recently 
introduced **St^mp It & Etch 
It" product. Let's begin with 
some disadvantages of PC 
board construction. 



Disadvantages 

Printed circuit boards (or 
the etching of them) can be a 
big bugaboo in any circuit 
builder's life. If you have 
etched boards before, you 
already know why this is so. 
In many instances^ you may 
have discovered that it takes 
much longer to etch the 
board than it does to mount 
and solder components on it- 
While you were making that 
discovery you may also have 
concluded another charac- 
teristic of making circuit 
boards: Depending on the 
technique you use, it may 
take just as long to make one 
as it does to make 5 or 10, 
Why? Well, whether you are 
making 1 or 50^ you must 
first prepare the preliminary 
layout, plan the location of 
components, make the final 
artwork, and, depending on 
the process used, prepare a 
negative or positive film. 

Up until this point, the 



required time is the same 
regardless of the number of 
boards being made. The next 
steps involve exposing and 
developing the PC blanks, and 
finally etching the boards 
themselves. If you have the 
facilities, it may be possible 
to etch several boards in one 
tank. This mass production is 
the main advantage to using 
PC boards in the first place- 
For the average hobbyist, 
however, the advantage of 
mass production has little 
value, since many of our pro- 
jects usually involve only one 
type of board at a time. 

Also, if you are not fortu- 
nate enough to have a special 
place set aside to make PC 
boards, another dtsadvantagje 
becomes obvious. Each time 
you want to make a board, it 
is necessary to set up equip- 
ment, being careful of chemi- 
cal spills and then putting 
everything away when the 
project is completed. 

This can sometimes be 
very annoying, to say the 
least. Especially when you 
accidentally change the color 
of your kitchen countertop 
with a little ferric chloride. 

Some Advantages 

But before 1 paint too 
bleak a picture of PC board 
techniques, what are some of 
their advantages? I've already 
mentioned that once they are 
etched J PC boards can save 
you much time in wiring a 
circuit — in addition to 
minimizing wiring errors. Al* 
so, once you have perfected a 
layout and worked the bugs 
out of a critical rf circuit, the 
results can be duplicated by 
anyone following the same 
layouL 

For prototypes and one of 
a kind projects, PC boards 
can also be very useful. In 
most of these applications, 
the film process is usually 
bypassed by making the lay- 
out directly on the copper 
blank (using dry transfer^ 
resist pen or tape). This tech- 
nique can save much time in 
getting your circuit from the 
"paper" stage to a finished 
prodocL 

in addition, new tech- 



178 



niques are continually being 
developed to make it easier 
for the hobbyist to build elec- 
tronic devices. One new 
development is the "Stamp It 
& Etch [V* technique, which 
will be evaluated fater in the 
article. This kit is actually a 
set of rubber stamps consist- 
ing of TO'3 pads, \C pads, 
component and edge connec- 
tor fingers. But^ I'm getting 
ahead of myself. More on this 
later, 

Present Practices 

There are several ways to 
inake PC boards today. To 
name a few of the present 
methods: direct pen resist/ 
etch, dry transfer, film nega- 
tive, photopositive, Stamp It 
& Etch it, and the patented 
Bishop Graphics method 
called the '^B'^ Neg drafting 
system. See Fig. 1 for a dia- 
gram of these methods- 

1 . Direct pen resist. This 
is perhaps the most basic 
technique and^ for simple 
circuits, is probably one of 
the easiest to apply. Once 
you have made a preliminary 
layout sketch of the PC pat- 
tern, you simply transfer it to 
a clean PC blank with a 
'^resist pen." This is a felt- 
tipped type pen containing a 
heavy lacquer that is unaf- 
fected by the ferric chloride 
etching solution. When the 
copper board is placed in this 
solution, the copper is 
removed wherever it is not 
protected by the lacquer, tn 
effect, the lines drawn by the 
pen are the actual circuit 
conductors on the completed 
board, 

2. Dry transfer method. 
In this technique, pressure- 
sensitive pads and tapes 
representing terminals and 
connections are used. Once 
the layout has been drawn on 
paper, it can be transferred to 
the copper blank using car- 
bon paper and retracing the 
lines* An alternate method is 
to draw the circuit in pencil 
directly on the copper board. 

Next, the pattern is pro- 
tected by applying dry trans- 
fer pads to the appropriate 
areas on the copper surface. 
These pads usually come in 



FILM NEGATIVE 
METHOD- 



PHOTOPaSITlVE 
METHOD 



DmeCT PEN/RESIST 
"STAMP rT a EttH IT" 



Pfiy TfiANSFEP 



"B" NEG. 



POSITIVE 
ARTWORK 
(PAPEF?) 



POSITIVE 

ARTWORK 

(MVLAR/ACETATEJ 



FILM J^EGifrVE 



RESiST APPLIED 
DIRECTLY TO 

SOARD 



BOARD SEWSJTI2ED. 

EXPOSED a 
DEVELOPED 



SOARP SEWSJTEZEDh 

EXPOSED a 

DEVELOPED 



i * * i 



PADS /INTER- 
CONNECTIONS 
APPLIED DJRECTLV 
TO eOARO 



NEGATIVE 

ARTWORit 

(FILM) 



BOA«D SENSITIZED, 
EXPOSED 9 
DEVELOPED 



ETCHING 
PROCESS 



COMPLETED 

BGAflP 



Fig, 1, Block diagram of the steps required for each method. 



sheet form and are trans- 
ferred to the copper surface 
by rubbing them off the sheet 
with an old ball-point pen 
that no longer writes. Then 
the conductor paths are made 
using tapes of various widths, 
depending on the circuit 
requirements. From this 
point on, the board is etched 
in the usual manner* 

A variation to this method 
is to tape the board com- 
pletely with wide masking 
tape. Then cut out the taped 
areas where you want to etch 
the copper away. The remain- 
ing masking tape will protect 
the copper from the etching 
solution. This method is par- 
ticularly useful in rf circuits 
where large ground plane 
areas of copper are desired. 

3, Film negative method. 
This is the standard in the 
electronic industry, since it 
provides extreme accuracy 
and high density of complex 
circuits. There are various 
types of drafting aids avail- 
able for many appHcations, 
For example^ there are tapes, 
tape shapes, donut pads, die 
cut multipad figures (for tran- 
sistorSj integrated circuits, 
etc.)j connector strips, and 
many more. These pressure- 
sensitive drafting aids come in 
the standard sizes of 1:1, 2:1 
and 4:T 

Here*s how to use them. 
Start with a sheet of drafting 
paper with O.V grid lines. 
After you have drawn your 
layout to the scale desired, 
lay a sheet of Mylar^M or 
clear acetate over the pencil 



copy. With Mylar, I find it 
better to place the frosted 
side up — since you can easily 
write on this surface. 

The next step is to transfer 
the pressure-sensitive pads to 
the correct places over your 
pencil layout. To remove 
small patterns from the back- 
ing, slip the blade of an 
X-actoTM knife under the 
pattern and lift it off. Then, 
using the knife blade as a 
holding tool^ position the 
adhesive pattern over the art- 
work. If you happen to get 
the pattern positioned wrong, 
just slip the knife blade under 
itj lift it and re-position it. 
Once the patterns have been 
placed, a special black tape is 
used for interconnections. 

We now come to the 
photographic step. If your 
layout is a 1 :1 scale, you can 
make a contact negative using 
sheet film. This is recom- 
mended only for photog- 
raphy buffs who have their 
own darkroom. If you don't 
have a darkroom, the easiest 
thing to do is bring it to a 
photographer or a drafting/ 
reproduction house and tell 
them what you want. The 
usual charge for making a 
negative is two to three dol- 
lars. If the scale of your 
artwork is other than 1:1, it 
will be necessary to have the 
negative reduced appro- 
priately. 

Once you have a negative 
of the circuit, it will be neces- 
sary to transfer the image to 
the copper blank. First, the 
copper is '^sensitized*' with a 



special chemical, usually in a 
spray can form. This is usual- 
ly done in subdued light for 
photographic purposes. The 

coating must be uniform and 
dried for a period of time. 
Complete instructions for this 
process comes with the 
chemicals you buy, so 
we won't go into great detail 
here. The remainder of the 
process includes exposing the 
sensitized board with the 
mask over it, and developing 
the pattern. Then the board is 
etched in the usual manner. 

Even in my abbreviated 
and once-over-lightly discus- 
sion of the steps involved, the 
whole process seems a bit 
complicated for most week- 
end projects. Then, when you 
consider the two to three 
hour process time, it seems 
there must be a better way. 
Many people 1 have talked to 
are turning more and more to 
local, commercial PC fabrica- 
tors. But here again, cost may 
become prohibitive. Our local 
PC house charges around $5 
or $5 for a 4'' x 6'' board. In 
many instances, the board 
costs as much as all the 
components that go on it. Is 
there an easier way? 

4. Bishop ''B'' Neg draft- 
ing system and the photo posi- 
tive method. Both of these 
methods have the advantages 
of eliminating the photo 
process of developing a film 
negative, but as a result they 
are suitable for 1:1 artwork 
only. 

Basically, the Bishop '^B" 
Neg method produces nega- 



179 



tive artwork which is used 
with a negative photoresist. 
By working with negative art- 
work directly, there is no 
need to have a film negative 
made — thus saving you lime 
and money* Another advan- 
tage to this system is that it 
can be changed at any time 
without the expense of hav- 
ing a new film negative pro- 
cessed. 

Additional information on 
this method can be obtained 
from: Bishop Graphics, Inc., 
20450 Plummer Street, 
ChatsworthCA9131h 

An alternate method with 
similar results is the photo- 
positive method. A positive 
resist has been developed that 
operates in reverse from the 
standard negative resist. Once 
your board has been sensi- 
tized with this positive photo- 
resist, you can use positive 
artwork on Mylar or acetate 
film directly to expose the 
copper blank. In addition, no 
highly volatile hydrocarbon 
developers are needed as with 
the negative resist. Instead, 
only ordinary household 
diluted lye (sodium hydrox- 
ide) or caustic soda in water 
is used as a developer for the 
positive photoresist. 

As with the Bishop "B^^ 
Neg system, changes may be 
made on the positive artwork 
without having to go to the 
expense of the photographic 
process. 

Although there may be 
other suppliers of positive 
acting photoresist products, 
one company I am familiar 
with is Trumbull, 833 Baira 
Drive, El Cerrito CA 94530. 



They have a complete iine of 
artwork aids, drill bits, and 
coppercfad boards, and they 
spoil the hobbyist with 
prompt shipments. 

5, Stamp ft & Etch It, 
Always looking for new and 
easier techniques, I noted an 
ad one day for ACE Labora- 
tories (now Rainbow Enter* 
prises, PO Box 2366, India- 
napolis IN 46206). What 
really caught my eye in the 
ad was the statement, *'. . . 
reduces printed circuit board 
artwork from 2 hours to 10 
minutes , . ." This statement 
and the fact that the kit is 
offered on a satisfaction 
guaranteed basis was enough 
for me to send them $10.00 
to find out what it was alt 
about. 

A few weeks later, I 
received my package and was 
anxious to open it up. This is 
what the kit contains: 

(1) Individual rubber 
stamps consisting of PC 
board con nector 
fingers, 16-pin dual in* 
line IC socket, 10-pin 
round, 8-pin round, 
TO-5, TOO 8, large/ 
small donut pad; 

(2) Resist ink (small 
bottle); 

(3) Ink pad; 

(4) Resist pen (felt 

marker type); 

(5) Etching containers 
(plastic bags)* 

Making a PC board with 
this method eliminates the 
preliminary artwork and 
photography. You merely 
stamp the component pat- 
terns directly on the PC 
board, use the lacquer pen to 



connect the components, and 
then etch the board, f used 
this basic method to etch a 
board containing 13 ICs, and 
the results were fairly good. 
However, as always, there are 
a few precautions that can be 
taken to insure that you ob- 
tain the results you are trying 
to achieve. 

The usual preparations of 
the copper clad board should 
be made, such as a thorough 
cleaning to remove any dust, 
film or fingerprints. After 
the PC board is cleaned and 
dried, lay it aside and proceed 
to prepare the stamps. This is 
doi'e by inking the pad 
sparingly with the lacquer 
supplied. Only about a 1" 
square area is required for 
most jobs. Trying to ink more 
than this will result in the pad 
drying out before you are 
finished with the board. 

If you are using the stamps 
for the first lime, ink them 
well and practice on a paper 
blotter. This is necessary in 
order for you to get the feel 
of the operation — and also 
to fill the pores in the rubber 
stamp material. When you 
feel confident in using the 
stamps, your next step is the 
PC board itself 

I found it difficult to place 
the stamp exactly where I 
wanted it on the board "free 
hand," without it sliding and 
smearing the ink. This prob- 
kvm was solved by using a 
small piece of wood (1" x 2*', 
about 6*' long) as a guide. 
Just hold the guide flat 
against the PC board with one 
hand, while you slide the 
rubber stamp against the 



guide until it rests flat against 
the copper surface. 

Another variation to this 
technique can be used if you 
have several ICs in a straight 
row. Just temporarily clamp 
the guide and circuit board in 
a small vice along the tine of 
the ICs. It's much easier to 
print each IC along the sta- 
tionary guide, and you end 
up with all components in a 
relative straight line without 
too much effort. 

The IC patterns seem to 
work out best. The first PC 
board I etched with this kit 
took more than the adver* 
tised ten minutes. However, 
the stamps do make it easier 
to etch a board. 

They also have another 
feature which may have been 
overlooked. Before you begin 
to prepare a PC board for 
etching, it's usually necessary 
to prepare preliminary art- 
work. This is the process of 

determining component 
placement and interconnect- 
ing lines. I have found the 
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on papsr^ the stamps are used 
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saver in producing profes- 
sional-looking transistor and 
IC pin connections. This 
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than using pressure-sensitive 
adhesive decals for the pre- 
liminary artwork. Bear in 
mind, however^ that the 
stamps do have limitations 
and that the results depend to 
A great extent on how you 
use them. • 



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How Do You 



Use ICs ? 



Most of this series has 
been concerned with 
digital ICs. Just for a change 
of pace, here's one of the 
workhorse linear ICs - the 
LM380 series of audio power 
amplifiers. 

There are two in the 
series: the LM380 (or 
LM380N), which Is a two 
Watt power amplifier IC, and 
the LM380N-8 {or 
LM380CN), which is a 600 
mW power amplifier in a 



armi&s ^ 



IN VERM NO 
INPUT 

IHPUT 




OtTFPUt 



«i« cf^oumo 



- - part VII 



minitype DIP (dual in-line 
package). 

Besides the power differ- 
ence, the pin connections are 
not the same, so we will take 
one at a time. 

The first hurdle to gel over 
is the power. It may not seem 
like much to talk about some- 
thing which only puts out 
600 mW or two Watts. This 
must be put into correct 
perspective. 

Most amateur and com- 



BYPASS 

WON mv 



HtVERTllte 




Ot/TPHiT 



Fig, J. LM380N 2 Walt audio amplifier IC 



munications type equipment 
usually has an audio power 
output in the neighborhood 
of one or two Watts. Even the 
much prized R390 or R390A 
only has a 600 mW output. 

If that doesn't convince 
you, just think how loud 
those teensy transistor radios 
sound. Most of them are only 
about 100 mW or so. Make 
no mistake. These audio ICs 
are wefl within the useful 
range of audio output power 
for most purposes- 

Both ICs can actually put 
out more power than these 
basic ratings, but this gets 
into problems with heat sink- 
ing and other special pre- 
cautions. This series is 
devoted to the easy and 
reliable. 

Fig. 1 * shows the pin con- 



figuration for the LM380(N) 
and the schematic symboU 
This IC is in the 14 pin DIP 
configuration that has been 
commoniy seen in this series. 
Taken all by itself, the 
schematic representation of 
the device as a sideways 
triangle may seem a bit 
dumb. Once again we are 
faced with the problem that 
this is another computer 
symbol, the one for the 
amplifier function, which was 
retained for the device in 
other applications. 

It is dumb, but it is what 
you are going to find on most 
of the schematics that use 
this and other IC amplifiers. 

This means audio, i-f, rf, 
op and the works. They all 
use this same symbol, so 
watch the device number and 
the pin connections carefully. 

This IC is another device 
with a minimum of external 
parts to go with it. There are 
a wide range of values that 
may be used depending upon 
the application though. Most 
are not critical, but you will 
have to understand how and 
why the choices were made- 
Keep in mind that this 
device was intended for a 
number of purposes and has 
features that are not imme- 
diately applicable to the 
audio amplifiers you will be 
using. 

It was designed to perform 
a number of audio jobs in 
intercoms, TVs, radios, tape 
recorders, etc.| and for 
various control amplifier 
applications. Us use as a com- 
munications type audio 
amplifier is what we are inter- 
ested in. 

In order to simplify the 
circuity it wilt be described in 
sections with the explanation 
of the associated parts* 

Fig. 2 shows the IC and its 
usual output circuit. Rl and 
CI are theoretically optional. 



90-500^F 
LM3Hqi^ f ) | 



i^ 



yp 



m 



CI 



m 






Fig, 2. LM380N output circuit 



134 



Tfiey are there to prevent a 5 
to 10 MHz oscillation which 
may occur with some types 
of operation,^ 

When bench testing the IC, 
they did help to prevent 
audio oscillation with some 
circuits. The values shown are 
the specific values to be used. 

C2 !S the output coupling 
capacitor. The low impedance 
output is capacitively coupled 
to the load. The voltage 
rating should be higher than 
the source voltage by a slight 
margin at the least* 

The value is not critical for 
communications work. The 
typical range of values is from 
50 uF to 500 uF. The basic 
effect is on the low frequency 
response. For hi-fi use you 
would want the larger value. 

The LM380 will work with 
a toad from four to 1 6 Ohms 
impedance. This gives you 
quite a bit to play with. 
There are plenty of speakers 
in this range and it will also 
work with your 8 Ohm ham 
headphones or a set of stereo 
phones. 

The stereo phones can be 
hooked up as either a 16 
Ohm load (series) or a four 
Ohm load (parallel). The 
advantage of using the phones 
as a four Ohm load would be 
that the shell of the plug 
could be grounded when the 
jack was chassis mounted. 
For 16 Ohm use, the jack 
would have to be insulated 
from the chassis. 

There is slightly more 
output with the sixteen Ohm 
hookup, but not so much as 
to be criticaL There will also 
be differences in the amount 
of actual audible output 
depending upon the 
efficiency of the speaker or 
headphones used. Still, the \C 
should be usable with almost 
anything standard you have 
on hand. 

Fig, 3 shows the power, 
grounding, and bypass cir- 




INPUT 



cuitry of the IC. Pin 14 is the 
Vcc source pin and pin seven 
is the nominal circuit ground* 
Notice that there are six 
other ground pins, 

These are not because 
extra grounding was needed. 
Tlieir specific purpose is to be 
part of the heat sinking 
mechanism. When used with a 
PC board, they draw heat off 
to the solid foil where it can 
be dissipated safely. 

The IC is designed for use 
with a minimum voltage of 8 
and a maximum of 22 volts; 
however, those tested would 
not work below ten volts 
source* 

While not always shown, 
the Vs pin should be by- 
passed if the supply is more 
than a few inches away from 
the IC, It probably is a good 
idea to bypass it anyway. 
This is to prevent audio oscil- 
lation. The value is not 
critical, and for most audio 
uses, 0,1 to 10 uF is com- 
mon* 

The other bypass capacitor 
shown is also optional in 
some circuits. Its function is 
to bypass the supply to the 
internal small signal high gain 
sections of the IC where 
power supply hum or other 
noise can get in and be ampli- 
fied* 

There is an internal split 
load resistor for these stages 
which is bypassed to ground 
when extra decoupling is 
desired - 

For audio circuits, this Is 
usually desirable. Here the 
common value is in the 5 to 
10 uF class, but it is not too 
critjcai. This does have an 
effect on the frequency 
response, but for audio use, 
there did not seem to be any 
appreciable difference with or 
without in the test circuits. 

It probably won't degrade 
performance for communica- 
tions work either. Use the 
bypass to take advantage of 
the extra decoupling. 

We now come to the 
matter of power output. At 
the beginning of this article, 
the LM380 was listed as a 
two Watt amplifier. This 



Is 



047-iOtt^ 




tiS m 



Fig. 3. LM380N power, bypassing, and ground circuit 



presupposes that it gets the 
required drive and the rated 
source voltage. 

With its full 22 or so volts, 
It will have that much output, 
but not with less source 
voltage. Here what seems like 
a decided liability actually 
works for you. 

Most transistorized or IC 
amateur and communications 
type equipment is also 
designed for mobile use, 
specifically with a design 
center of the 13.8 volts or so 
that the norma! car or truck 
will have. Nominally this is 
specified as twelve volt opera- 
tion. This can make design 
work easier for you. 

Instead of a wide range of 
operating conditions, you can 
expect the 12 to 13*8 volt 
range to be your norm. These 
test circuits were tested from 
12 to 14 volts for actual 
operating characteristics. 

This automatically uses 
the first rule of IC and tran- 
sistor work: Don't push the 
ratings. The 14 volts is well 
within the rated voltage for 
the device and is a very safe 
margin. The big question is: 
What does it do to the actual 
performance? 

Mathematically, you get 
quite a bit less output with 
less source voltage. When 
tested, it worked out to 
about 500 mW at best. This 
may not sound like much on 
paper, but in terms of real 
sound it is more than you 
want. 

This will take some ex* 
plaining. The output voltage 
through the capacitor is the 
signal voltage that drives the 
speaker or headphones. 

This voltage is derived 
from the source voltage. The 
IC automatically centers itself 
at one half the source voltage 
and the output voltage swing 
is the source voltage minus 
the voltage differential re- 
quired for the device to 
operate, usually several volts. 

This means that the 
output voltage will be less 
than the source voltage by 



several volts. That is all there 
will be. You can drive the 

input up to the point where 
this maximum signal output 
voltage is used up. 

Overdriving will result in 
distortion caused by the 
signal being clipped when 
there is no further output 
voltage swing available. 

Not to worry. Just keep it 
in perspective. You can*t hear 
a number. How does the IC 
sound? The IC was tested 
using the output from an FM 
tuner as the signal source* 
This is a more demanding 
si^al than speech, as music 
shows up distortion much 
quicker and the acceptable 
distortion level is less. 

Using a good quality 
speaker, a number of types of 
signals were tried, everything 
from acid rock to classical 
music. Rough measurements 
of the output to the speaker 
showed approximately 500 
mW available without distor- 
tion. Slightly more power was 
available before distortion 
became unacceptable. 

However, listening in the 
room the speaker was in was 
somewhat uncomfortable. It 
was too loud. In fact, it could 
be heard through much of the 
rest of the house. The room 
door had to be shut to con- 
tinue testing. 

At these power levels, that 
safety factor becomes quite 
an advantage. After several 
hours of continuous use at 
the maximum usable level at 
fourteen volts, there was no 
evidence of any heat prob- 
lem. There is a built-in 
thermal overload circuit, but 




IMPUT 



Fig, 4, LM3S0N input circuit (^optional for tone). 



Fig. 5* Common mode volume control. 



t85 



Vit*(4V> 



WJ-500,iF/t5-50V 




OHMS 



Fig. & Ful{ schematic^ LM380N audio amplifier. *See text 



the device did not even feef 
warm to the touch. 

For enjoyable room listen- 
ing, much less power was 
needed. 30-40 mW would fill 
the room. There was one 
slight problem at that power. 
The base response suffered. 
For communications work 
this would not even be 
noticed, but with music it 
was noticeable. 

This may not be a feult 
with the iCor circuit though. 
None of the components 
were really chosen for hi-fi 
response. As the volume 
control was almost all the 
way down, the low resistance 
across the IC's input may 
have caused the loss, tt is 
more likely that at the low 
power level there was simply 
too little drive to the speaker 
at low frequency. 

This is a problem with any 
speaker. It takes more power 
to drive them well at low 
frequencies. This usually 
means poor response unless a 
base boost circuit is used. 
This would be uncommon 
and unnecessary for commun- 
ications use. 

The input circuitry of this 
IC is the hardest part to 
understand, but not to use if 
you know what you want. 

There are two inputs, one 
inverting and one non- 
inverting. They do just what 
the name implies. For audio 
use the non-inverting input is 
commonly used. But what to 
do with the other? There are 
several options because the 
device was intended for many 
types of inputs. 

The unused Input can be 
left floating, grounded 
through a resistor or capaci* 
tor, or grounded directly. The 
application notes give the 
particulars for other uses; 
what we want are the stan- 



dard receiver audio section 
type answers. 

In this case, the usual 
procedure is to leave the 
inverting input floating or 
ground it directly. The audio 
input goes to the non-invert- 
ing input, pin two. 

This is shown in Fig. 4. 
Cl, C2, C3, and Rl are not 
critical, but do have an effect 
on the input, so a word of 
explanation is in order* 

CI and C2 are signal 
coupling capacitors. Their 
value is not critical The 
voltage rating should be suffi- 
cient to block the dc voltage 
from the preceding stage 
from getting to the tC input. 

The value affects the fre- 
quency response, the low 
frequencies in particular* For 
communications use, any- 
thing from 0.05 uF on up will 
do. For best low frequency 
response, a small electrolytic 
can be used. Values around 
10 uF are common. 

The high frequency 
response of the LM380 is 
quite good. In fact, the audio 
quality is rather brilliant. It is 
more high frequency response 
than is needed or usually 
wanted. 

Most communications 
amplifiers are built to limit 
high frequencies, so there is 
usually the equivalent to C3 
in most circuits. Even for 
music it sounds better to take 
out some of that brilliance 
and make a more natural 
sound. 

The G3 value is not critical 
and is usually a matter of 
personal choice. A value of 
0.005 to 0,05 uF would be 
the likely range. 

In the schematic shown 
here, C3 is between pins 2 
and 6. It can also go between 
pin 2 and ground. It made no 
appreciable difference if pin 6 



was grounded or ungrounded. 
Grounding may be advisable 
in some circuits to avoid stray 
coupling to the inpui, 
particularly if the inverting 
input is used and the other is 
left unused. 

Volume control R3 is not 
critical. The test circuit used 
a stray 15k Ohm volume 
control. It would seem likely 
that anything up to 1 meg 
would also work. A smaller 
va!ue might also work, but at 
some point might make for 
less signal to the amplifier. 

In this circuit, the volume 
control is capacitor coupled 
to the IC* tt seemed to work 
as well when the tap went 
directly to pin 2 of the IC, 
but there may be some load- 
ing of the IC with a low 
resistance across it. 

In a transistor circuit, 
trying to use a volume 
control the same way as In a 
tube grid circuit would upset 
the bias of the transistor and 
mess up the circuit, so the 
control is normally isolated 
from the inpuL 

With ICs you often have 
the option of using a tube 
type volume control circuit, 
but the isolated volume 
control as shown is more 
common. 

The IC is quite sensitive. It 
is rated at 0.5 V ac maximum 
input. It only took a tiny 
amount of the available input 
voltage for full un distorted 
output. Going beyond this 
will certainly cause extreme 
distortion and may damage 
the IC 

For your own test pur- 
poses, the output from an FM 
tuner makes a good wide 
range test signal. An audio 
oscillator is a good steady test 
signal. Remember to keep the 
level low. Start with the ICs 
volume control all the way 
down and raise it gently until 
you get a clear signal. 

There is one trick type of 
control circuit peculiar to the 
tC which relies on its differ- 
ential amplifier capability. 
This Is the **common mode" 
control shown in Fig. 5.^ 

Here the two inputs are 
played off against each other 
and the circuit provides very 



little loading to the IC or the 
signal source. 

This circuit is not common 
for communications use and 
is shown for example only. 
The normal audio hookup of 
the IC is what you wan t^ for 
most audio or communica- 
tions purposes. 

This basic complete circuit 
is shown in Fig. 6^ with 
typical parts values. This will 
certainly handle any job you 
will be interested in doing at 
first. 

Fig. 7^ shows a similar 
circuit from an actual receiver 
schematic. This is only shown 
for example and not for 
duplication. One of the inter- 
esting things about it is that it 
would appear to be in error. 

Before getting into the 
errors, look at the input 
circuit. It is quite similar to 
the test circuit shown. The 
inverting input is directly 
grounded. The 0.001 uF 
capacitor would appear to be 
for audio tone quality. 

The volume control is 
similar to the test circuit. The 
exact significance of the 
0.047 uF cap and 10k resistor 
combination was not ex- 
plained in the text. 

It may be partly for tone 
quality or perhaps some form 
of peak limiting to the IC. It 
may even perform some 
filtering action in the circuit. 

The value of the output 
resistor is not given nor is the 
0.01 uF capacitor explained. 
Perhaps again for audio 
response. In any case, that far 
the circuit is fairly straight- 
forward. 

The trouble comes with 
the rest of the schematic. Part 
of it suffers from assuming 
that the reader already knows 
the LM380 audio !C. 

The pin with the asterisk 
(*) obviously refers to the 
ground pins 7, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 
and 1 2. The bypass capacitor 
obviously refers to the byp^s 
pin. But this is only obvious 
if you are already familiar 
with the IC and know that 
pin 1 is bypassed. 

The s c hematic is 
ambiguous. The nine could 
refer to either of the two pins 
near iL As it happens, pin 



186 



mmr 






3o«:* 



0.047 



rJh 



iOK 




Btmss vi 



Dig. Z Schematic from published article- 



tKVERTIMG 
JNPUT 

IHVtHTlNCi 
(NPt/T 




vpur 



MOM tNv 

MVERT 

iftOUNQ 









1 


IwJ 


i 


z 




T 


s 




*_ 


4 




* 



BYPAiS 
VOUTPVT 



GROUND GflOUMO 



F/g, 5. Mint-Dip 600 m W LM380N-8 symbol and pinout 



nine of the LM380N is no 
contact, which is quite non- 
committaL 

The bypass should have 
been labeled pin one and the 
output is pin eight. All lold^ 
this could have been a very 
frustrating project to dupli* 
Gate* 

This shows why it is so 
important to get the data 
sheet for an unfamiliar IC 
The pinout diagram would 
have shown the error and the 
application notes would have 
given enough information to 
make corrections. 

Most of the simple audio 
uses will foHow a hookup 
very similar to our test cir- 
cuit, which could probably be 
dropped right into any 
project using the LM380N as 
its audio amplifier stage. 

The only time you might 
want to deviate from some- 
thing similar is when the text 
clearly gives a reason for a 
different hookup. A given 
circuit might be more suscep- 
tible to rf pickup or the like 
and require extra circuitry. 

We next come to the 
LM380CN, the mini-DIP 
LM380N. This is nothing 
more than an eight pin IC 
about half the length of the 
other. It will still fit into a 
standard IC socket- 

The important thing to 
watch is that the pin connec- 
tions are not the same as the 
other IC, and, of course, the 
power is not the same. 

Other than that, the 



hookup is just about the 
same, at least as far as the 
external components. Fig. 8* 
shows the pinout and sche- 
matic symbol and Fig, 9 
shows the whole amplifier 
schematic. It is virtually the 
same as the other* 

Within the 12 volt design 
range it gives just about the 
same performance, perhaps 
slightly less output but not 
enough to matter. 

There is one serious draw- 
back though. To get the com- 
parable output it means that 
the IC is working at almost 
full capacity, ll runs slightly 
warm to the touch. 

As a design decision, there 
would seem to be tittle in 
favor of using this IC. Unless 
you are really into teensy, it 
would be better to use the 
larger IC* 

It will give better perfor* 
mance within that range and 
it will be running very conser- 
vatively. This translates into 
longer term reliability* 

There is a wide price 
differential between sources 
for prime quality LMSSOs, 
but the usual difference 
between the 2 Watt and the 
0.6 Watt is only about 35^, 
hardly worth bothering 
about. 

There are several ways to 
buy the LM380. You can buy 
prime quality or an experi- 
menter's selection. This will 
give you a higher IC count 
but will contain defective 
units. 




^-l&OiHMS 



Fig. 9. LM380N-S 600 m W audio amptifier circuit 



For your first time out> 
get some prime quality. Two 
or three will do for a start. 
Then make up a test circuit 
using your supply and 
speaker. See how the prime 
quality units sound and per- 
form. Then you can try the 
experimenter's bagful. 

The selection I got con- 
tained several that were not 
even audio amplifiers, and 
there were only about 12 
usable out of the original 50. 

This was quite a bit less 
than advertised, but on a 
price per unit basis, quite a 
bit cheaper than buying 
prime quality. You will 
probably get about the same 
results, but without a work- 
ing standard to compare with, 
you may have a hard time 
testing and knowing that you 
are right. 

This brings up a word 
about how these things can 
act up. There are four basic 
categories of trouble and 
there may also be some slight 
shading in between. 

1. The unit can be quietly 
uncommunicative. It just sits 
there in the circuit and no 
audio comes out All other 
indications are normal. 

2. There can be audio but 
it will be weak or distorted- 
This is where a knowledge of 
how the circuit Is supposed to 
work pays off. It could be 
circuit trouble, too. At this 
point, you have to wiggle a 
few wires and make sure the 
IC is properly seated in the 
matrix or socket. All other 
indications are normal. 

3. The IC draws too much 
current This may or may not 
give good audio response — 
usually not or it hums. The 
IC should not draw more 
than about 25 mA when 
idling. Usually it does not go 
high with the 12 volt or so 
supply in use. Some ICs want 
to go a few hundred mA, This 



is decidedly unhealthy. Scrap 
them pronto. 

4. The IC is suicidal. This 
IC usually doesn't work at all 
but draws over an Amp. 
While testing one, the power 
supply meter was doing a 
tarantella at 1,5 to 2 Amps. 
Not a sound out of the IC, As 
I reached for the supply lead, 
smoke began to curl up from 
the board. Exit one IC, 

This brings up a practical 
testing matter. You don*t 
want to watch your supply go 
up in smoke because of a 
defective IC. Make sure your 
supply is protected by fuses 
and common sense. 

It would be a good idea if 
the whole physical layout is 
right within eyesight in front 
of you when the power is 
applied. Then if anything 
takes off you will be able to 
quickly cut off the power. 

I use a clip lead on the 
ground lead of the power 
supply and touch it to the 
circuit ground to apply power 
at first. If nothing goes wild I 
clip it on and watch for any 
later effect. So far my supply 
has remained in one piece 
using this system- 

This is probably more 
detail then actually needed 
for most applications. It 
really is a simple IC to use 
successfully. However, by 
now you should have all the 
information you need to 
appfy it to any use you have 
and know how to make 
allowances in other circuits if 
you did not have the exact 
parts specified, ■ 

References 

Linear In teg ra ted Circuits^ 
iStational, Feb,, 1973, pp. 5-41, 

"' Linear Appfications, Volume 
1, National (Radio Shack) Section 
AN69. 

'^"Yes, You Can Build This 2m 
Receiver/' Jim Huffman 
WA7SCB, 73 Magazine, April, 
1976, p. 18, 



187 



AMSAT 




AmMeur radio fs about to undergo 
a fufw!amentaf clian9e. About fifty 
Vears ago the drscovery thai the HF 
b^nds would support lon^ distsncs 
communicstions revolutionized ama- 
teur radio. At that time amateurs were 
limited to working their friends across 
town or the occasional DX station 
using high power and long wire anten- 
nas on the long wave bands. With the 
introduction of the short wave bands, 
DX contacts became commonplace, 
with small antennas and relattvely low 
power. Encouraged by this OX poten- 
tial, amateurs explored the HF bands, 
using sfiorter and shorter waves to 
work the world. Time passed, tech- 
fwlo^ improved, frequencies got 
hfghef, and wavelengths shorter, until 
a barrier was foynd at a wavelength of 
about ten meters. The ionosphere 
only allowed reasonably reliable DX 
contacts at frequencies below about 
30 MHz. Thus, for years, DX contacts 
were in the main limited to HF. Now 
that barrier is being broken and a 
fundamental change in amateur radio 
is again about to take place. 

In the change that amateur radio is 
abouc to undergo, whole new bands 
will open up, with characteristics 
unlike any of those existing at 
present. When will that change take 
place? It will begin with the succx^ful 
launch of the first AMSAT-Phase 111 
spacecraft now scheduled for late in 
1979, 

AMSAT is a worldwide organiza- 
tion of radio amateurs with more than 
3000 members in over 8S countries. 
However, Gverygne communicating via 
the AMSAT-OSCAR 6 and 7 space- 
craft ere not rrsamben of AMSAT, and 
there is no requirement that they 
become members, It is estimated that 



many thousands of radio amateurs 
have made use of the OSCAR space- 
craft. If you count the amateurs who 
have been Involved m commanding 
the spacecraft (so as to ensure that 
they are available for use when 
scheduled), and you count those 
amateurs involved in publicizing 
AMSAT (and mal<ing kriown the capa- 
bilities of the existing satellites and 
the potentials of the new ones), and 
you count the amateurs buiiding those 
new ones, you will find that only a 
few hundred out of an estimated 
S0,000 radio amateurs vsrortdwide are 
pioneering their way into the satellite 
era of amateur radio- 

AMSAT is cyrrently rnan aging the 
day -today operations of the AMSAT- 
OSCAR 6 and 7 spacecraft. These 
satellites are tn low aliitude orbits and 
allow communications ranges of up to 
5000 km or so without any skip 
zones. However, the band is open for 
only about 20 mTnutes at a time, five 
or six times a day, when the satellite 
passes within range. Whiie sataliite 
communications are indeed possible, 
they are somewhat more difficult than 
conventional communications using 
the HF bands. Also^ relatively llnle 
commercial equipment is available to 
users at this time. The AWSAT- 
Phase III spacecraft will open the 
VHF bands for hours at a time. In use, 
these bands will appear to be similar 
to the HF baritte, in that they will 
open up for oommunications with 
stations to the east of the user, slowly 
change to mclude areas to the north 
and south, and then open up to the 
west before closing down* There will, 
however, be a tot of overlap between 
thest areas. Contacts will be possible 
with the whole of the northern 



Jgpan^e amateurs working on profOtypB of Mode J transpondBr for the 
AMSATOSCAR D sp^cecrgft. 



hemisphere and much of the southern 
for hours at a lime with no skip zones. 
No skip 2one&. Carv you imagine what 
that will mean? Anyone in the north- 
ern hemisphere will be able to hear 
anyone else. Can you imagine a round 




Tarn Cfsrk WA3LND smnding next to B tow cost portsbfe OSCAR TBrminaf on the maft in Washington DC sr the 
opening of the National Aeronautics and Space Mmeum, July, 797$. 



table QSO between stations in New 
York, Washington, Los Angeles, 
IVliami, Tokyo, Paris, Tel Aviv and 
Moscow — all able to hear each other 
ai the same time? This is not possible 
using the HF bands. Nets, emergency 
traffic handling, educational demon- 
strations and plain CQ calls will all 
assume a new dimension. 

Historically, AMSAT has worked to 
build operational, simple to use satel- 
HteSy and now our goal is within sight. 
Our space prografn has been interna- 
tional in the true cooperative spirit of 
amateur radio. Our first spacecraft 
was AUSTRAL IS OSCAR 5, built in 
Austrs-lia by radio hams at Melbourne 
University. It was not a communica- 
tions satellite, but carried, among 
other things, a prototype command 
system which proved that radio ama 
teurs could f:ontrol the operation of 
satellites in outer space, AMSAT- 
OSCAR 6, built by Australian, 
German, and American hams, was the 
first long- life amateur radio com 
munications satellite. Designed for a 
one year Nfetimei it is only now 
showing signs of old age after four and 
a half years of faithful service. 
AMSAT-OSCAR 7, built by Ameri- 
can, Australian, Canadian^ and 
German hams, is now approaching its 
thr^ year Operational design lifetime. 

In order to keep interest in space 
communications active through 1980 
(vtfhen the first AMSAT-Phase 111 
spacecraft is expected to become 
operationel), AMSAT is stretching its 



188 




O&ye Otngerman WBOAL, condactfng & cfassmt^m dsmonsiration. 



resources ar>ff builcfirig one more tow 
orbit satetliie (known as AMSAT- 
OSCAR O uitlf launch). AMSAT 
OSCAR D (or A^^D) is a joint effort 
of th« Japanese AMSAT Assoc idtion. 
Project OSCAR, and the ARRL, all 
working ctowly in cooperation with 
AMSAT. AMSAT^SCAR D is 
presently scheduled fof launch in late 
1977p and Is primanly intended for 
continuing support of the educationat 
program. Once the spacecraft is 
launched and In orbit, it will become 
AJVISAT-OSCAR B and wifl he con- 
sidered to be in the public domain, so 
that anvtwie can use it for communica- 
tions purposes. The ARRL will theri 
beco0»e responsible for all the opera- 
tions managiement aspects of the satel- 
lite. To erisure operation consistent 
with the design of the spacecraft, 
AMSAT wiN act as tec hn teal con- 
sultan ts for the operations manage- 
ment of AMSAT-OSCAR 8 during its 
active lifetime. The ARRL will also 
pay AMSAT the sum of $50,000 to 
partial ty reimburse AMSAT for the 
development and construction costs 
of the spacecraft. Space satellites are 
not cheap- AIVISAT-OSCAR 7 cost in 
the neighborhood of $60,000. but a 
similar commercial communications 
spacecraft could have coft 
$2,000,000. 

AMSAT also has a policy of not 
obsoletifig equipment, AMSAT- 
OSCAR 6 carried a 145,9/29,5 MHz 
transponder. AMSAT-OSCAR 7 
introduced a UHFA/HF transponder 
csn 432/145.9 MHz, This transponder, 
designated as MODE "B"* (14S.9/29.5 
became MODE A), clearly demon- 
strates the superior capabilities of 
VHF for amateur satetlite trans- 
ponders. The mode 8 (ink on 
AMSAT-OSCAR 7 Is cEearly superior 
to the mode A links of AMSAT- 



OSCARS 6 and 7. AMSATOSCAB D 
will also carry a mode A transponder 
and a new mode J transponder (built 
in Japan) on 145,9/435.15 MHz, 
Similarly, the first of the AMSAT- 
Phase III spacecraft will carry two 
transponders, utilizing modes A and J. 
Thus, as amateurs become more 
interested in satellite communt cations 
and obtain equipment, they can be 
sure that thetr investment wiEl not 
become obsolete with the passing of 
any one spacecraft* 

The AMSAT Phase 111 spacecraft 
will be accessible with full quieting 
SSB or CW signals by any amateur 
radio station using an output power of 
the order of 50 Watts, and small« 
rooftop, TV-style antennas. Thus, any 
apartrnent dweller with a balcony 
having ^me north^ern exposure will be 
able to work the v^^rld. In fact, ttre 
performance of this equipment com^ 
municating through an AMSAT- 
Phase III spacecnft will usually be 
superior to a kW-quad combination on 
the HF bands. 

Amateur spacecraft have tong 
passed the days when launches were 
made available because the spacecraft 
were there, or to demonstrate that 
hams could do It too. There are now 
marty spacecraft competing for launch 
opportunities. AMSAT thus has to 
show how the piggyback laynch can 
be implemented for a minimum of 
cost to the laurvching ag&ncy, ar>d also 
show cause as to why a spacecraft 
shoutd even be carried aioft in the 
first place. Thus the OSCAR series 
spacecraft have also been used for 
scientific and public service demon- 
strations of communications capa- 
bilities. There have been educational 
transmissions to introduce the space 
sciences to students in classrooms, and 
demonstrations of an emergency 



crashed aircraft focatlng technique in 
Canada and the USA, which has 
shown that tt is possible to pinpoint 
the position of a simulated crash site 

AAlSATOSCAfl 
SATELLrrE 



to within a few miles of the exact 
location, NASA is now studying an 
operational sateHite system to do just 
that, saving tncalculsble numbers of 
fives and thousands of do* tars in 
search and rescue costs. Data collec- 
tion techniques using remote sensors 
relaying data via satellite to a central 
location have tieen demonstrated. 
Mobile tefftiinals have been set up in 
cars, boats and private aircraft, Medi- 
cat emergency traffic has been 
simulated. Electrocardiograph data has 
been transmitted coast to coast, 
phone patches have linked Hawaii to 
the mainland US, and diroci "broad- 
casting" experiments have taken 
place^ Many of these activities are 
only being talked about by the profes- 
sionals^ or, if they are being done, are 
being done at many times the cost, in 
terms of both the spacecraft and 
ground equipment. 

AMSAT OSCARs 6 and 7 have 
paved the way. They have sfwwn that 
we can use the satetlite bands and 
have some grasp of the potential that 
they have to offer, but impressive as 
these are, much is yet to come. 
Contacts via AMSAT-OSCARs 6 and 7 
require some technical expertise, The 
spacecraft must be tracked as they 
speed across the sky, since passes only 
last about 20 minutes and the range is 
limited. The AMSATPhase III 
spacecraf! will change all that. Space- 
craft OSOs win become very simple to 
implement. Commynications will be 
possible for hours at a time, but these 
capabilities wilt r>ot come for free. 

Hardware costs for the first: 




.u'Mnr^!^ 

































Coffception of the efnergency /acator efiperiment used for focstirtg crssh sites. 
The computer interface was located at VE3DHC. Tests showed thBt the crash 
could be pinpointed to within b few miles of the actual site. 



139 



AM SAT Phase III spacecrafi are 
estimated at $200,000 { a govtBrnment 
Of tofnmefcial spacecraft providing 
Similar performance would cost mtl- 
lions). 

How can you help? First of all you 
can become a member of A MS AT. 
Does are onty S10 per year. If you are 
already a member (and even if you 
are not), you can become a Mfe 
membef for a ckination of at least 
S1Q0. You will then receive the 
AM SAT Newsletter, a quarterly 
publ leal ion devoted to amateur saiel- 
lite communications. It contains 
deieils about existing, future and 
planned spacecraft. It contains operat- 



ing news and acts as a forum for 
communicators. You can also 
encourage your local radio club to 
become a nwmber society at $20 per 
year ($200 life). 

You can also help the AMSAT- 
Phase III program financially by 
sponsoring part of ttie satedite. You 
can sponsor any number of solar cells 
($10 each), battery celts (S200 eachK 
solar panels ($2,000 each), trans- 
ponders (S5,00Q each), an onboard 
microcomputer tS8,000), o^^ a rocket 
motor (SI 0,000). All donations 
including the S100 life membership 
donations are tax deductible under 
section 170 of the IRS Co4e, All 



sponsors wit I rEceive a certificate 
stritable For framing acknowledging 
their contribution. A plaque honoring 
for posterity cor^tribueors of 51^000 
or more will be carried on the space- 
craft in orbit around the Earth, and 
contributors will receive a replica of 
the plaque as a rnofnento* 

If you are willing to contribute 
time or money and would tike to gel 
involved in bringing a new era to 
amateur radio, join AMSAT's team. 
For further information about all 
aspects of AM5AT and the ongoing 
amateur radio satellite communica- 
tions program, write to me, Joe Kasser 
G3ZCZ/W3, c/o AMSAT, Box 27, 



Washington DC 20044. 

CHICAGO FM CLUB HOSTS 
OSCAR NET 
The Chicago FM Club hm begun 
holding a weekly OSCAR net on its 
two meter 16/76 repeater. The net, 
hosted by Ralph WaMio KSJPfl, dis- 
seminates late information gathered 
from low band OSCAR nets meeting 
earlier in the evening, and rebroad- 
casts them at 9:00 pm Chicago time 
on Tuesdays. Ralph also gives the 
OSCAR 6 and 7 cw^bit times for the 
Chicago area for the comir^ week, 
and answers questions concemir^ the 
satellites' operations, 



Editor- 
Robert Baker WB2GFE 
15 Windsor Dr. 
Atco NJ 08004 



1ARS/CHC/FHC/HTH QSO 

PARTY 
Starts: 2300 GMT Friday, 

June 3 
Ends* 0000 GMT Monday, 

June 6 

An SASE to K6BX will bring 
detailed m formation. Conrest is open 
to ill amateurs and SWLs worldwide. 
Same station may be worked on each 
band and mode; SS3 and AM are 
different moctes. 
BXCHANGE: 

QSO number, RSCT), mm*, 
CHC/FHC number, US state and 
county or simtlar division. Non 
members send HTH instead of 
CHC/FHC number 
SCORiNG: 

CHCers — score 1 point per QSO 
with Other CHCers, 2 points per QSO 
with HTHers; 1 additional point tf 
YU B/P, FHC, Novice, CHC200, 




Merit or Club station, or if on VHF/ 
UMF: double aboue points if OSO is 
outside own country. HTHers — 
contacts with other HTHers count 1 
point, with CHCers count 3 points. 
Rest same as above. SWLs — use above 
depending on whether CHC member 
or not, 
MULTIPUEHS: 

Each different coniinent, e&untry, 
ITU lonep and US state counted only 
once. 
ffNAL SCOf^E: 

Multiplier tim^ total QSO points ts 
final score. Multi operator stations 
divide score by number of operators. 
FREQUENCfES (for US dnd DX as 

CW " 3575. 3710. 7070, 7125. 
14075, 21075, 21090, 21 140, 2B090. 
28125, Phone - 3770, 3775. 3790, 
3943, 3960, 7070, 7090, 7210, 7260. 
7275, 14320, 14340, 21360, 21440, 







June 3^6 


lARS/CHC/FHC/HTH QSO Party 


June 4-5 


Minnesota State QSO Party 


June 4-5 


SOWP QSO Party 


June 11-13 


ABRL VHF QSO Party 


June 18-20 


West Virginia QSO Party 


June 25-26 


ARRL Field Day 


July 2-3 


QRP -- Summer - Contest 


July 4 


ARRL Straight K«y Night 


July 910 


lARU Radiosport Championship 


iuly 16-17 


Apollo 11 6th Anniversary Contest 


JulY 16^17 


10-10 Net Summer QSO Party 


Aug 20^21 


t4ew Jersey OSO Party 


Aug 20-21 


Worldwide SARTG RTTY Contest 


Sept 10-11 


Washington State QSO Party 


Sept 10-11 


ARRL VHF QSO Party 


Sept 24 25 


Delta QSO Party 


Octi 


Open CD Party - CW 


Oct 15 16 


Open CD Party - Phone 


Oct 15 17 


Mariitoba QSO Party 


Nov 5-6 


ARRL Sweepstakes - CW 


Nov 12-13 


1 PA Contest 


Nov 13 


OK DX Contest 


Nov 19-20 


ARRL Sweepstakes - Phone 


Nov 19-20 


WWDXA Internation CW Contest Jt 


Dec 3 4 


ARRL 160 Meter Contest 


Decl&ll 


ARRL 10 Meter Contest 




28620. 
AWARDS: 

Hundreds of D3rtificates and 
trophies in all categories and divisions 
are awarded. Art SASE will bfir\g 
further information from IC6BX. Send 
all requests and logs to: Internanonal 
Amateur Radio Society, K68X, PO 
Box 385, Bonita CA 92002. Logs 
should be mailed within 15 days after 
the close of the QSO Parry* 

MINNESOTA QSO PARTY 

Starts: 1800 June 4 
Ends: 2359 GMT June 5 

Sponsored by the Heartland Ama- 
teur Radio Club, Staples High School. 
No restrict ions as to mode or operat- 
ing time, all bands 80-10 mtrs. Only 
one transmitter allowed in operation 
at one time: no crossband contacts. 
Novices compete against Novices- 
Techs against Techs. Net QSOs are not 
valid. Ptease do not interfere with nets 
or traffic sessions. 
EXCHANGE: 

RS(T). county (MN only^ ARRL 
section or country (others)* 
FREQUENCfES f^A 5 kHz): 

Phone: 3910, 7235, 14280. 21365, 
28525. GW: 3526, 7035, 14035, 
2103S, 28035, Novice/Tech; 3725, 
7125,21125,28125. 
SCORtNG: 

One point pef QSO, 2 points if on 
CW, 5 points it Novice or Tech. 
(Note: Novices and Techs must identi- 
fy their license class each QSO, such 
as WB0XXX/N, or /T.\ Wfl0TT2, the 
HARC station, counts 10 points per 
QSO per band. MN stations multiply 
number of ARRL sections plus DX 
countries (W/VE excluded) times OSO 
points. Others multiply OSO points 
by number of MN counties (max. 87)^ 
Phone and CW are one contest — 
please score as such. 

ENTRfES/AWARDS: 

Details and log sheets available aftef 
May 10 upon receipt of an SASE. 
Stations making 50 or more QSOs 
must include a check sheet for each 
band and mode used. Logs must 
include date/time in GMT, band, 
mode, and exchan^s. Certificates to 
state winners as well as high Novice 
and Tech scorers in USA and DX 




stations, MN stations must have 10 
OSOs from a county for county 
awards. SASE required for return of 
awards and summary. Usual disqualifi 
cation criteria. Lo9S must be. post- 
marked by July 2nd. Send logs to: 
HARC, c/o Steven J, Gardner 
WB0MAO. PO Box 281, Staples MN 
56479. 



SOWP OSO PARTY 
Starts: OOOO GMT June 4 
Ends: 2400 GMT June 5 

The Society of Wireless Pioneers, 
SOWP, will hold their 2nd annual CW 
QSO Party with a certificate issued to 
all participating members who contact 
10 or more fellow members during the 
event. 
FREQUENCfBS: 

55 kHz up from low end of each 
band. Novices should try the middle 
of each band. 
EXCHANGES: 

SOWP identification numbers as 
minimitm, other optional. 
ENTR/ES/CER T/FfCA T£S: 

Members desiring a certificate are 
required to submil a listing of con- 
tacts made with call, member's 
number, and time of contact. All 
entries should be mailed to: Pete 
Fernandez W4SM, VP for Awards^ 
129 Hialeah Road« Greenville SC 
29607. Include an SASE and mail no 
later than June 20tll. 

ARRL VHF QSO PARTY 

Starts: 1900 GMT Saturday, 

June 11 

Ends: 0600 GMT Monday, 

June 13 

Check the May issue of QST for 
any fast minute changes! 

Entrants may operate no more than 
28 of the 35 hours during the contest 
period. The seven hours off-time must 
be taken in Increments of 30 minutes 
or more* Listening time counts as 
operating time. All contacts must be 
made on amateur bands abowe 50 
MHz using authorized modes, Fjxed, 
portable, or mobile operation under 
one call, from one location only, is 
permitted. Any transmitter used to 
contact a station may not be later 



190 



mod t0 corrtact another station during 
the contest period with any ottier 
calfsigrt. Contacts mBde by retfans- 
mJtting either or both stations (such 
as repeaters) do not coi^nt for contest 
purposes. Each contact exchange must 
be acknowledged by both operators 
before either may claim contact 
points. A oneway confirmed contact 
does not count. 
EXCHANGE: 

Exchange simply ARRL section, 
SCOB/NG: 

On 60 Of 144 MHt count 1 point 
per contact; on 220 or 420 MHz 
count 2 points per contact; on higher 
UHF bands count 3 points per con 
tact Ffnal score is then the total QSO 
points multiplied by the numbef of 
different bands for additional credits, 
but crossband contacts ^re not al- 
lowed. Also, aircraft mobile stations 
cannot be counted for section muiti- 
pUers, 
ENWiES: 

All logs must be postmarked no 
later than July 7th and sent to: 
ARRL, 225 Main Street. Newington 
CT 06111. Logs and entry forms are 
available through this same address; 
please indtjde an SASE- Usual awards 
will be tssued and the standard dts- 
qualification rules will apply- 

WEST VIRGINIA QSO PARTY 

Starts: 2300 GMT Saturday, 

June 18 

Ends 2300 GMT Monday, 

June 20 

Alt amateurs are invited to partici- 
pate in the QSO Pany sponsored by 
the West Virginia State Amateur 
Radio CouncN. There are no operating 
tirne timrts during the contest period. 
The same station may be worked on 
different bands for additional points, 
but only once per band regardless of 
mode. West Virginia stations may 
work each other. 
FREQUENCIES' 

36 kHz up from the bottom edge of 
each CW band and 10 kHz inside the 
general portion of each phone band. 
EXCHANGE: 

QSO number: RS(T); and county 
(If VWA). state or couniry. 
SCORING: 

A power multiplier wi!l be allowed 
m follows: 200 Watts or less dc rnput 
== 1.5; over 200 Watts dc input = 1.0. 
Out- of state stations determine their 
score by multiplying the number of 
QSOs times the number of different 
West Virginia counties worked (55 
max.). This total istben multiplied by 
the power multiplier as defined above 
for the total score. West Virginia 
stations multiply the total number of 
OSOs by the sum of the different 
WVA counties, US states, and ARRL 
countries worked. This result is then 
multiplied by the power multiplier to 
determine the final score. 
AWARDS: 

To be eligible for an award, a 
station may have only one unassisted 
operator. Awards W\\\ be issued to itie 
highest scoring WVA station, 1st 
runner up in WVA< 2nd runner up in 
state and the highest scoring station in 
each state and country. Decisions of 
the Contest Committee of the West 
Virginia State Amateur Radio Council 
will be f inaL 



LOGS/ENTRtES: 

Logs must indicate dale, time, OSO 
number, caUsign, QSO number 
received, signal reports, and county, 
state or country of the station 
worked. Indicate the mode and band 
also. Logs should be sent to: West 
Virginia QSO Party, PC Box 299, 
Dunbar, West Virginia 25064. Logs 
should be received no later than July 
16th, and no iogs Wfll be returned. 

ARRL FIELD DAY 

Starts: 1800 GMT Saturday, 

June 25 

Ends: 2100 GMT Sunday, 

June 26 

Rules are generally lengthy (2 pages 
in QST\: please refer to the May issue 
of QST for detailed information and 
for any chants since last year's rules. 
Briefly, the general rules are as fol- 
lows: 

TTfce contest is open to all amateurs 
within the ARRL sections; forei^ 
stations may be contacted for credit 
but are not eligible to compete. Each 
entry wifl be classified by type of 
operation; Class A — club group set 
up specifically for Field Day opera^ 
tion operating portable without 
oommerciat power; Class B — nondub 
stations set up portable without 
commercial power; Class C — mobile 
stations; Class D — fixed stations using 
commerctal p^ower; CTass E — fixed 
stations using emergency power for 
transmitters and receivers. 

AH entries will further be classified 
by the number of transmitters 
utilised. Class A and B stations not 
beginning to set up before 1800 GMT 
on SatunJay may operate the entire 
contest period. All others may not 
operate more than 24 hours totaL 
Each station may be worked once on 
each band; voice and CW are con- 
sidered different bands (all voice 
contacts are equivalent and RTTY ^ 
CW^. 

Clflffl A, B, and C stations may 
contact anyone, but classes D and E 
must contact only Class A, B, or C* 
EXCHANGE: 

RSiT) and ARRL section or 
country, 
SCORING: 

Phone contacts count 1 point each 
and CW contacts count 2 points each. 
Final score is sum of QSO points 
times multiplier for highest power 
used at any Ume during the contest 
period, plus bonus points. Power 
multipliers: Multiply by 5 if 10 Watts 
or less dc input power and non- 
commercial main power source or 
motor driven generator; multiply by 2 
if less than 200 Watts; multiply by 1 if 
over 200 Watts up to 1 kW; multiply 
by if over 1 kW (note — dc power 
on SSB is half PEP power). Bonuses: 
tonly for Class A or B stations) 100 
points for 100% emergency power; 
100 points for "naturar" powered 
contact lonly one QSO req'd); SO 
points for public relations; 50 points 
for mes^ge origination for SCM or 
SEC; 5 points for each message re- 
ceived and relayed during FD period 
up to a maximum of 50 points: 50 
points for completing at least one 
QSO on CW via OSCAR, 
ENTRIES: 

Standard disqualification rules 



apply. All entries should be sent tor 
ARRL. 225 Main Street, Mewington 
CT 06111. Offtcial log and entry 
forms ^f^ available from the same 
addres for an SASE* 

SARTG ACTIVITY TEST 

1815 to 1930 GMT, 

last Wednesday of each 

month during 1977 

FREQUENCY: 

3.6 UHz (RTTY), 
EXCHANGE: 

RST and QSO number from 001 
each montb- 
POtNTS: 

Bulletin station counts 2 pts., al! 
other contacts with Scandinavian sta- 
tions count 2 points. 
ENTRIES/AWARDS: 

Logs should be sent not later than 8 
days after test to: Einar M. Tho masse n 
UVILN. Radvrve9an 30. N 3900 
Porsgrunn, Norway. Results will be 
pobhshed In the monthly SARTG 
Buiietm and the yearns result will be 
calculated according to the best 9 of 
12 possible rounds. Diplomas will be 
given to the 5 best stations! Note: The 
bulletin station is currently l_A3S, but 
may be changing cailsign! 

WORKED SCANDINAVIAN 
AMATEUR TELETYPERS 

Offered by the SARTG for 2 Watt 
RTTY contacts with the following 
number of Scandinavian stations: 
Scandinavian stations — 25 (generail, 
50 (bronze ribbon), 75 (silver ribbon), 
100 (gold ribbon); European stations 
- 16 (g.), 35 (b.r.), 50 is,r.). 75 (g.r.); 
other countries - 8 (g.J, 15 (b*r.L 25 
(s-r.L SO (g.r.>. 

All baneh may be used. OSL cards 
for genera! class and bronze and stiver 
ribbons are not necessary — just list 
calls, dates, and times of contacts* For 
gold ribbon tt is essential to have 
contacts with the following prefixes: 



LA, SM. OH, TF, OX OY, OZ. 

Reference to SARTG contest logs or 
photocopies of 7 QSL cards is suffi- 
cient. Fees are 10 IRCs for general 
class and 6 for ribbons^ Applications 
should be addressed to: Carl Jensen 
0Z2CJ, Meisnersgada %, Randers, 
Denmark. 

VERMONT CENTURY 
CLUB AWARD 

In celebration of VT's bicentenniaL 
the Surlington ARC has re insisted the 
VT Century Club Award that was first 
issued in 1966^ The award is available 
to any amateur for confirmed 2- way 
contacts with VT stations. Contacts 
may be on any HP band on any mode. 
The award will be issued for an 
indefinite period, with all contacts 
made during 1977 and later applying 
fctr the award. The basic award certifi- 
cate will be issued for working 10 
different VT stations. Seals for work- 
ing 2&, ^, 75, and 100 additional 
stations (10 initial contacts count a$ 
part of first 25 total]. Applicants 
should submit list of calls in alphabeti- 
cal order, showing city, date, band, 
and mode for each worked. Those 
sending in lists for higher class en- 
dorsements should indicate which seal 
is des*red. QSLs must be in your 
po^ession, but should not be sub^ 
mitted. Instead, a written certification 
of the above list by another amateur 
will be accepted as satisfactory' proof. 
The award chairman reserves the right 
to inspect any or all of the QSLs. The 
fee is $2.00 for US stations or equiva- 
lent for DX Make check or money 
order payable to the Burlington A ma- 
teur Radio Qub, Inc. No fees for 
higtier class seals, but an SASE must 
be included. Send all applications or 
inquiries to: The Burlington ARC, 
VTCC Award Manager; PC Box 312, 
Burlington VT 05402. 



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AWKi RTIFIGATE 

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191 



Hod Hallen WA7NEV 
P.O. Box 73 
Tombstone AZ B5638 



Uncle Sam's 



Surplus List 



- - and how to get on it 



Each month, the United 
States Government auc- 
tions off tons of surplus 
supplies and equipment 
through its Defense Property 
Disposal Service. DPDS is 
Uncle Sam's abbreviation. 
Examples of the types of 
materials involved include: 
scrap metals, fire control 
equipmenii aircraft and air- 
craft components, naval 
ships^ railway equipment, 
motor vehicles and com- 
ponents, wood and metal 
working equipment, refrigera- 
tion and air conditioning 
equipment, heating and 
plumbing equipment, tools, 
electrical and electronic 
equipment (1. communica- 
tions, 2, electrical parts, 3, 
computers and peripherals, 4, 
lighting and alarm systems), 
medical and laboratory equip- 
ment, photographic equip- 
ment, home and office furni- 
ture and supplies, appliances, 
ANDSOMUCHMOREll 

Much of the merchandise 
offered for bid is declared 
surplus because of a lack of 
need for it on the govern^- 
mentis part rather than 
because it is worn out- Most 



of it is in fair or better 
condition and has usually 

been well maintained. These 
auctions are open to all and 

most of them are conducted 
by maiL Bids are usually a 
penny or two on a dollar's 
original value. Auctions are 
held for every United States 
IVlititary Installation in the 
world, so there is sure to be 
one or more near you. 

Getting on the Bidders Mail- 
ing List 

In order to be placed on 
the Official Bidders Mailing 
List, it is necessary to apply 
to the Defense Property 
Disposal Service. The DPDS 
address and a suggested form 
will be found at the end of 
this article. Upon receipt of 
your requ^t, the DPDS will 
send out an official applica- 
tion blank plus booklets 
explaining how to buy, what 
classes of materials are gen- 
erally available, and what the 
rules are. You choose the 
type(s) of equipment you are 
interested in and the loca- 
tions you are willing to pick 
up from if your bids are 
successful. The merchandise 
is broken down into classes 



and the areas are usually 
states. 

When this application 
blank is returned to DPDS, 
your name will be placed on 
the Official Bidders Mailing 
List, and each time that some 
material that you want is 
available at locations that you 
have chosen, you will receive 
a bid catalog. Depending on 
the number of classes that 
you are listed for, it is 
possible to get quite a few 
catalogs each month. 

Here's how it works: Say 
you are interested in aircraft 
components and electrical 
and electronic equipment in 
California. Each time that a 
catalog is issued that includes 
either of these two categories 
and some of which is in Cati- 
fornia, you will receive a 
copy. It may also include 
material you are not looking 
for or locations ouisrde of 
California, but that is OK. 
You bid on what you want, 
when it is located where you 
want it! 

Let's Look at the Catalog 

These usually cover a 
broad category: aircraft or 
automotive or electronics, for 



example, and a group of con- 
tiguous sutes. All material is 
always available for inspec- 
tion before bidding; there- 
fore, the first item in the 
catalog is a list of the mitiury 
instaiiations involved and the 
names and tetephqne num- 

1 1ll 

bers of persons to contact for 
information and inspection. 
It is not necessary thai you 
inspect before bidding, but it 
is recommended, especially 
on large bids. 

Next, the equipment to be 
auctioned off is listed and 
described. Its specific location 
on the military installation is 
given and how it is packaged. 
Its condition is stated as 
poor, fair, good, or excellent, 
and whether it is used or 
unused. Its total weight and 
original cost are given* Some 
items are sold by lot, some by 
weight, and some per each. 
You bid accordingly. 

After all of the merchan- 
dise to be auctioned has been 
listed, general bidding infor- 
mation is covered, as well as 
information on loadings 
Generally the government 
will load heavy bulky items, 
but not always. 

Some bids require a 20% 
deposit, and when this is the 
case, it will be clearly stated. 
Of course, if yours is not the 
high bid, your deposit will be 
returned. It is entirely 
possible that only part of 
your bid will be successful if 
you bid on more than one 
item. 

Each catalog has a bid 
opening date and time and all 
bids must be received before 
that date and time to be 
considered. If you are 
notified that your bid has 
been accepted, you will be 
expected to pay the re- 
mainder owed and remove 
your merchandise within a 
period of time stated in the 
catalog. 

Remaining on the Bidders 

List 

It is necessary to bid at 
least once every five catalogs 
in a given class to remain 
automatically on the Official 
Bidders Mailing List. How- 
ever, you can continue your 



192 



name on the list by simply 
requesting that it remam 
there. Here's how that works: 
The DPDS will indicate on a 
catalog mailing label that 
they are about to drop your 
name from the bidders list for 
lack of activity* Included in 
each catalog is a renewal form 
that you fill in and mail back 
to DPDS. You're now good 
for another five months. You 
can continue this way in- 
definitely, but bidding is 
more fun. It's easier than it 
sounds* 



Items purchased can be for 
your own personal use or for 
resale. For instance: 200 
VHF radios bought at $2 
each and sold at $20 each 
would make a nice profiL 
Most items are sold in 
quantity and the price per 
each is low, regardless of the 
original cost or present value. 
This could make for a 
pleasant and beneficial part 
time business. 

That's ill It's easy! It 
could be profitable! Good 
luck! ■ 



Request far Department of Defense Surplus Sidders Appttcettofi 



Fill out the form below or a copy of the same information and send to: 

DOD Surplus Sales 

P.O. Box 1370 

Battte Creek Ml 49016 



Request for Department of Dtfen^e Surplus property Bidders applica^ 
tion. 

NAME 



STREET ADDRESS OR PC BOX 



CITY 



STATE 



ZIP CODE 



~®KEIMNA/OaD> 

^ new TR-7-4DOA 
2 meter transceiver 
has got it all 

together 

S#rtrf for camptffte detaiU. Prieed at onh $39 5,0 Q 
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PHONE: (704} 254'9551 F3 



The SPEEDY-SPIMNER KNOB gives vou 

what the Engineer 
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tedious dial twisting. 
QSY rapldty from one 
end of the band to 
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25tf mailmg cherge* 

BLAKE EMBER 

38 Chestnut Ridge 

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RO, Boi 4430M Santa Clara. CA 95054 

(40a) 9&8-1&4I} 




lie/ 

ELECTRONICS 



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BALUN 



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I'l impedance mati^h 

For dipoles^ beams, intwrted 
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• Centet insulator with BALUN $13.50 
' Center insulator without BALUN 

S8.50 

* Dragon Fly anteilAa construction sheet 
and drawing $2.00 

postpaid USA 

Patent No. 
D219106 



3 KwPEP 

4 Ounces 
Q1 Ferrite 



KAUFMAN INDUSTRIES 
603-424-2358 
3 SHORT ST 

REEDS FERRY NH 03054 



K6 



HotaaieapOQCkKttSlLiS 

Inchitl^ ev^ryming eittepl DoSS. 2-P€ 
boarfis. G-.S(r L£0 OispJiys. &314dod( 
chip. banslDnner, tli oomporieMs vid 
Kjli mstrucSons Stinfi tfddt kN w Wtt , lir 
ilspliyt, S&J5 



Digital Temperatyre Mettr Kit 

Indcur and outdoor. Autiimatically 
swttdHG bxk mil (onh, eetuiilul. 5(r 
lED r^atfouts. Nothing like a jvtltafeii. 
Neec]$ no additional pins Eor comptole, 
m qperaton, \WII rflMSuf* -100* to 
i JOCPF, air or liquid. Vory accurate. 
Complete instruciions. $31,915 



0OBOA MicrocQftipiJtsr Kit 

flOaOA CPU. Crystal Clocks I/O Buffers, 
RAM arid PROWI. 0/A— A/D converter, 
PROM Programmer. Memory &x}jandab3c, 
Connpieie documsntithDn Ind. assembly 
Instruct., programmkrhfl (tc $195.00 



1977 IC Upciale Masler 

MaflUal Brand r»w Compltfi mte- 
enM drctA dibiiliettir trom i« manu- 
factuws. 1 264 plQe mtstp rd gyidt to 
Iht litest ICs tfldtidinci rncroprocesson 
•fid consunwr drtoits 17.000 Cfiss 
f iC i mgc s for ea^rr sourdng of hvil lo 
oitpots. SSD.Q'O witti frit up{^tt servke 
thru 1977. Domestic postage add 53.00 
Fonign $6.00. 



, 



Frequency Counter M 

Covers audio, ulllisoftictnd 1^ anuteur 
bwid to He to 2.5 Mf^ lyp. PnaJ ehini^al 
lii^h sensitivity -Z5 mlUvoKs. Cfyslat 
eomrmif!! ctocli Can be prescaM tor 
itQfim fftquency 6--5Cr digits firii Iff- 
siructiOftt USS IWiier supply $41.00 



30 MHz Frequency Counter KH 

Crystal tifne base, Covers audio, amaseuf 
OTd €0 ba^d 6.S* digits, pr^scalab^e wrtn 
PC ttoard and full Instructtons. S55.00 
Fully wired and t€^tcd. $75 00 

Ad d S 1 OO rpf beautifu I pFexlg ta^s ca 3« 



Stopwalel) Kit $26.95 

Full slj( dlp«t battery operat&d. 2-5 vons 
3,276a MHt crystal accuracy. Times lo 
59 minuifrs, 55 $ecDfids, 99 1/100 hrs 
Timg& sitandard stit and laylor 7205 dilp. 
all con!poneni5 minus case Fun mstrud. 



COSMAC 'ELF' 

COriSOZ CO m§M Uwn. UiniU FN 

CGmp<eti hr o« parte to tMiHd me EiF ' 
incJuding COP! 802 and users manual as 
listed fn August 76 P^. Beet minus 
power supply ami board S92.IIII 



60 Hz Crvsial Time Base 

Kit $4.75 Conveds dtgrtaJ d^etcs 
iTom AC Una fnt^omitf to aystai time 
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Poria^te Ctotk Timer Kit $18.96 

S^ clock maaul«, crvatu tima DUt. Operilat 

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TERMS: 55,00 min, order U.S. Funds, Ctlif residents add G% tai, ^^^^^ ^^^^ fg^ yQ„r copy Qf our 19T7 
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Stliaping charges will be added. 



t93 



NEW 

DIGITAL CLOCK 

with 

10 MINUTE 

TIMER 

©digits-- 12/24 hour 

Here's the kit everyone has been asking fori 
Newer latl to identifv vout station again. And 
it's easv t<3 u^t i^^ ^^P timer button to starts 9 minutes later the disptay will flesh on and 
off to aiert you. Reset It by simply touching the timer button or it will re«t itseJf 
automat ically after two mmutesl Other features are: jumbo .4" LED readouts, dutBbIs 
eKtruded aluminum case available in S colors, plug transformer, Potaroid lens filter, time set 
buttons, finest quality PC boards and super instructions. You get all parts — no extras are 
needed, unlike some of the kludges our competitors offerl Colors available: gold, black, 
stiver, bronze, blue (specify). Size: 4,25" x 1.5*' x 1 .5", 

Clock Kit with 10 min, timer, DC-10 ,_.*.»..*.*•*..*. $25.95 

Regular 12/24 hr clock kit , , 22.95 

Alarm clock, 1 2 hr only, DC-8 ..,...,,,, ....,,.,,,. 24.95 

Kits are also available fully assembled and tested, just add $10 to kit price. 




CAR CLOCK 

6 DIGIT 



12/24 HR 

$25.95 



High accuracy (1 minute/month^ 

Big ,4" LEO display 

Special circuit suppress all voyage 

spikes and transients 

Same case as illustrated above 

Display btanks with ignition off 

Reverse polarity protec^d 

Complete Kit, DC-7 , $25.95 

Assembled and calibrated ^ ^ - 35.95 



CALENDAR ALARM CLOCK 

6 Digit LED 12/24 Hour 



Has every feature one could ever ask for. Kit 
includes everything except case, build it Into wall^ 
station or even carl FEATURES: 

• 6 Digits, .5" High LEO • 12/24 Hour Format 

• Calendar shows mo./day • Snooze button 

• True 24 Hour Alarm • 7001 chip does aMH 

• Battery back up with built in on chip time base 

Complete Kit, tess case, DC -9 .,..*. $34,95 




600 MHz 
PRESCALER 

Assembled and tested. Extend the range of 
your counter to 600 MHz. Works with ell 
counters. Available in kit form for S44.95. 
Specify -riO or'^lOO with order. 



30 WATT 



2 Meter 
Power Amp 



The famous RE class C power amp now 
avariablQ moil order! Four Watts in for 30 
Watts out, 2 in for 15 out, 1 in for S out. 
Incredible valu«, compJete with all parts, 
instructions and details on T-B relay. Fully 
stable, output short proof, infinite VSWR 
protected* Case not included. 
Completa Kit $22,95 



COMING SOON: VIDEO TERMINAL KIT 



SEND FOR DETAILS 
$149.95 



TTL 



LINEAR 



74S0Q 

74Stia 

7447 

7473 

7475 

T40OA 

74143 



.36 

.79 

.50 

3.50 



555 
556 
567 
145fl 



SO 

,75 

1.75 

50 



LED DRIVER 

75491 .50 

75492 50 



REGULATOR 



30gK .39 

303H i^ 99 

340K-12 jrl 25 
780S CT 99 
7612 ^ -99 
7815 ^ 99 

Taifi .99 



TRANSISTORS 

HPN 3N3904 type 10/Sl 00 

PNP 2N3906 ivpe 10^$^ OQ 

UPN P ow«r Tab Amt 3^S t .00 

PNP PcivvBf Tab 40W 3/$1 00 

FET MI*F-i02 ivi» 3/S2,00 

UJT 7 Pg 2646 f ype 3/S2 .00 

3N3055 hSPISi PoiMr 75 



DJOOES 1KV.2.5A 



5 Si 00 



tOOV.lA 



lOiSIM 



^f4Qt4Aiyt» 



50/^^00 



LEO DISPLAYS 




T41 OP-AMP SPECIAl 

Frndary primi m«ni dip wnlh both 
X«mx mnd 741 part numbvn 

TO fur %2M 



FND 359 

rwDsio 

OL 707 . 
MP 7730 



A** 



CA. 

CA. 
CA. 



.75 
1.2S 
1.25 
L2S 



R*d Polaroid Filtaf . . . 4.25" )C 1.15S" 



.59 



I 



SOCKETS 

14PIH 5/Sl,00 

16PIM 5/51J0O 

24 PIN 2/Sl,00 

40Plf^ 3.S2 00 



FERRLTE BEADS 



wrfh info«fid 

15/SliKl 

€ trolt laltin B«ads 

S/Si 00 



8QaOAS18J& 

FacToTv Piime - »ncludBiFRE^ socMi* 



21L02'1 $1,95 Fast 4S0 ni Low Po./v*r 



CHEAP CLOCK KIT 

DC -4 Feaiyrpt: 

• 6difl[l.4"LEO 

• 12 m 24 format 



$9B5 

Or IrDhBloffTifiir 



PC Board 
$2^5 

Transformer 
$1.49 



DejiFert 
WriiQ foi oyr 
whotetil«pricf 
W^. HiM*D 



« 



SOCKET KIT 

Aftortmeiit oM 2 
most used IC 
Hxrketi, OcKMi to 
hav« around tht 

iHcp SI. 95 



60 Hz XTAL TIME BASE 

* Runt on 5-15 VDC 

• Low current 12.5 ma]< 

* Operate docki m 
car, boat, plane 

• 1 mjnute/moflth accuracy 
Kit. TB 7 . . . S5.50 
A^iwnbred & Calibrated 



$9,95 



MINI-KITS 



FM Wireless 

Mike Kit 

S2.95 

FM-1 

Transmit up to 

300^ to any FM 

broadcast radio. 

Seraltive mike input r«auirev crystal 

ceramic or dynamic mike. Buns on 3 to 

9 V. Super serrsUive mgdel FM-2 S4.95 




TONE DECODER KIT 

A complete tone decoder on a single PC 
Board. Features: 400-5000 Hz adjustable 
frequency range, voltage regulation, 567 IC 
Useful for touch- tone decoding, tone burst 
detection, FSK demod, signaling, and many 
other uses. Use 7 for 12 button touchtone 
decoding. Runs on 5 to 12 volts. 

Complete Kit, TO-1 . * . ^ $4.96 



P.O. Box 4072 Rochester NY 14610 
(716) 271 "6487 



TELEPHONE ORDERS 
WELCOME 



M,n%\mmiiKi\\ 




Efui^rAntead or 

m o nsv f ■- 
1 u n d « cf , 
COD, add 
51.00. Or dan 
undar $10.00 
add *.7$. NY 
re«iden(t add 
7^ cax. 



LEDBLIIMKY KIT 

A great atter^tion getter wtiich alter- 
nately flashes 2 Jumbo LEDs. Use for 
name badges, buttons, or warning type 
panel lights. Runs on 3 to 9 volts. 
Complfifi Kit $2,95 



SUPER'SNOOP AMPLIFIER 

A super-sensttlve amplifier which will pick 
up a pin drop at 15 fe€i! Great for 
monitoring baby's room or as a general 
purpose test amplifter. Full 2 watts of 
output, runs on 6 m 12 volts, uses any type 
of mike. Requires %-AB ohm speaker. 

Complete Kit, BISJ9 ...-.-....,,.* S4.95 



MUSIC LIGHTS KIT 

See music come alive! 3 different lights 
flicker with music or voice. One light for 
lows, one for the mtd-range and one for the 
highs. Each channel individually adiustablep 
and drives up to 300 watts. Great for 
parties, band music, nite clubs and more. 

Complete Kit, ML-1 $7,95 



SIREN KIT 

Produces upward and downward wail char- 
acteristic of police siren. 5 Watts audio 
output, runs on 3-9 volts, uses 8-45 ohm 
Speaker. 

Complete Kit, SM-S $2.95 



CODE OSCILLATOR KIT 

Powerful 1 watt audio oscillator of approx. 
1 kHi, good for many uses- Great for 
warning alarm, battery checker^ voltage indi- 
cator and code oscillator. 

Complete Kit, CPO-1 $2.50 



POWER SUPPLY KIT 

Complete triple regulated power supply 
provides variable ±15 volts at 200 mA and 
■•■5 volts at 1 Amp. 50 mV foad regulation 
good filtering and small size. Kit less trans- 
formers* Requires 6-8 V at 1 Amp and 18 to 
30 VCT, 

Complete Kit, PS'3LT . * S6.95 



DECADE COUNTER 

PARTS KIT 

jIMCLUDES •7490A decade counter 
•7475 latch 

$3.50 •7447 LED driver 

• LED readout 

• Current limit resistors 
Complete with instruction and details on 
how to build an easy, low ctKt freq. 
counter. R8 



SEE YOU IN ATLANTA - HAMFESTIVAL JUNE 18 & 19 



194 





!?©IE^ 




toQIM 




FREQUEN 


IN STOCK 


146.01T 


6.61R 


6.04T 


6.64 fl 


6.07T 


6.67R 


6.10T 


6.70R 


6.115T 


6.715R 


6.1 3T 


6.73n 


6.14ST 


6.745R 


6.616T 


6.76R 


6.17ST 


6.775R 


6.19T 


6.79R 


6.22T 


6.82R 


6.25T 


6.85R 


6.28T 


6.88R 


6.31T 


6.91R 


6.34T 


6.94R 


6,37T 


6.97R 


6.40T 


6,46T 


6.46R 


6.52T 


6.52R 


6.B5T 


6.55R 


6.5BT 


6.5SR 


6.94T 


7.60T 


7.00R 


7.63T 


7.03R 


7,66T 


7.06R 


7.69T 


7,09R 


7.72T 


7.12R 


7.75T 


7.16R 


7.78T 


7.18R 


7.81T 


7.21R 


7.B4T 


7.24R 


7,87T 


7.27R 


7.90T 


7.30 R 


7.93T 


7.33R 


7.96T 


7.36R 


7.99T 


7.39R 



CIES 




1 



MODEL Ci U4A — Dtlufet, Two 
Meier Ccsltn«*r for Ri pi pier or *r\f 
fined tt«t^n Dpitraiion 6 db. f«jr 

radtattcr mi INt Kornon' Shunl ltd 
wit]i D.C gmyAdii^ RidiaiDr Va 
wave louver S4rti0rt, % wtvt p^ritting, 
% wav* Upfhtr teclion Haiifht 117". 
SWR- at rtiorkjnct 1 2 I or &*tttf 
Pouter ratrng. 1.000 want FM. Wind 
«urvivfl: lOCi MPH InitaJlii Ah vtrti- 
«al pip« up to P^" OD $0239 



4411 



141 



SUPER GAIN MOBILES 

Two M*tff^ 

* 5J^ dl> if in tsmr U4 wch moliil* 
•nteAnji 

i Frequency cowfflii— UJ-IW 

MHz 

' SWR St retonif^cf— I Irt typkit 

• Power rating— 2O0 wtttt FM 

MODEL CQOM 

Same chatdcEeriitiict i» CGT444 
$ijppli«d *,iit\ ^^34 b4S0 to fft ill 
modile bali mountli -- Ltfiglh il 
IS ' ^ Mcufit And cl&lv nol in- 
cluded. g2*JB 



^iu^sJiER 



UffT4 





ffgKolfl® 



ClegE HT-146 
Drake TR -2 2 
Drake TR33 rec only 
Drake TR-72 
Genave 



Heathkit HW-2021 
rec only 
Heathkit HW-202 
Icom/VHF Eng 
Ken/Wilson 
Lafayette HA-146 
Midland 1 3-5 05 
Regency HR-2p A 
Regency HR-212 



Regency HR-312 

Regency HR'2MS 
S B E 

Sonar 1802-3-4, 3601 
Standard 146/826 
Standard Horizon 
Swan FM 2X 
Tempo FM H 
Trio/Kenwood TR2200 
Trio/Kenwood TR720O 



Regency HR-2B 

Note- If yoM do not knovv type of radio, or if your T&d»o ■$ not tested, give fiindam«nraJ 
frequency, formula ar^d loading capacitance. 

CRYSTALS FOR THE IC730 SPLITS tN STOCK USSIIll MH*. 13,884444 MH^, 13 917778 
MHz, HEATHKIT HWZ021 600 KHz. OFFSET H 3 MHz, S6.50 ea. 



VHF/UHF ANTEPTKA- 
mOr MOUNT 
MODEL UHT-1 

Fte(d trirnitiabic rtdiator fof 1/4 
wave ^tpctation on any frectucfKy 
from 140 to SCO M Hi Cuttrnf chart 
iiuiiudcd MDunti on any flat Kir- 
fact, fDOf, deck, fender in %' 
hole lnclud« IS I^O-U-U tto |i 




i»LT^14« 



STANDARD GAIH 

MOBILES 

Two Meters 

* S/l w»vrlenftfi — 3-4 db ilin 
Civftr L'4 vrawv motiile 

' fnequc'ricr csveniM^HB to i4f 
MHz 

• Ptftmr r«tinc-» mmn% FM 

MODEL •eLT>l44 

ir arttenna pi^mplete with «aty 
10 mitall. no holes to dr«ll, trunk 
1^1 p fntKtfit. im